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J[ Hew Hampshire Magazine, 


History , Siograpl) y , I^tej'ature ar\cl $tate jProgre^'. 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 






Addenda — Alma J. Herbert. . . . . . ^04 

Anecdote of Daniel Webster — Josiah Emery, . . . :i6o 

Badger Homestead — Fred Myron Colby, 

Barnstead — Dr. H. C. Canney, 

Bartlett Mansion — Fred Myron Colby, 

Biography of Hon. Charles Henry Bartlett, 

Hon. Henrv XV. Blair, . 

Daniel BlaisdeH— M. A. Wallace, 

Col. Joseph Brandt — Hon. G. W. Nesmith, ll. d., . ^04 

Hon. James F. Briggs — Henry M. Putney, . . &6i 

Joseph Cilley Burley . . . . ^29 

Hon. William E. Chandler — Hon. Henry Robinson, 33 

David Crosbv — R. Parkinson, . . . .92 

Hon. David H. Goodell, . . 2273 

Samuel Whitney Hale — Jacob H. Gallinger, • . 1 

Hon. Daniel Hall — Rev. Alonzo Quint, d. d.. . ^25 

Rev. John Houston — Rev. C. W. Wallace, d. d., . xsi 

Harvey Jewell — William H. Hackett, . . toi 

Colonel Tobias Lear — Hon. Thomas L. Tullock, . v. 60 
Benjamin Lear, Hermit of Sagamore — Hon.Tho's L. Tullods^ 66 

Hon. Harrv Libbey — Hon. Joshua Hall, . - ,3^5 

W. H. H. Mason, m. d.— H. H. Metcalf, . . 49 

Miss Ann Orr — A Reminiscence — Clara Clayton, . 175 

David T. Parker, m. d.. — Adelaide Cilley Waldron, . 97 

Hon. Chester Pike — George Willis Patterson, . . 291 

Hon. Oliver Pillsbury — Hon. James W. Patterson, . 557 

Chandler Eastman Potter — Compiled, . . ^3 

Hon. William B. Small — Elisha A. Keep, . . 251 

Hon. Samuel Tilton, . ■ . . . .05 

Charles Dudley Warde, . . . . 1S2 

Ebenezer Webster — George W. Nesmith, ll. d., . 145 

John Smith Woodman — Prof. E. R. Ruggles, . ^38 

Computation of Time — Our Calendar — Hon. J. E. Sargent, ll. d., . 371 

Dartmouth College Association, Washington, D. C. — VV. H. Gardiner, 17S 

Dissolution of the Union — Hon. G. W. Nesmith, ll. d., . .123 

Entombed Greatness — C. E. George, . . . . 125 

Familiar Sketches of Philips Flxeter Academy — C. R. Corning, . ^^2 

Forest Culture in New England — F. H. Bartlett, . . . 379 

I 7 our Suggestions for Our Lawmakers — Edmund P. Dole, . .270 

Fragmentary Notes of Old Stage Days — Clara Clayton . . 1S7 

From My Library Window — George F. Foster, . . .312 

Gage Arms, ....... 208 

Gage Genealogy, ....... 62 

Hamilton Fish and the Citizens of Portsmouth — Frank W. Hackett, 126 

In the Footprints of the Pioneers — Levi W. Dodge, . . 333. 367 

Jefferson's Grand-daughter, . . . . . 272 

Kimball Union Academy — Rev. Isaac Willey, . . . 295. 339 

Lucrecia — Frank W. Rollins, .... 133, 165. 199 

Mason's Law Arguments — George W. Nesmith, ll. d., . .190 

My Vacation — Anabel C. Andrews, .... ^o^ 

Methodism in Portsmouth — Hon. Thomas L. Tullock, 209, 229, 314. 347 






New Hampshire in the Continental Congress — W. F. Whitcher, a. m., 
New Hampshire Men at Washington, D. C. — Alma J. Herbert. 
New Hampshire Men in Michigan — M. M. Culver, 
New Hampshire Railroads — J. \V Fellows. . . 

Northwood — An Historical Summary — Arthur E. Cotton, . 
Obituary, ....... 

Old-time Chapter — Asa McFarland, 

Our Nation's Valhalla — Alma J. Herbert, . . . 

Poem — Air Castles — Charles E. George, . . . . 

A Little Hero — Henrietta E. Page, .... 

Clytie — G. Willis Patterson, . . 

Early and Late Poems — Col. George Kent, 

Forsaken — Ella W. Ricker, .... 

For What — Alma J. Herbert, ..... 

Love's Wreath — George Kent, .... 

Longfellow — George Bancroft Griffith .... 

Mount Lafayette — Fannie Huntington Runnels 

Our Mountain Land — New Hampshire — George E. Emery, . 

Only a Bud— E. P. Dole, ..... 

Parable — Alma J. Herbert, ..... 

Regret — Adelaide Cilley Waldron, 

Sugar Ball — Laura Garland Carr, .... 

Terra Incognita — Joseph W. Parmelee, 

The Barlev-held— Mary H. Wheeler, .... 

The Cloud— E. P. Dole, ..... 

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada — Charles W. Coit, 

The Rider o'er the Bordensee — Alma J. Herbert, . . . 

The Song of the Fisherwives — Henrietta E. Page, 

The Sphinx Dreams — Adelaide Cilley Waldron. 

The Solitary Pine— Fred L. Pattee, . 

The Tempest-tost --Eneade — Bela Chapin, . 

What More Pure — Henrietta E. Page, .... 

Will His Robes be Purple — Henrietta E. Page, 
Presidential Appointments at Portsmouth — Hon. Thomas L. Tullock, 
Prevention of Defalcation — George H. Wood, 
Recent Literature, ....... 

Reminiscence of the Alabama — William H. Hackett, . 

Slavery in New Hampshire — When and how Abolished — George Wadleigh 

Speech before Seaman's Friend Society — Rev. W. V. Garner, . 

State Government of New Hampshire, 1 883-1 885, 

Thanksgiving Proclamation — Hon. George W. Nesmith, ll. d., 

The Bar Supper — Hon. George W. Nesmith ll. d. 

The First Newsp.iper o( America — L. W. Dodge, 

The First Newspaper of America — Mary R. P. Hatch, 

The Home of the Gilmans — Fred Myron Colby, 

The Story of the Deserted Farm-house — William O. Clough, 

The Story the Brook Told — William O. Clough, 

The Surplus Revenue in Canaan — W. A. Wallace, 

The Webster Club of Concord — A Visitor. 

To Pastures Green — Adelaide Cilley Waldron, 

Unaccountable Blunder — C. E. George, ll. b., 

Wilton, N. H., a Correction — E. H. Spaulding, 

Webster at the Cattle Show at Manchester — Hon. G. W. Nesmith, 

Yale Graduates — Frank B. Stevens, 

2 75 
35 2 
2 54 

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286, 386 

5 2 

• 2 7>39 


. 357 




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a new imirsaiRE magazine 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

OCTOBER, 188:2 

IsTo. 1, 



Sam i' el W. Hale, son of Samuel 
and Saloma (Whitney) Hale, was born 
in Fitchburg, Mass., April 2, 1S23. 
His grandfather, Moses Hale, came to 
Fitchburg from old Newbury, and was 
a farmer by occupation. Samuel Hale 
was also a farmer. Mr. Hale's youth 
was passed on the old homestead, 
where vigorous out-door labor formed 
and molded a strong constitution in- 
herited from a long line of pure yeo- 
man ancestry. At his mother's side 
he received the great truths of moral- 
ity and Christianity, while his lather 
impressed upon him the importance of 
honor and strict integrity, the two 
characteristics forming a sturdy New 
England character, ashamed of wrong, 
fearless in the right, and staunch in the 
principles of true manhood. The 
parents were not overburdened with 
the riches of this world, and at an 
early age the boy added his efforts to 
the struggle to maintain the family. 
He had the advantages of the district 
school and the academy of his native 
town, and received a thorough elemen- 
tary education, while his thirst for 
knowledge was further appeased by 
study through the long winter even- 
ings, the page of the well -conned 
book being lighted by the fitful glare 
of the tallow dip. 

From the age of fourteen years 
he clothed himself, earning his money 
at odd hours by sawing fire-wood, and 

by other similar employments. At the 
age of twenty-two Mr. Hale left his 
father's home in search of fame and 
fortune. An older brother, John, was 
established in trade in Dublin, N. H., 
and thither he was drawn. He early 
developed a remarkable business ca- 
pacity and executive ability. The 
years spent in Dublin strengthened his 
self-confidence in the race for wealth 
and eminence, established his high 
moral character, and laid the founda- 
tion for a successful business and polit- 
ical career, — a career that justly places 
him in the front rank of New Hamp- 
shire's self-made men. 


In 1859 Mr. Hale removed to 
Keene, a field offering wider opportu- 
nities for his industry and talent. The 
next year he embarked in the manu- 
facture of chairs, in a small way, at 
Keene, employing about twenty 
men. Under Mr. Hale's management 
the business has greatly prospered. 
The works have been materially enlarg- 
ed, and employment is now given to 
one hundred workmen on the premises, 
and to some five hundred women and 
children outside of the manufactory, 
in Keene and neighboring towns. 

Mr. Hale is largely interested in the 
purchase and sale of shoe pegs, his 
sales in some years having amounted 
to the enormous quantity of one thou- 


sand bushels per day, most of which 
were exported to Germany. At present 
the demand is much less than formerly, 
yet even now one manufactory supplies 
him with 80,000 bushels per annum, 
and his present sales aggregate 125,- 
000 bushels yearly. In 1879 he be- 
came interested in the manufacture of 
furniture, and now employs, at his man- 
ufactory in Keene, one hundred men 
in that industry. About eighteen 
months ago he purchased a woolen 
mill at Lebanon, where sixty hands 
find constant and remunerative em- 


Mr. Hale owns a farm of three hun- 
dred acres in Keene, and another of 
equal extent in Newbury, Vt., and, not- 
withstanding the multiplicity of his 
other duties, he takes quite an interest 
in agricultural pursuits, and possesses 
a vast amount of practical knowledge 
in that department of labor. He is a 
director of the Citizens Bank, of Keene. 
and of the Wachusett Bank, in Fitch- 
burg, Mass. 


For many years Mr. Hale has been 
largely interested in railroads, and at 
different times has been a large owner 
of stock. At present he owns one 
half of the Point Shirley railroad. He 
was deeply interested in the construc- 
tion of the Manchester & Keene rail- 
road, confessedly one of the most 
necessary roads in the state. The im- 
portance of the enterprise can be j udged 
from the following extract from a letter 
in the Boston Journal, of August 29 : 

•• Look at what Mr. Hale and his asso- 
ciates have accomplished in building the 
Manchester & Keene railroad. Here 
was an enterprise, confessedly a disas- 
trous failure until they came to its res- 
cue. Messrs. Hale. Colony. Frye. and 
hcruten put 6200.000 into the road, de- 
pending on the gratuities voted by the 
towns lor their reimbursement. In ad- 
Uitiuii tu this, Messrs. Hale and Colony 
put in £20,000 each, additional, which 
they will never recover, and regard as a 
total loss. The gratuities have not yet 
been paid, except a part of one. While 

the road is one of the best running roads 
in the state, and of inestimable value to 
Marlboro*, Harrisville and Hancock in 
particular. Messrs. Hale and Colony are 
waiting to-day for the -SI 20.000 which 
they risked in the road. 840.000 of which 
they will never recover. This road, ir 
will be remembered, shortens the dis- 
tance between the capital of the state 
and the south-west side by forty-eight 
miles, and is really the most useful rail- 
road there has been built in New Hamp- 
shire for many years.'" 


As a young man Mr. Hale united 
with the Methodist Church, but on his 
settlement in Dublin, where there was 
no organization of that denomination, 
he joined his lot with the Congrega- 
tionalists, of which church he is now 
an honored member. His benefac- 
tions have been numerous and gen- 
erous. While he is very reticent 
concerning such matters, it is well 
known that he has been instrumental 
: in educating a Congregational clergy- 
man, a missionary, a physician, and a 
young lady, the latter at Holyoke Sem- 
inary, in addition to which he gave at 
one time 312,000 toward building a 
Congregational church in Keene. He 
has been all his life a friend to the 
needy anil unfortunate, giving em- 
ployment to many destitute ones when 
their services were not really required, 
out of kindly sympathy. He is a 
friend to every good cause, and by ex- 
ample and precept has helped to lift 
men from the degradation of intem- 
perance and similar vices. The only 
secret society of which he is a mem- 
ber is the Masonic order, which he 
joined twenty years ago, taking the 
necessary degrees to become a Master 


In the year 1850, at the age of 
twenty-seven, he married Amelia M. 
Hayes, of Dublin, and the union 
proved to be a very happy one. Two 
children have been born to them, both 
of whom have attained their majority. 


The son, William S., is in business with 
his father, and the daughter, Mary 
Louise, is at home with her parents. 
In addition to these Mr. Hale usually 
manages to have in his family, sharing 
his hospitality, some worthy persons, 
and it is very rare for his home to be 
destitute of a child, toward whom he 
manifests the most tender affection ; 
indeed his love for children is proverb- 
ial, and is shown on the street, in rail- 
way cars, and wherever else children 
are to be met. 


The home of Mr. Hale is one of 
the most elegant and attractive in the 
state. It is situated on Main street, 
and consists of a large mansion house, 
built by ex-Gov. Samuel Dinsmore in 
the year 1861, surrounded by five acres 
of land, largely in lawn. The house 
is tastefully and richly furnished, and 
the library is one of the largest in 
Cheshire county. The barn is a mar- 
vel of convenience and neatness, and 
the conservatory and grapery are the 
admiration of all visitors — grape raising 
being carried to a wonderful state of 
perfection. In this charming home 
Mr. Hale's family dwell in contentment, 
and here is exemplified the higher 
type of New England civilization and 


Mr. Hale's first vote was cast for a 
Free-soil candidate, and naturally 
enough he joined the Republican 
party at its organization. During the 
quarter of a century that has since 
elapsed he has been a true and uncom- 
promising member of that political 
faith. Thoroughly believing in the 
principles of anti-slavery, and of the 
equality of all men before the law, he 
has steadily sustained every efiort that 
was calculated to accomplish the re- 
sults which he believed were just and 
right. Appreciating his political fidel- 
ity, his fellow-citizens have not allowed 
him to escape the honors and burdens 
of political office. He wa.5 elected a 
member of the state legislature in 
1806, and was reelected the next vear. 

In 1S69 he was chosen a member of 
the Governor's council, to which posi- 
tion he was reelected in 1S70. In 
18S0 he was selected as one of the 
delegates to the national Republican 
convention, at Chicago, and on the 
twelfth day of September, of the pres- 
ent year, after a most exciting and 
h Jtly-contested canvass, he received 
the Republican nomination as candi- 
date for governor, to which exalted 
position he will undoubtedly be elected 
on the seventh day of November next. 
In all the places of trust and responsi- 
bility, political and otherwise, to which 
Mr. Hale has been called, he has 
shown great industry, rare sagacity, 
and profound integrity, and those who 
know him best predict that, as chief 
executive of the state, he will achieve 
as great renown as has been gained by 
any of his predecessors in that office. 


No" better illustration of the supe- 
riority of American life over that of 
other nations can be found than is 
supplied in the hi-tory of Mr. Hale. 
A poor boy, reared on a farm, he 
looked out over the world and 
saw the possibilities that were before 
him. With a brave heart and an in- 
domitable will he grappled with the 
problem. Industry, integrity, and 
thrift were the principles that gov- 
erned his conduct. An active tem- 
perament and a rare insight enabled 
him to triumph over obstacles in the 
presence of which most men would 
have faltered. Success followed as 
the result of energy and ability. The 
poor boy soon came to be the suc- 
cessful man of affairs, and the ac- 
knowledged leader of his section in 
all matters requiring business foresight 
and sagacity. The victory was not an 
easy one, but it came nevertheless., and 
it may justly serve as an incentive to 
all who are willing to engage in the 
struggle for wealth and eminence un- 
der similar circumstances. 

Mr. Hale standi to-day before the 
people of Nevv Hampshire in a rep- 
resentative capacity. Trusting fully 


in his ability and integrity, a great 
political party has made him its stand- 
ard-bearer in a contest for the govern- 
orship of the state. His added honors 
are worn becomingly, and whatever 
may be the result of the contest, 

whether elected or defeated, he will 
stand before his fellows as a genial, 
kind-hearted man, a progressive and 
upright citizen, and a noble specimen 
of the best product of New England 
character and enterprise. 



Oh! happiest, scene-favored, brave, mountain land. 
Where my heart still lingers, while wanders my baud, 
I could not, n<>r would 1, dear land of my birth, 
Relinquish thy charms for all elsewhere on earth! 

Thy wilderness glens are rich realms of delight. 
Where scenes most enchanting enrapture the sight, — 
Eaivh giveth none fairer, wherever the zone. 
Than art finds existing. New Hampshire, thine own! 

Thy Pemigewasset by mountain and farm 
Flows flashing with rapids and stretches of calm. 
Wild Winnipesaukee, swift, constant and free. 
Bears kiss of thy lake toward lips of the sea! 

Bright Xewichewannock. and Cont.oocook rare. 
Legion-milled Merrimack. Connecticut fair! 
What rivers, in flowing, all beauties combine 
With a golden-gleam rise more lustrous than thine! 

What mountains, cloud-rending, far glorify thee. — 
Grim hermits, withdrawing from lure of the sea. — 
Monadnock, the grand, and the matchless Kearsarg 
While high in the north hoom thy largest of large! 

Mount Washington, proudly there sits in repose, 
With sandals of forest, and'chaplet of snows. 
Mid mountains uncounted, that, hurricane-blown, 
Wear mist for their garments, and all are thine own ! 

Bloom flowers in beauty, appearing God's smile 
From the joy of his thought, on wide land or isle. 
Yet flower-liaraed splendor no fragrance distills 
More sweet than he pours on thy meadows and hills 

Out-ring to gray cities in far-away climes. 
Old hells their deep melody flowing in chimes. 
But bells of thy steeples. O. north-land prolong 
As sweetly soft echoes thy valleys among! 

Free thought and free spirit ennoble thy men! 

All virtues and beauty thy daughters attain ! 

God bless thee. New Hampshire, while centuries roll, 

No place is found fairer from tropic to poie! 




Rambling recently in one of the 
cemeteries of Washington, viewing the 
monuments erected to the memory of 
the illustrious dead. I accidentally 
halted at the spot where repose the 
mortal remains of Col. Tobias Lear, 
a native of Portsmouth, New Plamp- 
shire, who has a record in history. 
He is buried in the " Congressional 
Burying Ground," situated on the 
eastern branch of the Potomac, about 
one and a quarter mile from the Cap- 

Lot number 14, in range 28, located 
near the north-east corner of the 
grounds, on E St. S. E., is the place of 
his burial. It is marked by a finely 
finished and substantial table monu- 
ment, constructed entirely of marble, 
about three feet wide, six feet long, 
and two feet six inches high, covered 
by a heavy slab, placed horizontally, 
on which is inscribed, — 
















II OCTOBER, 1816, 

AGED 54. 






A free-stone monument, somewhat 
similar to the cenotaphs erected by 

Congress to the memory of its mem- 
bers who died during their term of of- 
fice, is placed toward the north, and 
comes next in order. On one of the 
panels is engraved, — 




II MARCH, I792, 


I OCTOBER, 1S32." 

The word " Lincoln " has been 
rudely hacked, and all the letters oblit- 
erated, except the terminal — n, and a 
portion of the preceding letter — /, 
which is barely discernible ; an act 
of vandalism committed during the 
war of the rebellion, probably from 
hatred to the name effaced, and in 
ignorance of the history of Abraham 
Lincoln, who was born Feb. 12, 1809, 
seventeen years after the birth of him 
whose name has been partially de- 

Benjamin Lincoln Lear, son of Col. 
Lear, was so called for Benjamin Lin- 
coln, a native of Massachusetts, a 
major-general of the Revolutionary 
war, and one of the " noblest charac- 
ters " of that eventful period. He was 
highly esteemed by Washington, who 
delegated him to receive the sword of 
Cornwallis at the surrender at York- 
town. General Lincoln was secretary 
of war during 17S1-S2, and lieuten- 
ant-governor of Massachusetts in 1 7S7. 
He was appointed by Washington 
collector of customs at Boston, which 
office he held twenty years, retiring 
about two years before his death, which 
occurred May 9, 1S10, in the 77th 
year of his age. 

General Lincoln, for whose name 
Col. Lear thus evinced a partiality, was 
chiefly instrumental in introducing 
him to Washington. When requiring 
the services of a private secretary, and 


also a tutor for Eleanor Parke Custis 
and George Washington Parke Custis, 
whom Washington had adopted, being 
the two youngest children of his step- 
son and aid-de-campt Col. John Parke 
Custis, who died of camp fever just 
after the surrender of Cornwallis, Wash- 
ington consulted General Lincoln, 
who conferred with Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Willard, president of Harvard College, 
and Rev. Dr. Samuel Haven, pastor of 
the South Parish of Portsmouth, N. H. 
Tobias Lear, who had just graduated 
with honor at Harvard, in 1783, was 
recommended and accepted. He 
gave eminent satisfaction, remaining 
the confidential and intimate friend of 
Washington until his death, a period 
of fourteen years, and was several 
months after his decease the custodian 
of his papers. 

The next monument, which is simi- 
lar to the one erected to Tobias Lear, 
has the following inscription,— 










The next and last (only four inter- 
ments having been made in this lot) 
is a marble monument. On the base 
rest four pillars, two feet in height, four 
sided, with beveled edges, supporting 
a heavy piece of marble, fashioned 
after the Roman cross, and placed 
horizontally, with this inscription : 


BORN 17th OF NOV., I 7 79, 
DIED 2D OF DEC, 1856." 

The first wife of Col. Lear was 
Mary Long, to whom he was married 
April 18, 1790. She died in Philadel- 
phia, Oct. 4, 1793, of yellow fever, 

while a member of the family of 

Mary or Polly Long, as she was 
known at the bridal altar, was the 
beautiful and accomplished daughter 
of Col. Pierse Long, general by 
brevet, a native of Portsmouth, N. II., 
a distinguished citizen, a successful 
merchant, and an eminent patriot, 
having rendered important services in 
his own province of New Hampshire 
as well as in the vicinity of Lake 
Champiain and Lake George : partic- 
ipating also in the movements which 
resulted in the capture of Burgoyne 
and the surrender of his army. Col. 
Long was a delegate to Congress, 1784 
-86 ; held important positions in his 
own State, and was appointed by Wash- 
ington collector for the port of Ports- 
mouth, but died suddenly, April 3, 
1 789, before entering upon the duties 
of the office. 

Col. Lear's second wife, to whom he 
was marritd Aug. 22, 1795, was the 
widow of Col. George Augustine 
Washington, a nephew of the General, 
born in 1763. She was a niece of 
Martha Washington. Her maiden 
name was Frances, daughter of Col. 
Burwell Bassett, of Eltham, New Kent 
County, Virginia. Her mother was a 
sister of Lady Washington. Col. 
Washington died in 1 793, leaving three 

Frances Dandridge Henley was the 
third wife of Col. Lear, and survived 
him. She, also, was a niece of Martha 
Washington and a sister of Commo- 
dore John D. Henley of the U. S. Navy, 
who died on board the Vandalia, May 
23, 1835, while in command of the 
West India squadron. After the death 
of Col. Lear, his widow retired to her 
room and remained there one year. 
The first time she left the house she 
entered her carriage, drawn by two 
horses, and with a coachman and a 
colored servant, proceeded to Ports- 
mouth to evince her affectionate and 
filial devotion to the mother of her 
deceased husband. 

Benjamin Lincoln Lear, the only 
child of Tobias and Mary (Long) 


Lear, was born March ir, 1792, and 
died after a short illness, of cholera. 
Oct. 1. 1 S3 2.* He was a lawyer by 
profession, a prominent member of the 
Washington bar, where his talents and 
sterling worth had endeared him to his 
professional associates and secured to 
him honor and success. He was a 
most estimable man, talented, and well 
educated, and is remembered with 
great interest and affection by those 
of his old friends still living in this city 
with whom I have conversed. In 
noticing his decease the National In-* 
telligencer, of Oct. 2, 1832, says, — 

ki His amiable manner, his high-toned 
honor and benevolence, formed a char- 
acter seldom surpassed, and that placed 
him high in the confidence of his fellow- 

The Washington bar held a meet- 
ing and designated six of its leading 
members to act as pall- bearers, and 
voted to wear crape badges to the end 
of the ensuing term of court, in 
memory of one whose talents and vir- 
tues gave luster to an honorable pro- 
fession, and in whom was developed 
the excellencies of an irreproachable 
life, and an exalted character. He 
was the attorney of the Bank of the 
United States, the branch which was 
located in Washington. His residence, 
with office adjoining the house, on the 
south side of Pennsylvania Avenue, 
between 21st and 220! streets, N. W., 
was purchased after Col. Lear's death, 
and was occupied by his son and fam- 
ily and the widow Lear, until her 
death, Dec. 2, 1856. 

Benjamin Lincoln Lear married, 
first, Miss Maria Morris, to whose 
memory one of the described monu- 
ments was erected. She was a sister 
of Commodore Charles Morris, o( dis- 
tinguished fame as an officer of the 
U. S. Navy, who died Jan. 27, 1856. 

♦"Brewster's Rambles about Portsmouth," usu- 
ally correct ami very reliable, in vol. 1, page 'J.7Z, 
records Benjamin Lincoln Lear's dea'h as occur- 
ring iu 1S31, ami Col. Tobias Lear, Oct. 10. 1*16, 
aged 56. Lincoln Lear died in 1&3~', and Lie 
father, Oct. 11, 1816, aged 54. 

Appleton'b American Encyclopaedia of 1*?"2, 
gives Col. Lear's death Oct. 11, 18"^6. corrected in 
subsequent editions. 

Benjamin Lincoln Lear's second 
wife was Miss Louisa Bumford, a 
daughter of Col. George Bumford, 
Chief of Ordnance, War Department, 
who was breveted for distinguished 
services during the war of 1S12, and 
died March 25, 1848. He resided at 
and owned the beautiful estate in 
Washington called Kalorama. The 
only descendant of the family was a 
daughter of Benjamin Lincoln Lear 
and Louisa Bumford Lear, born after 
her father's death. With her husband, 
Wilson Eyre, of Philadelphia, she now 
resides at Newport, R. I. 

In a law-suit for the papers belong- 
ing to Col. Lear, this grand-daughter 
established her claim, the contestants 
being the children of Commodore 
Henley, a brother of Mrs. Tobias 

The widow of Benjamin Lincoln 
Lear married Richard C. Derby, of 
Boston, and both are now dead.* 

Col. Tobias Lear was born in the 
Lear Mansion, on Hunking street, in 
Portsmouth, N. H., Sept. 19, 1762. 
His father, Captain Tobias Lear, was 
originally a ship-master, but retiring 
from the sea, "owned and cultivated 
one of the largest and most valuable 
farms" in the section of the State 
where he resided. The farm was sit- 
uated on Sagamore Creek, near where 
the first settlement in New Hampshire 
was made, and has since been known 
as the " Jacob Sheafe Farm/' bordering 
on the creek, just opposite to the 
bridge, connecting Portsmouth with 
Newcastle, near the now well-known 

* Before sending this sketcli for publication, I 
consulted tuat truly excellent lady, the widow of 
Commodore Bt-'Verly Kennon, who was killed by 
the bursting of a cannon on board of the U. S. 
.Steamer 'Princeton,' Feb. 28, l. v H. She is the 
great grand-daughter of Martha Washington, and 
occupies a palatial home in Georgetown, known 
as 'The Tudor Place,' surrounded by many pre- 
cious and rare relics belonging to Washington and 
other distinguished families of his times. 1 consult- 
ed also thWife ot Hon. .1. Bayard U. .Smith, of 
Baltimore, a daughter of Commodore Henley, 
both estimable Indies whose whitened locks are to 
eacli a crown of beauty. Graceful in form, sym- 
metrical in character, cultured in mind, they becom- 
ingly adorn the high .social positions they deserv- 
edly occupv. They both bear kinship to 
Mrs. Lear 'and Lady Washington, and with 
recollections undimmed, are reliable authorities. 
I therefore believe this sketch to be substan- 
tially correct. 



and popular sea-shore resort "The 
Wentworth." The son was liberally 
educated, graduating with distinction 
at Harvard, in 17S3, in the same 
class with Harrison Gray Otis, Judges 
Prescott and Ward, of Massachusetts. 
and others of well known reputation. 
For a short time after his graduation 
he traveled in Europe and America, 
and then engaged in teaching, until he 
became the private secretary of Wash- 
ington. Col. Lear resided with Wash- 
ington, constituting in all respects one 
of the family circle. He held a high 
social position as a most accomplished 
gentleman of courtly, affable, and dig- 
nified manners. He was trusted, re- 
spected, and greatly beloved by his 
chief, whose entire confidence he en- 
joyed till the close of his life. Wash- 
ington mentioned him in his will, and 
directed that he have, during his 
life, the free rent of the farm which he 
then occupied by virtue of a 
from Washington to him and bis de- 
ceased wife during their natural lives. 
The farm, situated east of "Little 
Hunting Creek," on the Potomac, near 
Mount Vernon, contained three hun- 
dred and sixty acres. 

Afnong the papers of Rev. Dr. 
Haven, of Portsmouth, who had 
recommended Col. Lear as private 
secretary, was preserved a letter from 
Washington, written some months after 
his secretary had arrived at Mount 
Vernon, stating that he had deferred 
replying, until he had ascertained that 
Mr. Lear possessed all those qualities 
for which he was so highly recom- 
mended, and of which he then was 
fully satisfied. Soon after the close of 
the war, Washington retired to private 
life at Mount Vernon, and was without 
the assistance of a secretary for two 
years. His correspondence becom- 
ing very extensive, he wrote to General 
Lincoln, as already stated, to recom- 
mend a suitable person to fill the posi- 
tion of secretary and tutor. General 
Lincoln, Jan. 4, 1786, wrote, — " I have 
at last found a Mr. Lear, who supports 
the character of a gentleman and a 
scholar. He was educated at Cam- 

bridge, Mass. Since he left College 
he has been in Europe, and in different 
parts of this continent. It is said he 
is a good master of languages. He 
reads French, and writes an exceed- 
ingly good letter." Washington re- 
plied, Feb. 6, 17S6, and informed Gen. 
Lincoln that Mr. Lear, or any other 
person who came into his family in the 
blended character of preceptor to the 
children, and as private secretary, would 
sit at his table, live as he lived, mix 
with the company who resorted to his 
'house, and be treated with every re- 
spect and civility, and receive proper 
attention. His washing would be 
done, and his linen and stockings 
mended, by the maids in the family. 
A good hand as well as proper diction 
would be a recommendation. The 
compensation being satisfactory, April 
10, 17S6, Washington wrote to Gen. 
Lincoln, acceding to the terms sug- 
gested for securing the services of Mr. 
Lear, and desired to be informed when 
he "should expect him," that he 
" might arrange matters accordingly." 
The terms being mutually agreeable, 
Mr. Lear soon repaired to Mount Ver- 
non. Washington wrote to Richard 
Butler, from Mount Vernon, Nov. 27, 

•'If you are at Pittsburg this letter 
will be" presented co you by Mr. Lear, a 
deserving young man. who lives with me, 
and whom I beg leave to recommend to 
your civilities. He is sent by me to see 
the situation of my property on Miller's 
Pun. lately recovered, and to adopt 
measures for the preservation and secu- 
rity of it." 

Col. Lear wrote, at considerable 
length, a letter to Washington, from 
Portsmouth, June 2, 178S, in relation 
to the Federal Constitution, which was 
at that time being considered in the 
New Hampshire state convention, and 
which was ratified by it, June 21, 17SS. 
On June 22, Col. Lear again wrote, 
proposing to return to Mount Vernon, 
but stating that he might be detained 
a few days in the settlement of his 
father's estate, hoped to arrive there 
as early as the first of August. 


Washington wrote to James Madi- 
son, from Mount Vernon, March 30, 
1789, that Mr. Lear, who had been 
with him three years, as his private 
secretary, would accompany him to 
New York, or precede him by stage. 
The president also declined the prof- 
fered hospitalities of his friends, pre- 
ferring to hire lodgings until a house 
could be provided for the permanent 
reception of the president. The day 
of the assembling of Congress was 
March 4, but a quorum of both houses 
was not formed till the 6th of April. 

Col. Lear kept a manuscript diary, 
and April 30, 1789, made a record 
concerning the inauguration ceremo- 
nies at New York. In the procession, 
the president rode in the State coach ; 
Colonels Lear and Humphrey, his two 
secretaries, in the President's own car- 
riage, next following. In the evening 
Washington and his secretaries went in 
carriages to Chancellor Livingston's, 
and General Knox's, and had a full 
view of the fire-works. 

Col. Lear went to Great Britain late 
in 1 793, and remained abroad until 
August, 1794, when he embarked from 
Liverpool for America. 

Washington wrote to him from Phil- 
adelphia, Dec. 21, 1794, after his re- 
turn from Europe, and while he was 
at Georgetown, respecting the inland 
navigation of the Potomac, and the 
construction of the canal and locks, in 
which enterprise he was deeply inter- 

October 15, 1789, Washington left 
New York, with his own carriage and 
horses, on his New England tour, 
Col. Lear accompanying him. They 
arrived at Poitsmouth, N. PL, Oct. 31, 
1789, sixteen days after leaving New 
York City. The president of New 
Hampshire, Gen. John Sullivan, and 
his council, U. S. senators John Lang- 
don and Paine Wingate, Col. John 
Parker, marshal of the district, and 
other "gentlemen of distinction," met 
Washington at the state line and, es- 

corted bv Col. Coeswi 

regiment of 

cavalry, the distinguished party pro- 
ceeded toward Portsmouth. On reach- 

ing Greenland, Washington left his open 
carriage and mounted his favoi ite white 
horse, followed by his carriage in the 
occupancy of Co!. Lear. Col. Went- 
worth's troop of horse there joined the 
escort. At the Portsmouth Plains the 
president was saluted by Major-Gen- 
eral Joseph Cilley, and other military 
officers in attendance. On arriving at 
the more compact part of the town, 
the discharge of thirteen cannon, by 
the three companies of uniformed ar- 
tillery under command of Col. James 
Hackctt, the. ringing of bells, the grand 
military display, and other demonstra- 
tions of joy, gave evidence of a sincere 
and hearty welcome and added intense 
interest to the occasion. 

In " Brewster's Rambles," numbers 
53 and 54, vol. 1, is given a full and 
minute account of the enthusiastic re- 
ception, as well as considerable matter 
concerning the Lear family. From 
this article we gather this amusing inci- 
dent : When " Washington entered 
Portsmouth on horse-back, Col. Lear 
rode in an open carriage, next follow- 
ing, and as they passed on, many, from 
his position and dignified appearance, 
mistook the Colonel for the President, 
and bestowed upon the secretary that 
honor which was meant for the 'Father 
of his Country.' " 

Washington visited the house of 
Col. Lear, which was then occupied by 
his mother and brother-in-law, Samuel 
Storer, Esq., a dry goods merchant, 
married by Rev. Dr. Haven to Miss 
Mary Lear, the sister of Col. Lear, 
April 22. 1 781. Mrs. Storer died July 
27, 1 83 1, aged seventy. Her husband 
was born May 16, 1752, and died Oct. 
4, 1815. They were the parents of 
the late Admiral George Washington 
Storer, a gallant and accomplished 
officer of the U. S. Navy, and greatly 
beloved as a son of Portsmouth. He 
was a babe, when, at his parent's house, 
Washington placed his hand upon his 
head " and expressed the wish that he 
might be a better man than the one 
whose name he bears." Washington 
informed Col. Lear's mother, by a note, 
of his intended visit, and expressed a 



desire to " see all the children." On 
Tuesday forenoon, Nov. 2, 17S9. the 
president, on foot, visited the Lear 
Mansion, situated in the southerly part 
of the town, near the Piscataqua. al- 
most at the east end of Flunking street, 
and the house in which Col. Lear was 
bom. It is a commodious wooden 
structure, well built, two storied, hip 
roof, with Luthern or dormer w ndows. 
The house was considered " handsome" 
in its day,andisstillanobjectof interest 
in our quaint old town, the lovely old 
city by the sea. This ancient mansion 
was in good order and repair, not 
many years ago. When I last visited 
it, I remained some time in the parlor, 
at the west end, where Washington was 
introduced to each member of the 
family, " the venerable mother, her 
children and her grand-children." Miss 
Mary Lear Storer, whom I well remem- 
ber, occupied the house at the time I 
visited it. She was born April 1 7, 
1785, and died Nov. 27, 1S70. In 
1789 she was four years of age, and 
received Washington's blessing, as did 
her two brothers, John Langdon Storer, 
who died Sept. 2S, 1830, aged forty- 
two, and Admiral Storer, who was born 
May 4, 1 7S9, and died Jan. 8, 1864.* 
The room, since that memorable visit, 
had remained almost unchanged. 
"The same paper on the walls, the 
same chairs (made of cherry wood, 
raised in the garden), and other furni- 
ture, except the carpet," were the fur- 
nishings . : the parlor as of yore. 
"There were also in the room three 
China mantel ornaments, a bird on a 
branch, a peasant with a bouquet, and 
a lass i:i a basque of modern cut, with 
flowers. These ornaments were taken 
from Washington's own mantel and 
forwarded by Martha Washington for 
the children." There was also sus- 
pended from the wall another valuable 
relic, which must be highly prized from 
the associations connected with it. "A 
piece of black satin, of eight by ten 
inches, framed and glazed, on which is 
worked, with the hair of General and 

•Mary I. 

bom Feb. " 

■ Blunt, wife of Admiral Storer, 
\,M, atuldieii Feb. 10, IS08. 

Mrs. Washington, in Roman letters, 
the following couplets, composed by 
the mother of Col. Lear, sometime 
about the commencement of thejpres- 

ent century : 

••This is work'd with our~illustrious 
and beloved General George Washing- 
ton's hair. 

Which covered his exalted head, 
But now enioll'd among the dead. 
Yet wears a crown above the skies. 
In realms of bliss which never dies. 

This is work'd with Lady- 
Martha Washington's hair. 
Relict of our beloved General. 

I pray her honor'd head. 

May long survive the dead : 

And when she doth her breath resign, 

May she in heaven her consort join. 

Tliis hair was sent to Mrs. Lear by her 
good friend. Lady Washington." 

There was also suspended from the 
ceiling in the center of the room, a 
glass globe, which has since been ac- 
cidentally broken. The other articles 
are now in the possession of Mrs. Mary 
Washington Jones, the only daughter 
of the late Admiral Storer, and the 
widow of the lamented Col. Albeit L. 
Jones, of Portsmouth. She has, at her 
spacious and beautiful home, corner of 
Middle street and Richards avenue, 
a large number of interesting relics, 
portraits, letters, &c, belonging to the 
family, which will be described in the 
November number of the "Granite 
Monthly," together with other interest- 
ing items in relation to the Lear and 
Storer families. President Washington, 
with Col. Lear, occupied the " warden's 
pew," in the Episcopal church, during 
morning service, and in the afternoon 
of the same day, Sunday, Nov. 1, 1 789, 
listened to a sermon by Rev. Dr. 
Buckminster, at the Congregational 
church, North Parish. 

August 2, 1798, in a letter to Col. 
Lear, Washington, from Mount Vernon, 
wrote in reference to the proposed res- 
ignation by Col. Lear of the presi- 
dency of the Potomac Company, and 
also informed him that he had an in- 


tense desire to overhaul, arrange, and 
separate, papers of real, from those of 
little or no value, so that all his mat- 
ters should be in a situation to give 
the least trouble to those who might 
have the management of his papers 
after his decease. 

I am informed that Washington's 
papers were admirably arranged and 
classified by himself and Col. Lear, 
and were found by Jared Sparks, in ex- 
cellent condition to be used in his 
"Writings of Washington." 

In a letter of Sept. 9, 1798, ad- 
dressed to Timothy Pickering, Secre- 
tary of State, in relation to the 
appointment with which the partiality of 
his country had honored him, Wash- 
ington writes, " no member of the 
military family is yet engaged, except 
my old secretary, Tobias Lear, in the 
same capacity." 

In 179s, Washington was appointed 
to • the command of the Provincial 
army, and as commander- in chief, was 
allowed a military secretary, with the 
rank of colonel. He selected Col. 
Lear, who accepted the position and 
thus acquired the title by which he 
was afterward known. 

October 21, 17 98, Washington, in a 
letter to James McHenrv, Secretary 
of War, informs him that his secretary, 
Mr. Lear, was very sick with a severe 
fever, and was at that time very low. 
The illness of his secretary, and other 
causes, would prevent him from going 
to Trenton, or Philadelphia, at the time 
allotted to the major-generals. 

Col. Lear was associated with Wash- 
ington fourteen years, first as private 
secretary and tutor of his adopted 
children, then military secretary, and 
afterward aided in superintending his 
private affairs ; a member of the 
household, gathering at the same 
table, accompanying him in his jour- 
neyings and daily walks, his chosen 
and constant attendant during his last 
illness, and communicating to Congress, 
through President John Adams, the 
information of Washington's death, 
which occurred Dec. 14, 1799. Mar- 

tha Washington died May 22, 1802, 
aged seventy. 

Col. Lear won the personal regard 
and social friendship not only of Wash- 
ington, but also of Mrs. Washington, 
who was somewhat reserved in forming 
personal attachments ; but the marriage 
of Col. Lear to two of her nieces 
evinced her individual esteem for him. 

In Laura C. Holloway's " Ladies of 
the White House," we learn from the 
" Recollections " of a daughter of 
Mrs. Binney, who resided opposite the 
President's house, that it was General 
Washington's custom, when the weather 
was suitable, to exercise by walking, 
usually attended by his two secretaries, 
Col. Lear and Major Jackson. Wash- 
ington was '" always dressed in black, 
and all three wore cocked hats." 

" It was Mrs. Washington's custom 
to return visits on the third day, and in 
calling on her mother, she would send 
a footman over, who would knock 
loudly and announce Mrs. Washing- 
ton, who would then come over with 
Mr. Lear." 

Jefferson, in 1S02, appointed Col. 
Lear consul-general to St. Domingo, 
and in ICS04 consul-general to Algiers, 
which office he held about eight years, 
during the last few months of which 
his son Lincoln was with him. In 
1805 he was a commissioner to nego- 
tiate peace with Tripoli. In 181 2, the 
Barbary Powers having declared war 
against the United States, Col. Lear 
returned home and was appointed by 
President Madison accountant to the 
war department, which office he re- 
tained until Oct. 11, 1 816, when he 
died, suddenly, at his home in the 
"Wirt Mansion," No. 1732, G. street, 
between 17th and 18th streets, 
N. W., aged fifty-four years. He lived 
greatly respected and died lamented. 
" His private life was exemplary, and 
he filled various public stations under 
successive administrations with de- 
served reputation." 

We can not find that any biography 
of Col. Lear has been issued from the 
press. The unpublished papers of 
such a man are of great historic inter- 



est, and afford valuable material for 
publication. A very interesting letter 
of March 30. iySo^irom Col. Lear to 
his brother-in-law, appeared in the 
Portsmouth Journal of March S, 1 S73, 
giving a very graphic account of the 
farming operations of " my General," 
whom he considers ''a great and good 
character," and one of the greatest 
farmers in America, if not in the world, 
possessing in one body, nearly ten 
thousand acres of land, about the 
" seat," which from its situation and 
improvements, may in this country be 
called '• a palace." This large farm 
gave constant employment to upward 
of two hundred and fifty persons, ex- 
clusive of carpenters, joiners, brick- 
layers, blacksmiths, a tailor, and a shoe- 
maker, so that " the seat and its offices 
resembled a little village." The farm, 
contrary to the custom in the Southern 
States, was not under the direction of 
overseers, but Washington himself 
superintended and gave personal atten- 
tion to all the minutiae of its manage- 
ment. Twenty-four plows were kept 
in constant use, when the weather 
permitted, and in the spring of 17S9, 
when the letter was written, six hun- 
dred bushels of oats had been sown, 
upward of seven hundred acres with 
wheat, as much more prepared for 
corn, barley, potatoes, pease, beans, &c, 
five hundred acres assigned to grass, 
and during the summer one hundred 
and fifty acres were to be utilized in 
the raising of turnips. It appears that 
"none of that pernicious weed, called 
tobacco," was raised, but only such 
food as was good for man and beast. 
The live stock is given as one hundred 
and forty horses, one hundred and 
twelve cows, two hundred and thirty- 
five working oxen, steers, and heifers, 
and five hundred sheep. Vet notwith- 
standing all the appearances of income, 
Col. Lear believed no real profit was 
derived, as almost all the product of 
the farm was consumed on the prem- 
ises. Before the war, tobacco and 
wheat were the principal products, and 
the quantity not consumed on the es- 
tate was shipped to American and 

foreign ports. A flouring mill was 
operated, a brick yard worked, and 
a carpenter establishment sustained. 
There were also valuable fishing land- 
ings on the shores bordering on the 
Mount A'ernon lands. The cultivation 
of tobacco was abandoned because 
Washington believed it exhausted the 
soil, and its free use injured the 
health of the laborers. I have seen, 
in the possession of Joseph M. Toner, 
m. d., of this city, a piece of plank, 
cut from the bolting chest at the time 
the flouring mill was taken down, in 
1852,011 which was burnt, " G. Wash- 
ington," in antique English letters. 
All barrels and packages bearing Wash- 
ington's brand passed unchallenged, 
free of inspection every where. 

Some facts in reference to the ances- 
try of the subject of this sketch may 
not be uninteresting. Henry Sher- 
burne, of noble ancestry, whose de- 
scendants became notable citizens, 
came to Portsmouth from England, 
with the early settlers in 1631, and 
clied about 16S0. He married, Nov. 
13, 1637, Rebecca Gibbins, who died 
July 3, 1667. She was the only 
daughter of Ambros Gibbins and Eli- 
zabeth Gibbins. Her father was of 
ancient lineage, one of the company 
of early settlers, a companion of Sher- 
burne, trader for the company of La- 
conia, factor and attorney for Mason, 
commissioner, &c. He was elected 
assistant governor of the Portsmouth 
settlement, in 1640, and died July 1, 
1656. His wife died May 14, 1655. 
Tobias Lear married, April 11, 
1667, Elizabeth, born Aug. 4, 1638, 
the eldest daughter of Henry and 
Rebecca Sherburne, just named. She 
was the widow of Tobias Langdon, 
whom she married June 10, 1656, and 
who died July 27, 1664. Tobias and 
Elizabeth Lear had a daughter Eliza- 
beth, born Feb. 1', 1669, who died in 
1 68 1 . The father died about the same 
time, leaving one son, Tobias Lear, 
who may, according to Savage, have 
been of Newcastle of 1727. 

Col. Tobias Lear, the subject of this 
sketch, was the son of Captain Tobias 



Lear, of Sagamore, and came through 
the foregoing line of ancestry. 

At the " Foint of Graves,"' Ports- 
mouth, are to be seen three stones, in 
memory of Captain Tobias Lear, his 
wife and mother. Captain Lear died 
Nov. 6. 1781, aged 45, and on the 
dark slate stone, in remarkable state of 
preservation, which marks his grave, 
is inscribed : 

"a wit's a feather, axd a chief's a 
rod ; an honest man 's the noblest 
work of god." 

On his wife's, — "Mary Lear died 
May 24, 1S29, aged 90." Her maiden 
name was Mary Stilson. The other 
is in memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Lear, 
who was the wife of Capt. Tobias, the 
mother of Capt. Tobias, and the grand- 
mother of Col. Tobias Lear. She 
died July 2r, 1774, aged 5S. Her 
maiden name was Elizabeth Hall. 

Within the grant of territory to 
Capt. John Mason, of Nov. 3, 1631, 
which included Newcastle, Rye, and 
Portsmouth, the Lears resided on land 
situated on the southerly side of the 
Sagamore, or Witch creek, as some- 
times called, easterly from the Lang- 
don or Llwyn farm, toward Little 
Harbor and Newcastle, or Great Is- 
land, as then known. 

Captain Tobias Lear, the father of 
Col. Lear, signed the " association 
test," or test oath, in August, 1776. 
His son at that time was only fourteen 
years of age 

A friend writes that by the will of 
Capt. Lear, on file in the Register's 
office, at Exeter, " his large posses- 
sions at Sagamore Creek, Portsmouth, 
Rye, and Epping, were bequeathed 
mainly to his widow, during widow- 
hood, and to his son and other heirs." 

In the Granite Monthly of April. 
1881, is a sketch of my grand-pa rents. 
Capt. Robert Xeal and Margaret Lear 
Neal, and their descendant?, in which I 
intimated that 1 might furnish another 
article relating to the families of Neal 
and Lear prior to the Revolutionary 

The foregoing, suggested by my recent 
visit to the •* Congressional Burying 

G round. " covers a portion of the de- 
ferred items. Want of time prevents 
further elaboration. I will, however, 
add that in the preparation of this sketch 
considerable data accumulated which 
may be of interest, and is there- 
fore given in this supplementary form. 

The learned and eccentric John Lang- 
don Ehvyn. a grandson of ex-Gov. .Jonn 
Langdon, and who died Jan. 31, 1S7G, 
wrote, in 1840, a pamphlet entitled 
** Some account of John Langdon." in 
which he said that Tobias Langdon's 
widow married Tobias Lear; that he 
and his descendants lived hard by the 
Langdon farm ; that Col. Tobias Lear 
was a connection of ex-Gov. Langdon; 
and that his ancestors had lived on Sag- 
amore Creek. " immediately adjoining 
the Langdon's. from the first, and 
stayed till nearly our day.** 

Col. Lear's father's mother. Elizabeth 
Hall Lear, was a sister of ex-Governor 
Langdon's mother— Mary Hall Lang- 

A daughter of Elizabeth Hall Lear 
married Nathaniel Sherburne. They 
were the great grand-parents of Mrs. 
Admiral Scorer, nee Mary Lear Blunt, 
who was the fourth daughter of Capt. 
Robert W. Blunt. Ramble number 13 
■elates to the Blunt family. 

In one of the town books of Newcastle 
is this record: Tobias Lear, son of 
Tobias and Hannah Lear, born March 29, 
170<i. Among the tax payers in Newcas- 
tle, in 1727, was Tobias Lear and Tobias 
Lear, 2d. A Tobias Lear appears as hav- 
ing a family and living near Sagamore 
creek in June. 1678. A petition against 
a bridge at Newcastle, over the "main 
river, of Little Harbor, to the main laud. 
signed by Tobias Lear and others of 
Portsmouth and Newcastle, was pre- 
sented to the general assembly, in ses- 
sion at Portsmouth. April 24, 1719. h\ 
the office of the secretary of state, at 
Concord, I have seen a petition signed 
by Tobias Lear, George Walker, et al., 
in 1693, as residents of Sagamore, ad- 
dressed to the lieutenant-governor and 
council, requesting not to be connected 
with Great Island, now Newcastle. 

My grandmother, Margaret Lear, who 
was born Oct. 13. 1753, married Robert 
Neal. Feb. 12, 1778. and died Nov 22, 
1845, and was a daughter of Walker Lear, 
who was born at Newcastle. N. II.. 
Aug. 25, 1719, and was the son of Tobias 
Lear, who married Elizabeth Walker 
April 14. 1714. a sister of Capt. George 
Walker, whose name is inscribed on 
Atkinson's massive silver waiter, as hav- 
ing died Dec. 17,1748, aged eighty-six. 
He was a very prominent citizen 01 the 
province, " and left property to his wife 



Abigail, and to Walker Lear, son of his 
sister, Elizabeth Lear." He was pro- 
vince marshal in 1698. captain of a troop 
of horse, and an influential member of 
the assembly from Portsmouth, his term 
of service extending, with the exception 
of a few years, from 1710 to 1742. The 
silver which formed t he Christening bowl. 
used at the South Parish, in Portsmouth. 
was purchased from the £100. old tenor, 
which Captain Walker bequeathed to 
the church. My grand-uncles, George 
Walker Lear and Joseph Lear, moved 
to Saville, now Sunapee, N. 1L. before 
the Revolutionary war. and had children. 

The names of Tobias Walker and 
George Walker have been perpetuated . 
Both George Walker Lear and Joseph 
Lear signed the "' test oath"' of 177G. at 
Saville. A deed of June 6, 17 ">3. exe- 
cuted by Walker Lenr. and Mary, his 
wife, conveying a certain piece of 
;i marsh or meadow ground." on Saga- 
more, to Samuel Beck, "of Sagamore 
creek." and known to this day" as the 
i% Walker Lear marsh." was recently 
sent to me by my esteemed friend. Col. 
Andrew J. i>erk. of Portsmouth, a de- 
scendant of the grantee. 

The burial place of the Walkers and 
Lears is on the Langdon or Elvryu 

farm, surrounded by a stone wall, in a 
beautiful grove of oaks, near the east 
line of the farm, just north of John W. 
Johnson's new house on Sagamore road, 
on land formerly belonging to the 

One of the stones which has been 
transferred to the Elwyn lot.* bears 
this inscription : ** Here lies the body 
of Mrs. Mary Walker, wife to Captain 
George Walker, died June 1. 1734. aged 
62 years." 

In the same lot we copied from an 
ancient stone the following: "Here 
lies buried ye body of Capt. Tobias 
Langdon, aged 04 years, who deceased 
ye 20 Feb. 172-5." 

Captain Langdon was born on the 
farm where his body reposes. Ilis 
widow became the wife of Tobias Lear, 
as heretofore stated. 

if in Portsmouth I could trace with 
more distinctness the chronology of the 
family, thus rendering the record more 
complete, and making available other 
memoranda in my possession. 

More anou. 

* Probably to preserve it, as ether stone? on the 
original ground, bearing inscriptions, hud been 



The importance of railroads, to the 
people of New Hampshire, can hardly 
be estimated. Probably no section of 
this country is benefitted and its ma- 
terial interests so largely and directly 
aided in a general manner as this state, 
while in some localities, the develop- 
ment of every important enterprise is 
almost entirely dependent upon railroad 
facilities. It has been suggested that 
a brief history of the different corpo- 
rations may be of public interest, and 
it is proposed, in a series of articles, 
to give an account of their origin, 
progress and influence, their connec- 
tions and business relations with foreign 

The various charters which have 
been granted, with their respective 
dates, are included in this article for 
convenience and reference. 

They may be arranged in three 
systems or groups, namely : in the 
eastern, the middle, and the western 
sections of the state. Some notice 
will be given of those men who were 
active and efficient in undertaking and 
promoting these enterprises, and the 
subject be treated in detail as far 
as will be of interest to the general 

Following is a list of charters : 

1833, JAN. 1. Boston cc Ontario R. 
R. Co. From any point in southerly- 
line of state, in or near Dunstable, 
northwardly and westerly to the westerly 
line of the state on Connecticut river. 

1835, juxe 23. Nashua «Sc Lowell 
R. R. Corporation. From any point 
in southerly line of state to some 
convenient \ lace in or near Nashua 



1835, June 27. Concord R. R. Cor- 
poration. From any point in southerly 
line of state, in Hudson, Pelham, or Sa- 
lem, or any point in Nashua village, or 
between the factories of the Jackson 
Co. and the Merrimack river, so as to 
enter via N. & L. R. R., to Concord. 

1S35, june 27. Keene R. R. Co. 
From village of Keene to line of 
state in Fitzwilliam or Rindge, in di- 
rection of Worcester, Mass. 

1835, june 27. Boston & Maine R. 
R. From state line at Haverhill, Mass. 
to line between New Hampshire and 

1836, june 18. Eastern R. R. in 
New Hampshire. From state line at 
Seabrook to line between New Hamp- 
shire and Maine. 

1 S3 7, june 30. Concord & Leba- 
non R. R. From any point in Con- 
cord, so as to enter on C. R. R., to the 
west bank of the Connecticut river, 
near mouth of White river, in Leba- 

1838, june 26. An act to unite the 
Nashua & Lowell corporations of 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
and other purposes. 

1839, JULY 2. Dover *S: Winnipis- 
eogee R. R. From any point in 
Dover, in a northerly direction, to some 
point in Alton, near southerly extrem- 
ity of Winnipiseogee lake. 

1S-59, juey 2. Portland & Connec- 
ticut River R. R. From any point in 
easterly line of state, between Haver- 
hill and Colebrook, to some conven- 
ient point in westerly line of state 
between those towns. 

1842, dec. 21. Portsmouth ^ 
Dover R. R. From any place at or 
near depot of B. & M. R. R., in Dover, 
or on said railroad, between said depot 
and Madbury meeting-house, to any 
place in Portsmouth. Also a branch 
from any part of said railroad to B. & 
M. R. R., in Durham, after principal 
road is completed from Dover to Pis- 
cataqua Bridge. 

1844. june 18. Northern R. R. 
Co. From any point in Concord, or 
Bow, so as to enter on C. R. R., to the 
east or west bank of Connecticut river, 

in Haverhill or Charlestown or be- 
twixt the same. 

1S44, jl t ne 19. Great Falls & Con- 
way R. R. From point at or near 
depot of B. & M. R. R., in Somers- 
worth, through certain towns named, 
to any place in Conway. 

1844, jl'ne 19. Fitchburg, Keene 
& Connecticut River R. R. Co. From 
any point in south line of state, in 
Fitzwilliam or Rindge, to western 
boundary of state, in Walpole or 

1S44, dec. 24. Groton & Nashua 
R. R. Corporation. From any point 
in southerly line of state, between 
Nashua river and northeast corner of 
Dunstable, Mass., within one hundred 
rods of said river, thence through 
Nashua to any convenient point in 
Nashville, with right to connect with 
N. & L. R. R., or C. R. R. 

1844, dec. 27. Northern R. R. 
From any point on C. R. R., in Con- 
cord, or Bow, to west bank of Con- 
necticut river in Lebanon. 

1844, DEC - 2 7« Boston, Concord & 
Montreal R. R. From any point on 
westerly bank of Connecticut river, 
opposite Haverhill or Littleton, or any 
intervening town, by routes mentioned, 
to any point in Concord, or Bow, so as 
to enter on C. R. R. 

1844, dec. 27. Cheshire R. R. Co. 
From any point in south line of state, 
in Fitzwilliam or Rindge, through vil- 
lage of Keene to the western bound- 
ary of state in Walpole or Charlestown. 

'1844, dec. 27. Colebrook R. R. 
Company. From any point on east 
line of state, where contemplated rail- 
road from Portland to Montreal shall 
meet same, thence in continuation of 
same, through Dixville and Colebrook, 
to line of Vermont. 

1844, dec. 27. Ashuelot R. R. Co. 
From any point in south line of state, 
in Richmond or Winchester, to west- 
ern boundary of state in Hinsdale. 

1844, dec. 28. Wilton R. R. Co. 
From any point on C. R. R. between 
Souhegan river and its junction with 
N. & L. R. R., through Amherst village 
and Milford to East Wilton, or from 



any point on N. & L. R. R. in Nash- 
ville to East Wilton, Greenfield, Peter- 
borough, and Mallow, or from any 
point in south line of state within one 
mile of Nissitissett river, to East Wil- 
ton, Peterborough, and Marlow. 

1845, JULY 1. Portsmouth, New- 
market & Exeter R. R. From Ports- 
mouth to such point on B. <S: M. R. R. 
in Dover, Durham, Newmarket, or 
Exeter, as they may think expedient. 

1 84 5, JULY 1. Portsmouth, New- 
market & Concord R. R. From such 
point in Portsmouth or on B. 6c M. R. 
R. in Dover, Durham, Newmarket or 
Exeter, as they shall think best, to 
Concord or Manchester, or any point 
on C. R. R. between Concord and 
Manchester they may select. 

1S46, JULY S. Souhegan Railroad 
Company. From Amherst village to 
Concord Railroad, near mouth of Sou- 
hegan river, in Merrimack. 

1846, jl'ly 8. Peterborough <S: 
Shirley Railroad Company. From 
line of state, in Mason, through New 
Ipswich to Peterborough. 

1846, JULY S. Franklin & Bristol 
Railroad. From any point on North- 
ern Railroad, in Franklin, to Bristol 

1846, JULY 10. Ashuelot R. R. Co. 
From some point on Cheshire Railroad, 
in Keene, or Swanzey, to connect in 
Hinsdale with any railroad constructed 
in Connecticut valley, leading through 

1846, JULY 10. East Wilton and 
Groton R. R. Co. From some point 
in East Wilton, through Milford, Brook- 
line, and Hollis, to line of Massachu- 
setts, to unite w*th East Wilton & 
Groton Railroad of Massachusetts. 

1846, JULY 10. Sullivan Railroad 
Company. From some point in west- 
erly line of state, adjoining Windsor 
or Weathersfield, Vt., to a convenient 
point f o connect with Cheshire Rail- 
1 road, near Cheshire Bridge, in Charles- 
town. (See charter.) 

1846, july 10. Salisbury & East 
Kingston Railroad Company. From 
some point on state line, near Jewell's 
Mills, in South Hampton, to some 

point on B. & M. Railroad, in East 


1S47, june 30. Manchester &: Law- 
rence Railroad. From state line in 
Salem to any point on Concord Rail- 
road in Manchester. 

1S47, June 30. Atlantic & St. 
Lawrence Railroad Company. From 
western boundary of Maine, through 
Coos county, to western or western 
and northern boundary of New Hamp- 

1847, jlly 2. Cocheco Railroad 
Company. From any point in Dover 
to some point on B., C. & M. Railroad 
in Gilford, Meredith, Center Harbor. 
or Holderness. 

1847, july 2. Goffstown & Man- 
chester Railroad Company. From 
west village in Goffstown to Manches- 

1 84 7, july 2. Grafton Railroad. 
From westerly boundary of state, in 
Lebanon, to a point in westerly bound- 
ary of state in Orford. 

1S47, july 2. Conway & Meredith 
Railroad Company. From west vil- 
lage in Conway to some convenient 
point on B., C. <\: M. Railroad in Mer- 

184S, june 20. Connecticut River 
Railroad Company. From a point on 
Cheshire Railroad, in south part of 
Walpole or north part of Westmore- 
land, through Westmoreland, Chester- 
field. Hinsdale, and Winchester, to 
south line of state, with one or more 
branches to west line of state. 

1848, june 24. Contoocook Valley 
Railroad. From any point on Con- 
cord Railroad, or Northern Railroad, 
in Concord, to any point in Peterbo- 
rough. * 

1848, june 24. Concord & Clare- 
mont Railroad. From any point on 
Concord Railroad in Concord, or Bow, 
or any point on Northern Railroad in 
Concord, to the Sullivan Railroad in 

1848, june 24. New Hampshire 
Central Railroad. From any point in 
Manchester, through Bedford, Goffs- 
town, New Boston, Weare, Henniker, 
Bradford, Newbury, Wendell, New- 



port, to Claremont, and thence to con- 
nect with Sullivan Railroad. 

184S, dec. 13. Monadnock Rail- 
road. From line of state in Fitzwil- 
liam, or westerly part of Rindge, or 
some point on Cheshire Railroad, in 
cither of said towns, to any convenient 
point in PeXerborough. 

184S, dec. 25. White Mountain 
Railroad. From some point on Bos- 
ton, Concord & Montreal Railroad, in 
Haverhill, near Woodsville, to some 
point on Atlantic & St. Lawrence Rail- 
road, in Lancaster. 

1848. dec. 29. Nashua & Epping 
Railroad Company. From Nashua, or 
Nashville, through Nashville, Hudson, 
Londonderry, Deny, Chester, San- 
down, and Raymond, to a point on 
Portsmouth & Concord Railroad in 
Raymond or Epping. 

1 £49, jan". 3. Piscataquog River 
Railroad. From some point on New 
Hampshire Central Railroad in Goffs- 
tovvn, or New Boston, to Water Village 
in New Boston. 

1849, JAN. 3. Essex Extension 
Railroad Company. From Center 
Village in Salem, to point where Essex 
Railroad of Massachusetts strikes 
state line in Salem. 

1S49, .TAX. 

Connecticut River & 

Montreal Railroad Company. From 
point en Boston, Concord & Montreal 
Railroad, at or near mouth of Ammo- 
noosuc river, in Haverhill, or the ter- 
minus of the Boston, Concord & 
Montreal Railroad, up Connecticut 
river to a point in Lancaster that shall 
be most convenient for connection 
with Atlantic & St. Lawrence Rail- 

1849, jan. 4. Suncook Valley Rail- 
road. From some point on Ports- 
mouth & Concord Railroad, in 
Hocksett, Allenstown, or Pembroke, 
to Pittsfield village. 

1849, july 6. Manchester & Can- 
dia Railroad. From any point on 
Concord Railroad, or Manchester & 
•Lawrence Railroad, or New Hampshire 
Central Railroad, in Manchester, to a 
point on Portsmouth & Concord Rail- 
road, in Candia. 

1S49, july 6. Suncook Valley Ex- 
tension Railroad. From any point on 
Suncook Valley Railroad, in Pittsfield, 
to any point on Cocheco Railroad in 

1849, july 6. Salisbury & East 
Kingston Extension Railroad. From, 
at, or near woodshed on Boston & 
Maine Railroad, in East Kingston, to 
Portsmouth & Concord Railroad in 
Epping or Raymond. 

1 85 1, june 26. Pittsfield & Con- 
cord Railroad. From some point on 
Boston, Concord &: Montreal Railroad 
in Concord, on east side of Merrimack 
river, to Pittsfield village. 

1 85 1. julv 2. New Hampshire 
Union Railroad. From present ter- 
minus of Contoocook Valley Railroad, 
in Hillsborough, to some point on line 
of Cheshire Railroad, or to eastern 
end of Ashuelot Raiiroad, in Keene. 

1854, july 14. Claremont Railroad 
Company. From some central point 
in Claremont village, to connect with 
Sullivan road at some point in Clare- 

1855, july 14. Ammonoosuc Val- 
ley Railroad Company. Authorized 
to buy White Mountains Railroad and 
to build a road from said railroad in Lit- 
tleton, to some point on St. Lawrence 
& Atlantic Railroad in Lancaster. 

1S55, july 14. Sugar River Rail- 
road. From a point on Merrimack & 
Connecticut Rivers Railroad, or on 
Contoocook Valley Railroad, in Hen- 
niker, to a point to connect with Sulli- 
van Railroad in Claremont. 

1 85 5, july 14. Concord & Ports- 
mouth Railroad. Authorized to pur- 
chase Portsmouth & Concord Railroad. 

1856, july 12. Contoocook River 
Railroad. Authorized to purchase 
stock and bonds of Contoocook Val- 
ley Railroad. 

1859, june 27. White Mountains 
(N. H.) Railroad. From Woodsville 
to some point on Atlantic & St. Law- 
rence Railroad. Takes property of 
White Mountains Railroad and suc- 
ceeds it. 

1862, july 1. Dover & Winnipis- 
eogee Railroad. Authorized to pur- 



chase and run Cocheco Railroad, 
between Dover and Alton. 

1863, july 1. Suncook Valley Rail- 
road. From a central point in Pitts- 
field village, to Concord & Portsmouth 
Railroad at or near Suncook. 

1864. july 16. Manchester & 
Keene Railroad. From any point on 
Concord Railroad, Manchester & Law- 
rence Railroad, Concord *S: Portsmouth 
Railroad, or Manchester & North 
Weare Railroad, in Manchester, or in 
Goffstown, to any point on Cheshire 
or Ashuelot Railroad, in Keene. 

1864, july 16. Coos Railroad. 
From termination of White Mountains 
Railroad in Littleton, to some conven- 
ient point on Grand Trunk Railway 
(formerly Atlantic & St. Lawrence 
Railroad) in Northumberland. 

1865, junk 30. Portsmouth, Great 
Falls & Conway Railroad. Authorized 
to purchase Great Falls & Conway 
Railroad, &c. 

1866, july 2. Portland and Roch- 
ester Railroad Company. From west- 
erly line of Maine to Manchester. 

1866, july 7. Peterborough Rail- 
road. From some central point in 
Peterborough village, to connect with 
Wilton Railroad in Wilton, or Peter- 
borough and Shirley branch of Fitch- 
burg Railroad, in Mason. 

1866, july 7. Sugar River Rail- 
road. Authorized to purchase Con- 
cord & Claremont Railroad, extending 
from Concord to Bradford, and to 
build from end of said road in Brad- 
ford to any point on Sullivan Railroad 
in Claremont. 

1866, july 7. West New Hamp- 
shire Railroad. From a point on 
Cheshire Railroad in south part of 
Walpole, or north part of Westmore- 
land, to westerly line of state in Ches- 
terfield, and thence to any point on 
Ashuelot Railroad in Plinsdale. 

1866, july 7. Portsmouth and 
Dover Railroad. From any point on 
Eastern Railroad, in Portsmouth, to 
any point on Boston, Concord & Mon- 
treal Railroad, or Dover & Winnipis- 
eogee Railroad, in Dover. 

1867, july 6. Portland, White 
Mountains & Ogdensburg Railroad. 
From any point in easterly boundary 
of state in Carroll county, to connect 
with Portland & Ogdensburg Railroad, 
of Maine, to some point in westerly 
boundary of state, in Monroe, Little- 
ton, Dalton, or Lancaster. . 

186S, june 30. West Amesbury 
Branch Railroad Company. From a 
point on state line near south corner 
of Newton, to connect with West 
Amesbury Branch Railroad of Massa- 
chusetts, to a point on Boston & 
Maine Railroad in New Hampshire, 
or to a point near house of James 

1 868, july 1. Wolfeborough Rail- 
road. From some point on Great 
Falls & Conway Railroad, in Wake- 
field, to some point on Lake Winnipis- 
eogee in Wolfeborough. 

186S. july 1. Exeter Railway. 
From any point on Concord &. Ports- 
mouth Railroad, in Epping, to any 
point on south line , of state in Sea- 
brook, or South Hampton, or to any 
point on Eastern Railroad in Hamp- 
ton, Hampton Falls, or Seabrook. 

1868, july 3. Mont Vernon Rail- 
road. From any point on Wilton 
Railroad, in Amherst, to any point in 
Mont Vernon, New Boston, or Fran- 

186S, july 3. Franklin & Portland 
Railroad. From point on Cocheco 
Railroad, at or near Downing's cross- 
ing, in New Durham, to a point on 
Northern Railroad in Franklin. 

186S, july 3. New Hampshire 
Central Railroad. From line of 
Maine, in valley of Great Ossipee 
river, in Freedom, or Effingham, to the 
Northern Railroad, in Danbury. 

1869, july 6. Concord & Roches- 
ter Railroad. From some point on 
Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, 
in East Concord, to some point on 
Portland & Rochester Railroad in 

1869, july 7. Hillsborough & 
Peterborough Railroad. From any 
point in Center village in Peterbor- 
ough, to present terminus of Contoo- 



cook Railroad in village of Hillsbo- 
rough Bridge. 

1^869, July 7. Portland & Ogdens- 
burg Railroad of Maine. Right to 
prolong its railroad from west line of 
Maine through certain towns named. 

1870, june 27. Blackwater River 
Railroad. From some convenient 
point on Concord & Claremont Rail- 
road, in Concord, to some convenient 
point on Northern Railroad, in An- 

1870, JUNE 29. Windsor & Forest 
Line Railroad. From any point on 
west bank of Connecticut River, in 
Cornish, to any point in Greenfield. 

1870, July 2. Manchester <Sc Clare- 
mont Railroad. From Manchester & 
North Weare Railroad, to some point 
in or near Henniker village. 

1871, July 11. Littleton <S: Fran- 
conia Railroad Company. From 
White Mountains Railroad, or its exten- 
sion in Littleton, to any point in 

187 1, JULY 13. Brookline Railroad. 
From any point on state line between 
Hollis and Pepperell, to any point at 
or near Brookline village. 

187 1, july 15. VVolfeborough & 
Alton Railroad. From some point in 
Alton to some point to connect with 
Portsmouth, Great Falls & Conway 
Railroad, in Ossipee, or Wakefield. 

1872, june 26. Rye Beach Rail- 
road. From some point on Eastern 
Railroad, in Hampton, to some point 
on same railroad, or on Concord & 
Portsmouth Railroad, in Portsmouth. 

1S72, june 27. Nashua, Acton & 
Boston Railroad Company. From 
northerly line of Massachusetts to any 
railroad in Nashua. 

1872, july 3. Claremont & White 
River Junction Railroad. From Clare- 
mont to west bank of Connecticut 
river in Lebanon. 

1872, july 4. Iron Mountain Rail- 
road. From Bartlett, through Bartlett 
and Conway to any convenient point 
to connect with other railroads. 

1874, july 7. Nashua & Piaistovv 
Railroad. From Plaistow or Atkinson 
to some point in Nashua. 

1874, july 7. Spickett River Rail- 
road. From some point in northerly 
line of Massachusetts, in Salem, or 
some convenient point on Manchester 
& Lawrence Railroad in said town, to 
some point on Nashua cS: Rochester 
Railroad, in Derry or Hampstead. 

1 8 74. july 7. Lowell & Windham 
Railroad. From state line in Pelham 
to Nashua & Rochester Railroad in 

1874, july 9. Pemigewasset Valley 
Railroad. From Boston, Concord & 
Montreal Railroad, in Plymouth, to 
Franconia, <x:c. 

1874, july 9. Swift River Railroad. 
From some point in Conway to con- 
nect with Portsmouth, Great Falls & 
Conway Railroad, to height of land in 
Waterville, Allen's or Elkins's grants. 

1875, july 2. Sawyer River Railroad. 
From some point in Hart's Location, 
westerly, up valley of Sawyer river, to 
some point at height of land dividing 
waters which flow into Sawyer river 
from those which flow into Pemige- 
wasset river. 

1875, july. 15* Manchester & Ash- 
burnham Railroad. From Manches- 
ter to line of state near Winchendon, 

1577, june 26. Farmington & 
Rochester Railroad. From some 
point in Farmington to some point in 

1 87 7, july 14. Manchester & 
Fitchburg Railroad. From Manches- 
ter to some point on state line in 
Brookline, Mason, New Ipswich, or 

1 5 78, july 11. Profile & Franconia 
Notch Railroad. From Mt. Washing- 
ton branch of Boston, Concord & 
Montreal Railroad, in Bethlehem, to 
some point near Profile House, in 

1878, july 11. Whitefield & Jeffer- 
son Railroad. From some point on 
Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, 
in Dalton, or Whitefield, to some point 
in Randolph, with authority to extend 
a branch into Kilkenny or Berlin. 

1878, july 18. New Zealand River 
Railroad. From some point on Bos- 



ton, Concord & Montreal Railroad, in 
Carroll, up valley of the New Zealand 
river, near to the head-waters thereof. 
1879, july 1 8. Lancaster & Kil- 
kenny Railway Company. From point 

on Boston, Concord & Montreal Rail- 
road, near bridge on Israel's river, to 
forks of Garland brook, near base of 
Round mountain, in Kilkenny. 



Swift spread the tidings through the 

And messengers rode fast. 
To tell all gallant Englishmen, 

The hour was come at last. 
"When each must go aboard his ship. 

And fight upon the main. 
For country, faith and kindred. 

'Gainst the proud fleet of Spain. 
From every point and headland 

Along the southern shore. 
From beetling cliff, from shingly strand. 

Where waves of ocean roar. 
The beaeon fires shone bright. and clear 

O'er all the briny flood, 
And trailed far out info th- night 

Their crimson rays of biood. 
And eager hands were hastening down 

To many a hidden Day,* 
To man their boats, ami. put to sea, 

And join the coming fray. 
And all through merry England 

The loyal spirit burned. 
And country-folk and gentlemen 

Their faces sea-ward turned. 
In Plymouth Sound Lord Howard lay. 

With forty ships and more; 
But ere the light of morning shone 

lie *d left Mount Edgeeomb's shore. 
And waited ready lor, the foe 

Upon the billows green : — 
And southward oft he bent his eye. 

With eager glance anii keen. 

The day wore on; and now the sun 

Was tending toward the west. 
And shed a milder radiance 

Upon the surge's crest ; 
When, like a belt of snowy clouds 

That through the azure sweep. 
There rose a line of canvass white, 

Afar upon the dee]). 
Near and yet nearer came the sails, 

Filled by the breezes light; 
And Spain's Armada swept along, 

A fair and goodly sight. 
Th<Te galleons proud, of mighty size, 

Their masts upreared on high, 
And pennons gay. of every hue. 

Streamed bright athwart the sky. 

The cross, the holy emblem. 

Gleamed red on every sail. 
Destined to carry death to all 

Without the Roman pale. 
Upon the decks there flittered arms 

Of polished brass and steel ; 
And sparkled many a jewelled coat 

Of Leon and Castile. 
There Andalusian peasant-lads 

Dreamed of their distant, home; 
There priests of Italy and France 

Prayed for the cause of Rome. 
From Burgos and Vailadolid 

The young hidalgos came. 
And noble youths from Portugal. 

To seek the path of fame. 
All Spain had sent her ehivahy 

To swell the mighty host. 
That now bore on right gallantly 

Along the (.'Ornish coast. 
Ah ! Little thought that proud array 

Of coming woe or gloom ! 
But falsehood and an evil cause 

Deserve an evil doom ! 

The Lizard Head they left behind. 

And onward held their way. 
Until the dusky evening hour 

Found them on Plymouth Bay. 
While there they waited for the dawn, 

Throughout the summer night 
The English vessels glided forth. 

All eager for the fight. 
Their prows were sharp, their hulls were 

Their cordage stout and strong. 
And live score honest English lads 

Obeyed each boatswain's song. 
And now they sailed against the foe: — 

Lord Howard's flag was rirst; 
And from their decks, and port-holes 

The streams of red fire burst. 
The English cannon did their work. 

And pierced the Spanish oak, 
And soon upon the waters 'round 

Floated the sable smoke. 
And Drake and Howard sped along 

Amidst the ships of Spain." 
And oft the heavy galleons chased r 


But ever chased in vain. 
And hard the Spaniards plied their guns. 

And tired thick and fast; 
But high above the hostile deejks 

Thfir shot and bullets passed. 
The livelong day they fought amain. 

As right alone the brave. 
And many a gay and gallant youth 

Lay dead upon the wave. 

At night, new dangers threatened 

The fleet in foreign seas; — 
A rocky coast to leeward. 

Windward., a freshening breeze. 
Yet onward up the Channel. 

Despite the stormy wind. 
The galleons tossed, and tried to leave 

Their wily foes behind. 
Sidonia, Spain's high admiral; 

With care and danger spent. 
To gain the friendly shores of France. 

His anxious journey bent. 
For six long days he rode the deep. 

To English ships a prey. 
That darted in among his tleet, 

And sped unhurt away. 
But Howard saw his armament 

Grow daily more and more; 
For lords and youths of noble blood 

Came from the English shore. 
From Portland. Weymouth. Poole, and 

The sons of England streamed; 
With sloops and smacks and pinnaces 

The Channel waters teemed. 
And ever shots were riving thick 

The hostile fleets between. 
In troth, it was a gallant tight! 

The like was seldom seen! 

And now. at last, in Calais Roads 

The Spanish anchors fell. 
And safe the Lofty galleons rocked 

Upon the passing swell. 
But dark a< winter was the night, 

And swiftly flowed the tide. 
And hoarse and long, through spars and 

The western breezes sighed. 
And, save the night-watch, all were still 

And wrapt in slumbers deep. 
Perchance they dreamed of sunny Spain. 

And smiled within their sleep. 
Ah! Empty dreams! Ah! Boding 
smiles ! 

Xo more ye "11 see that land! 
For e'en while slumber "s on your brow. 

The foe is at vour hand ! 

Thp bells were striking mid-night's hour. 

When through the startled air. 
Right where the great Armada lay, 

There shot a sudden glare. 

And forked flames were glancing 

Amid the depth- of night. 
And shed upon the Spanish ships 

A wild and awful light. 
Then men awakened from their sleep 

In terror and dismay. 
And strove the cable-lines to cut. 

And sail from danger's way. 
And ever shouts of anguish 

And wild confusion rang 
Amidst the sounds of groaning masts, 

And chains and anchors" clang. 
Sidonia shot the signal-gun, 

The rire-ships to flee. 
And bade his stricken host set sail 

To gain the open sea. 
No need of order; all obeyed; 

For fear was in the wind. 
Yet some were wrecked; some fell a 

To English ships behind. 

At morn, the German ocean's surge 

Against the galleons beat; 
And onward sailed before the breeze 

The dreaded English fleet. 
There flew the privateers of Drake; 

There gallant- Hawkins came; 
There Frobisher and Seymour sped, 

And many a noble name. 
Then rose the din of battle. 

With cannon's mighty roar, 
And masts and spars were falling; 

And streamed the decks with gore. 
And helpless on tiie bloody waves 

The Spanish vessels lay, 
With leaking hulls, and shattered sides. 

And cordage shot away. 
In vain the Spaniards struggled 

Against a hapless fate; 
In vain they hurled against their foes 

The fury of their hate; 
In vain they prayed the holy saints 

To help them in distress; — 
For God above had willed, not theirs, 

But England's arms, to bless. 

And many sank beneath the wave; 

Few saw their distant home. 
So fell the haughty hopes of Spain; 

So fell the dreams of Kome. 
Throughout the land was wailing 

And lamentation sore 
For those that sailed away in pride, 

And came again no more. 
But every English heart rejoiced. 

In cottage, tower, and hall. 
And blessings heaped they on the men, 

Who wrought the Spaniards'' fall. 
So perish all. who would invade 

The country of the free! 
So perish all. who would uphold 

The Roman tyranny ! 





Among the early settlers in Canaan, 
no one was more distinguished tor 
good sense, for integrity, and for up- 
rightness in his relations to society, 
than Daniel Blaisdell. He, with his 
brother Parrott, had done service in 
the war of the Revolution, and being 
honorably discharged, about the year 
1780, in company with other soldiers, 
emigrated from Amesbury, Mass., to 
this town, and here made his home 
during all the years of his long and 
honorable life. He was eighteen years 
old at the time of his arrival, with but 
little knowledge of books., but possess- 
ing a constitution inured to toil and 
hardship. He came here, as did many 
others, because it was reported to be a 
goodly land where a man might make 
himself a home by the labor of his 
own hands. The soil was rich and 
fruitful, and only needed persevering 
labor to be made to bring forth abun- 
dantly. After looking about among the 
scattered settlers for a few days, he en- 
gaged to work for Joseph Flint for six 
months at six dollars per month. Mr. 
Flint had been a merchant in New- 
buryport. About a year previous to 
this time he came here from Hopkin- 
ton, and began to clear up the farm 
where George Davis now lives. The 
work was very laborious, and the mas- 
ter was hard and exacting upon all 
who fell under his control. Early and 
late they toiled, — daylight calling them 
to breakfast and candle-light to supper. 
He used to tell young Blaisdell that if 
he would remain in his service he 
would make a man of him, and having 
a large family of girls, he supposed 
their company to be sufficiently mag- 
netic to make the young man forget 
the hard labor to which he was sub- 
jected. He served his time faithfully 
and well, and then hired himself to 
Capt. Charles Walworth, who lived on 
the South Road. The Captain was 

strongly religious, having imported his 
Puritan sentiments with him from Con- 
necticut. He was a man of great 
natural kindness, and often gave his 
young friend good advice. While em- 
ployed with Capt. Walworth, some of 
the ungodly young people got up a 
ball, to which they invited Blaisdell. 
The Captain objected to his going, 
using all the arguments then in com- 
mon use, against the sinfulness of 
dancing, all of which failed to con- 
vince the young man. Then the Cap- 
tain told him if he would stay away 
from that wicked gathering of scoffers, 
he would, the next day, show him 
something that would be of great ad- 
vantage to him. Daniel staid away 
from the ball, but his heart was there all 
the evening, because little Sally Springer 
was to be there, and he had begun to 
believe that the angels had not yet all 
left the earth. The next day the Cap- 
tain took him down into a densely 
timbered region (the farm where Pres- 
cott Clark now. lives), and advised him 
to buy it, build a log house, get mar- 
ried, and make himself a home ; in 
two years he could pay for it with the 
crops. He bought one hundred acres, 
agreeing to pay Mr. Walworth $300 
therefor, and went to work clearing it up, 
and, it is said, the first crop of wheat 
paid for the land. He built him a log 
house, and then wooed and married 
the little girl (who was an angel to him) 
in January, 1 782, being scarcely twenty 
years old, and in due time they had 
sons and daughters born unto them — 
a house full. 

He worked hard and was rewarded 
with increase in various ways. He 
became a teacher ; he studied politics 
and was elected to various town 
offices ; he stored his mind with 
much practical legal knowledge, which 
he imparted freely to all his neighbors. 
He often acted as a justice, and his 



decisions were regarded as just and 

In twenty- one years eleven children 
were born to him. More than eighty 
years ago a tax was levied by the leg- 
islature which was very burdensome 
to some of the new towns. Caleb 
Seabury was said to have been the 
occasion of it. He was sent to Exe- 
ter as a representative. He thought 
he could signalize his term of office 
by assuring the legislature of the great 
wealth of Canaan. Its soil yielded 
spontaneously and enriched its people. 
The effect of this speech, or talk, was 
the passage of the law which bur- 
dened the people with taxes. The 
next year Mr. Blaisdell was sent to 
Exeter to ask for the modification of 
the law. He told them that it was 
true that the lands of Canaan were 
exceedingly rich and fruitful. It was 
like all other new soil upon which the 
timber forests had been reduced to 
ashes. If they would make wheat, 
and rye, and corn, legal tender for 
taxes, it would relieve the people 
greatly, but there was no money and 
no market for their commodities. 
Lands, cattle, hogs, ashes, grain, &c, 
were the circulating medium. Nearly 
all purchases were made by way of ex- 
change. In this way he pleaded with 
them, until they consented to modify 
the law, which greatly pleased the peo- 
ple, and made him more popular than 

Before Mr. Baldwin left town 
Mr. Blaisdell had passed through the 
mysterious process which men call "a 
change of heart, had joined the new 
Baptist church, and was ever afterward 
a consistent Baptist, and advocate for 
the stated preaching of the gospel." 
His manner of stating his opinions 
was somewhat diffuse, and like a small 
piece of butter on a large slice of 
bread, was a good deal spread out. 
He sometimes stated it thus : " We 
believe that the preaching of the gos- 
pel was instituted by the all-wise Gov- 
ernor of the universe, as a means 
whereby to communicate his special 
grace to a ruined world ; and we be- 

lieve, also, that a regular, peaceful gos- 
pel, tends to promote good order, and 
strengthen the bonds of society." He 
was prominent in all the services of 
his church, and also in all the connec- 
tions of his party. As a Christian, 
the Baptist church was his strong 
tower ; a belief in its tenets could alone 
save lost souls. His political faith was 
as fixed and unalterable as his religion. 
The .great Federal party had the im- 
mortal Washington for its head, and 
through that organization, alone, could 
our free institutions be perpetuated. 
It was the sacred privilege of Feder- 
alists to hate Thomas Jefferson and his 
Democracy, as it was the duty of Bap- 
tists to avoid the devil, and flee from 
the wrath to come. These two prin- 
ciples governed all his actions in 
religion and politics. His first appear- 
ance in public life was as a legislator 
at Exeter. His sturdy sense and fear- 
less expression of opinions attract- 
ed attention and won the applause 
of his party. He enjoyed the honors 
he was winning, and had vivid dreams 
of future greatness. Several years he 
was elected a senator, and five times 
he was elected councillor, and one 
term he served in Congress in 1809- 
11. While in Congress he was 
an active partisian, and opposed all 
measures involving the peace of the 
country. He was an aggressive poli- 
tician, and many times came in con- 
flict with the leaders of the war party. 
Being a rough debater, with few cour- 
tesies of speech, he received from 
John Randolph the sobriquet of 
"Northern Bear," a title which clung 
to him all the days of his life. 

I insert here two original letters, 
which have lain perdu for two genera- 
tions. The spelling is a little unusual, 
also the use of capitals, showing de- 
fects in his early education. These I 
have taken the liberty to correct. The 
first letter might, with propriety, be 
made to refer to scenes and events of 
more recent date, and both exhibit, in 
strong light, the unyielding nature 
of the man. 



w> Washington City. Jan. 28, 1810. 
Dear Sir :— 

I received yours 
only last evening, which I read* with 
pleasure. You complain of Democratic 
orators dealing out falsehood ; I thought 
you knew them better than this, tor if 1 
should find them dealing in any other 
commodity, 1 should think them insane, 
or that they had deserted their cause. 
This I apply to their leaders, and not to 
all who call themselves Republicans, 
for there are many among them who 
are well disposed men. and need only to 
be here one week, and hear the threats 
in Congress, to convince them that they 
have been misled. A leader among 
them, three days since, in Congress. 
made a war speech, and in reply" to a 
gentleman who had spoken against war, 
said: * Some gentlemen seem to regret 
the loss of blood and treasure more 
than submission to Great Britain. J. 
also, said he. regret the loss of the blood 
of some of our citizens, but if we go to 
war with England. Canada must be 
taken, and we very well know what 
men must be engaged in taking that 
country.' And many more such expres- 
sions, which would make the- blood Of 
our New England Republicans boil. I 
immediately went to him and required 
an explanation. He looked beat, and 
paddled ofi* a^ well as he could. 

Let nothing deter you from duty at. 
and before the second Tuesday of 
March. For the darkest time is ju^t be- 
fore day. 

I am sir. &c, 

To John Currier, Esq.** 

The next letter is interesting as 
showing the hostility of the Federal 
party to all measures for the defense 
of the nation at a time when Eng- 
land, supposing us to be weak, had 
become, dav by day, more arrogant in 
her demands. 

" Washington City, Feb. 27, 1810. 
Dear Sir : — 

I send you Mr. Epps's 
war speech, which seems to have origi- 
nated in a lit of madness, that the Sen- 
ate had seen fit to cut Mr. Mason's 
American navigation act of that part 
which they intended, in-tead of the Em- 
bargo or non-intercourse. It was sent 
back from the Senate to our House on 
Thursday, with only three out of thir- 
teen sections left. The two first to 
interdict the armed ships of England 
and France from our harbors. And the 

other, to repeal the non-intercourse act. 
To be sure, sir. it was a curiosity to see 
the embargo hands, with distorted feat- 
ures, rise in turn, and declare that it was 
treason against the party that had 
brought forward and supported com- 
mereial restrictions, to thus dispose of 
it without i substitute. Some of them 
said they would much rather the hall 
might fall in and crush them to death, 
than abandon the system in this way. 
And after a Sunday evening caucus at 
the president's, they (as it would seem) 
are prepared to plunge the nation into 
immediate war. for Eppes did not deny, 
but owned it must have that efi'ect. 
Seventy-four supported the measure, 
and forty-nine opposed it. If so many 
of their war measures, resolutions, and 
proclamations, had not evaporated, all 
must see that we must have a war with 
England soon, for France is only men- 
tioned to deceive the people. The pres- 
ident, on Saturday before the caucus, 
said openly, our affairs with France 
were in a fair way to be settled. Tell 
your demos if there is any dependence 
to be placed upon their leaders, they may 
fix their knapsacks to go to Canada. 
From your friend, 

To John Currier, Esq." 

At the expiration of his term, in 
i8n, Mr. Blaisdell returned home, 
firmly believing it to be a Christian 
virtue to oppose the coming war. 
Public meetings were called for the 
purpose of concentrating public opin- 
ion. A series of resolutions, longer 
than one of John Worth's prayers, and 
more tiresome, setting forth the iniqui- 
ties of the Democratic leaders, and 
calling upon good men to defeat 
them, were passed. The excitement 
ran fearfully high, and continued for 
years. Many worthy neighbors be- 
came estranged, and the lives of 
many of them were too short to out- 
live the ill-feeling engendered. 

And for more than twenty years he 
went in and out among his neighbors 
and friends, exercising great influence 
in their affairs, honored and respected 
by all, even by the Democrats, whom, 
as a party, he never ceased to de- 
nounce as the enemies of his country. 
The struggles of his early life had 
given hirn habits of industry, temper- 
ance, and economy. He built him 



a modest house on the farm since 
owned by James Doron, and re- 
adapted himself to the career of a 
farmer. His knowledge of law made 
him a safe counsellor. He was some- 
times called upon to carry business for 
his neighbors up to the courts. At 
one time he was solicited to carry a 
case to the court at Exeter. He 
started on horseback, as was the cus- 
tom then, and on his road was over- 
taken by Gen. Benjamin Pierce, who 
was traveling the same way. Person- 
ally they were friendly, but very hostile 
in politics. Blaisdell was a man of 
even temperament, not easily excited, 
and whom mere words could not of- 
fend ; but he never yielded a point 
once settled in his mind. Pierce, in 
temperament, was the reverse of Blais- 
dell, but he was equally tenacious of 
his opinions. Blaisdell believed only 
Federalism and baptism. Pierce be- 
lieved only in Democracy. They 
traveled together, discoursing pleas- 
antly as they rode until they ap- 
proached the subject of politics. 
Pierce quite earnestly denounced the 
Federalists as the enemies of the 
country, and as desiring to destroy the 
liberties of the people by consolidat- 
ing all power in the hands of a few 
families. Blaisdell very coolly replied 
by accusing the Democracy of dema- 
gogism, of debauching the virtue of 
the youth of the country, and like 
satan, of wishing to lead all things 
down to himself. This reply infuriated 
Pierce. He declared that he "would 
not ride with such a traitor any fur- 
ther," and jumping off his horse dared 
Blaisdell to take his chance of a 
" thrashing on the spot." Blaisdell 
declined to take the chances offered, 
not only because they were not favor- 
able to him, but because he saw noth- 
ing to fight about. He said some 
soothing words to the governor, who 
finally remounted his horse, and the 
two jogged on to Exeter as though 
nothing had occurred ; but they talked 
no more politics on that ride. 

There never was much poetry in his 
life. His habits of thought had alwavs 

been so earnest, so convincing to his 
reason, that every position he ever 
assumed, whether in morals, politics, 
or religion, became to him matters of 
fact. He never yielded a point to an 
opponent, because he never allowed 
himself to be in the wrong. It pleased 
him to see labor rewarded, and mean, 
tricky people punished. But young 
folks never loved him, because he 
never seemed to see them. He would 
speak of " the rising generation," with 
a look so far away, as if he never ex- 
pected to g"r;e place to them, or as if 
they were to drop from some distant 
sphere, and slowly approach to greet 
him as he disappeared. We used to 
look upon him as the embodiment of 
dignity and wisdom, a man with whom 
we could take no liberties. He was a 
willful man, who liked to have his way. 
Like most men in his day he ignored 
the presence of children. I do not 
remember of any boy who felt proud 
of his caresses or approving words. 
He never uttered them, and he very 
seldom saw any boys. His own life, 
from boyhood until long after 
he thought himself a man, was of hard 
toil, without schools or books, and all 
the way up hill. Did he never yearn 
for a word of encouragement? I often 
wonder, when the manner of these 
men's lives occurs to me, how they 
could always pass by the children, — the 
boys, who are coming right along to 
crowd them out of the way? 

In his day the old Judge was a 
great power in politics, and he had the 
faculty of keeping his party in office 
nearly all his life. He never thrust 
himself forward for office, nor would 
he allow more than one of his boys to 
be in office at the same time. This 
policy made him strong. He did not 
use his political influence to keep his 
family in office. In this respect he 
understood human nature better than 
some of the leaders of later years. 
The people respected his advice be- 
cause they knew him to be unselfish. 
* * * It was more than fifty years 
ago, just before March election, there 
had been a sly caucus at Cobb's tav- 



em, in which Wesley Burpee, Daniel 
Pattee, William Campbell, with a few 
others, figured, and Elijah Blaisdell 
had been nominated for representa- 
tive. It was intended for a surprise, 
and only such as were friendly to 
Elijah were present. Old Bill Wood 
and Levi Wilson had been there after 
their daily rum ; going home, about 
sunset, the Judge hailed them for '"the 
news up to the street." *'0, nothin 
much," replies Lmcle Bill, " only we 
had a caukis, and sot up 'Lijah for 
representative." " What 1" thundered 
the old Judge, " 'Lige Blaisdell fur 
rep ! impossible ! But who 's done 
it? He 'aint fit fer it, more'n my old 
hoss, and I tell you he shan't have it." 
And he did n't get it. The Judge 
mounted his old horse, and rode up to 
Wallace's store, where a crowd had 
begun to gather. He dismounted, 
and, after saluting them, inquired if 
any thing of importance had trans- 
pired. They confirmed his first intel- 
ligence, with more particulars. Then 
he smoothed his brow and replied, 
" men, this will never do ; because I 
was fit to hold office, it don't follow 
that all the Blaisdells are fit for it, and 
I ought to be pretty well acquainted 
with them all. And then the way 
this nomination has been made is un- 
fair. A man that plays tricks, even in 
politics, aint worthy of your votes. 
We must get together, Saturday night, 
at this store, and talk it all over, and 
depend upon it, we '11 have a good 
man nominated." The other Blais- 
dell staid at home that year. That 
Saturday night was memorable in the 
annals of Canaan Street. There was 
a large gathering, and they drank rum 
freely, every body did, except this 
matter-of-fact old judge. Asahel Jones, 
who belonged to the other party, ap- 
peared among them. He was accused 
of being a spy, and he was ordered to 
prepare for instant death. They se- 
cured him, placed a rope about his 
neck and shoulders, and drew him up 
to a beam, in ihe store, several times, 
letting him down hard. Asahel was 
badly hurt, and worse frightened, and 

begged hard for a reprieve. Finally 
he was permitted to start for home. 
He went off over the hill, crying mur- 
der ! help ! On the road, the cold air 
began to freeze the rum out of his 
skin, and he was sorely chilled. He 
grew mad as he thought how he had 
been assaulted and battered by those 
fellows on the street, no better than he. 
Next morning he presented him- 
self before his friend, Elijah Blais- 
dell, and complained of his assailants, 
three of whom were arrested and 
made to pay S20 for the wicked sport 
they had enjoyed. After the election 
of General Jackson, in 1S2S, Elijah 
became a Democrat. The old judge 
was much annoyed at his son's apos- 
tacy from his own faith, but he pre- 
tended to be greatly pleased, " because, 
said he, now we shall know where to 
find him all the time." 

Mr. Blaisdell became one of the 
largest owners of lands in Canaan. 
When the proprietors dissolved their 
organization, he, with Joseph Dustin, 
purchased all the ungranted lands in 
the town. These included swamp 
lands, gores, and corners which the 
surveys had failed to connect. His 
children, as they grew up, married and 
settled in town, and the third genera- 
tion numbered sixty-nine persons. It 
is interesting to look at some of these 
families, and compare their numbers 
with those of the present time. Of 
his eleven sons and daughters, Elijah, 
the lawyer, had twelve children ; James, 
the sheriff, seven ; Daniel, the musician, 
fifteen ; William, the painter, seven ; 
Joshua, the sheriff, five ; Parrott, the 
farmer, nine ; Jacob, the doctor, none ; 
Jonathan, the trader, two ; Sally, wife 
of Joseph Dustin, five ; Rhoda, third 
wife to Eben Clark, two ; Timothy, the 
broker, five. These families, for years, 
all resided in one neighborhood, and 
it was a common remark that the old 
folks could visit all their numerous off- 
spring in one day. The name was 
once nearly as common as blackberries 
(Barney at E. C), but it has disap- 
peared from our records, or is only 
found in the grave-yards. Our worthy 



friend and neighbor, Mrs. Joseph Dus- 
tin, now in her seventy-ninth year, is 
the only representative among us of 
that numerous family. 

I have thought this man's life worth 
relating, inasmuch as it illustrates the 
upward growth of a poor boy, without 
education, who, ere he was twenty 
years old, burdened himself with a 
family, and then, by a life of earnest 
industry and integrity seldom equaled, 
rose, by successive gradations, until he 
became the patriarch of the town, and 

was held in respect and honor through- 
out the state. After a toilsome and 
thoughtful life of seventy-one years 
he passed away, and was buried in 
yonder grave-yard. His wife survived 
him about five years. They traveled 
together over the road upon which 
they started in their youth, more than 
ten lustrums of years. The legend that 
encircles his head-stone is an affection- 
ate tribute to his virtues. " The just 
shall be held in everlasting remem- 



A gloomy 

May sky was over the 
earth when I first saw Exeter — Exeter, 
the ancient Squamscot, long the politi- 
cal rival of Portsmouth, for many 
years the capital of the state, the seat 
of a famous school, and rich with his- 
toric associations and memories of 
great men. Squamscot river was dull 
and rough, the leaves had not yet 
clothed the trees with their habit of 
green, a slight, disagreeable drizzle of 
rain made it dismal overhead and nasty 
under foot ; but the attractions of the 
ancient borough could not be hid even 
under a glowering sky. As I rode 
to the American House, from the sta- 
tion of the Boston and Maine Railroad, 
I could not help remarking the beauti- 
ful situation of the viliage, the metro- 
politan appearance of its business 
blocks, its wide streets, its many ele- 
gant private residences, and its noble 
old elms, many of which shook their 
patriarchal limbs in the breezes that 
tanned the cheeks of heroes who sailed 
with Pepperell, to Louisburg, or shook 
the sails of Revolutionary privateers 
that sailed from Exeter wharves to 
meet the red cross of Great Britain. 

The place is a busy one. The falls 
of Squamscot river furnish a vast water 
power that is well improved. There 

are cotton factories and machine shops. 
Hard-waie, notions, paper, furniture, 
carriages, gas, tin, boots and shoes, 
are made here ; and at either end 
of the town great tanneries, with pict- 
uresque but .rather unfragrant heaps 
of hemlock bark stacked in the broad 
yards, tell their own story of labor and 
revenue to the utilitarian, and to the 
sentimentalist sing mournful requiems 
of departed forests, of rock-ribbed 
hills laid bare, and of lonely roads 
where once the graceful, fadeless, foli- 
age of the evergreen monarchs made 
cool shade in summer sun, and warm 
protection from winter winds. 

But despite the industry and demo- 
cratic proclivities of its people, Exeter 
is very aristocratic. The whole air 
breathes of a courtly atmosphere, even 
when distant from the court house. 
The houses seem to have thrust them- 
selves back in proud dignity from *:he 
street, placing broad lawns between, or 
else they stare down upon the visitor 
with the haughty, overbearing aspect 
of an ancient dowager. Doubtless 
the old town is not unconscious of its 
past worth and dignity, or of its pres- 
ent wealth and prosperity, so we can 
forgive it much of its patrician man- 
ners. It is a beautiful, attractive, re- 



fined place, with an " infinite variety" 
as great as the star-eyed Egyptian's 
could have been. The modern and 
the antique are so combined that there 
is nothing stale about the village, nor 
does it cloy the appetite it feeds. 

While we are partaking of the excel- 
lent cheer at the American House, let 
us take a backward glance at Exeter, 
and ascertain what manner of men set- 
tled the town, part of which is so new 
and garish that it can not be older 
than yesterday, part of which is quaint 
and .drowsy, gray and moss-covered 
with age that tells of pre-Revolutiona- 
ry times. 

We learn that at the time the great 
struggle was beginning in England be- 
tween kings and commons, during the 
time of John Hampden and Lord 
Strafford, there was also trouble in 
Massachusetts. It was the year 1638. 
The Antinomian controversy, under the 
leadership of Anne Hutchinson, after 
a bitter and violent contest, had been 
brought to a termination. The lead- 
ers of the party, by sentence of the 
General Court, were banished from the 
colony. Among these was the Rev. 
John Wheelrightj a man of rare talents 
in any age, who led a large body of 
his disciples to the shores of Squam- 
scot river, where they purchased a title 
of land from the Indians, and proceed- 
ed to erect a settlement. Trie sur- 
rounding country was then an unbrok- 
en wilderness. Portsmouth and Dover 
on the Piscataqua were the only settle- 
ments within our state. Indians were 
numerous on every side. On the 
west, at Pcnacook, the royal Passa- 
conaway swayed the scepter : on the 
south, where Lowell now stands, Run- 
nawit ruled the tribe of Pawtuckets ; 
and Wehanownowit was sachem of the 
Squamscots. And here in the dark 
and gloomy forest, in silence unbroken 
save by the savage waruhoop, the cry 
of wild beasts, or the solemn roar of 
the ocean, they made their earthly 
home, and laid the foundations of a 
government insuring to all the people 
the largest civil and religious liberty. 

** Amidst the storm they sang. 

And the stars heard and the sea; 
And the sounding aisles of the dim woods 

To the anthem of the free. 
The ocean eagle soared 

From his nest by the white waves foam. 
And the rocking pines of the forest 
roared : 

This was their welcome home."' 

The second church organized in 
New Hampshire was the Congrega- 
tional church at Exeter, in the autumn 
of 163S, eighteen years subsequent to 
the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at 
Plymouth, and fifteen years after the 
first settlement of the state. Dover 
and Portsmouth were already flourish- 
ing colonies. In the former place a 
meeting-house was erected as early as 
1633. an( 3 William Leverich, a "worthy 
and able puritan clergyman," was en- 
gaged as minister. But a church was 
not formed there till 1639, ar, d no pas- 
tor was regularly settled till 1642. The 
first pastor installed at Portsmouth 
was in the year 1639. but no minister 
was settled in that place till late in 
1 67 1. The only towns in the prov- 
ince in which ministers had been set- 
tled, previous to 1670, a whole half 
century from the landing of the Pil- 
grims, were Hampton, Exeter, and 
Dover. The organization of the church 
at Hampton occurred in the summer 
of the same year with that of Exeter. 

Exeter played a great part in the 
revolution. A place of some eighteen 
hundred inhabitants at that time, she 
sent the noblest and best of her sons 
to fight for the cause of freedom. In 
the halls of legislation, too, many of 
her citizens played a part second to 
none. The court and assembly met 
there through the Revolution, and in 
the trying years of 1775 and 1777 he- 
roic scenes were there displayed. Her 
ship-yards were full of activity and 
bustle, and the noted and gallant sail- 
ors of Exeter vied with those of Ports- 
mouth in deeds of enterprise and dar- 

In 1789 Washington visited the 
place, and this is what he says of it : 
"This is considered the second town 



in New Hampshire, and stands at the 
head of the tide water of the Piscata- 
qua river, but ships of three hundred 
and four hundred tons are built at it. 
Above (but in the same town) are 
considerable falls, which supply several 
grist mills, two oil mills, a slitting mill, 
and a snutT mill. It is a place of some 
consequence, but does not contain 
more than one thousand inhabitants. 
A jealousy subsists between this town, 
where the legislature alternately sits, 
and Portsmouth, which, had I known 
it in time, would have made it neces- 
sary to have accepted an invitation to 
a public dinner ; but my arrangements 
having been otherwise made, I could 

Probably a greater number of dis- 
tinguished men have been in Exeter 
than in any other town in the state, 
Portsmouth and Hanover not except- 
ed: Its prominence, as the seat oi leg- 
islative and executive power, drew 
celebrities there at the time of the 
Revolution, and for several subsequent 
years. Latterly, the fame of its insti- 
tution of learning, Phillips' Exeter 
Academy, has called the best brains of 
the land to the village on the Squam- 
scot. They have gathered there, states- 
men, like Webster and Cass; schol- 
ars, like Everett, Sparks and Bancroft ; 
lawyers, like Hale and Dix, and scores 
of other brilliant names, to drink of 
the well of knowledge, and have gone 
forth again to spread the waters from 
bench and bar and pulpit, throughout 
the nation. 

And Exeter has had great men of 
her own. There is a great deal in 
blood, and there was good blood 
among the early settlers. Exeter has 
furnished her full share of public 
worthies. Governors, senators, attor- 
ney-generals, judges, members of cab- 
inets, without number, have had their 
birth-place and residence in this vil- 
lage by the Squamscot. The intelli- 
gence and morals of her people, and 
the genius of her sons have been among 
the brightest ornaments of the Gran- 
ite State. 

Exeter is an old family town. One 
hundred years ago it was, as it is to- 
day, the abode of a dozen wealthy and 
aristocratic, families. These owned ex- 
tensive possessions, lived in stately 
mansions, and their wealth was as abun- 
dant as their patriotism was approved. 
Foremost among these families were 
the Gilmans. Through all the colonial 
period they were a notable and influ- 
ential race. Members of the family 
held civil office from the time our colo- 
ny became a royal province up to 
within the memory of men now living. 
Edward Oilman, the ancestor of all the 
Gilmans of this state, came into New 
Hampshire soon after its first settle- 
ment, and among his descendants 
have been men in every generation, 
who have done honor to their coun- 
try, and whom tbis country has de- 
lighted to honor. Hon. John Oilman, 
the son of the preceding, was one of 
the councillors named in President 
Cutts' commission in 1679. He died 
in 1708. His son, Capt. Nicholas 
Oilman, was an officer of skill and de- 
cision during the Indian wars of Queen 
Anne's reign, was a friend of Col. Win- 
throp Hilton, and had command of a 
detachment that marched against the 
savages to revenge the death of that 
lamented officer in 1710. Hon. Peter 
Oilman was a royal councillor under 
John Went worth, and was the first to 
till the office of brigadier-general in 
New Hampshire. Col. Daniel Gilman 
was one of the commissioners from 
New Hampshire, stationed at Albany, 
in 1756, to take care of the provisions 
furnished by the province for our 
troops quartered at Ticonderoga. He 
was also the colonel of the Fourth 
New Hampshire regiment of militia 
for many years. He was a grantee of 
the town of Gilmanton, and two of his 
sons settled there. 

Nicholas Gilman, his oldest son, was 
born Oct. 21, 1731. The greater part 
of his life was passed at Exeter. He 
inherited his father's patrician rank, 
and early became a man of influence 
in his native village. In 1752 he pur- 
chased of William Ladd, Esq., the large 



mansion-house that had been built by 
Nathaniel, and moved into it with the 
wife he had recently married, Miss 
Ann, daughter of Rev. John Taylor, 
of Milton, a descendant of one of the 
Pilgrim fathers.* The new mistress 
of the Oilman house, as it was there- 
after termed, was a woman of large 
culture, strong mind, and great beauty 
of person. Her first child, who was 
born just a year after her marriage 
lacking two days, was named for her 
father, a patronymic that was famous 
in New Hampshire in after years. 
The early years of marriage were 
somewhat disturbed by the rumors of 
war, that blew fateful and threatening 
from the frontiers, and his second son, 
who bore his own name, was an infant 
of scarcely two months, when Nicholas 
Gilman marched, as lieutenant, under 
his uncle, Peter, to join in the opera- 
tions around Lake George, in 1755. 

Prior to the Revolution he held 
many important civil and military ap- 
pointments under the government of 
the magnificent Wentworths. Between 
him and the last royal governor, the 
cultivated and enterprising Sir John, 
there was a strong personal friendship. 
When the storm of the Revolution 
came, he threw ail of his influence 
into the patriot cause ; but this did not 
antagonize him with the governor, who 
declared that when the rebellion 
should be put down, Col. Gilman 
should be spared all punishment. No 
other man shared his friendship to 
such a degree, save Maj. Benjamin 
Thompson, who was afterward Count 
Rum ford. 

Nicholas Gilman was one of the 
great men of New Hampshire during 
the Revolutionary period. He had 
wealth, large ability, and a great name, 
and he threw them all into the scale 
for the patriot cause. Nor did he 
shirk the toils incumbent on the pat- 
riot ot '76. He won, it is true, no 
glory in the field of carnage. His was 
not the genius of a man of war, but 

* Miss Ann Taylor was a lineal descendant of 
Mary ('hilton, who, according to tradition, was 
the rjrat woman of the Pilgrims to set her toot on 
Plymouth Kock. 

that of a man of peace. He was 
needed at home, and the services of 
Meshech Weare himself could have 
been better dispensed with than those 
of Col. Gilman. From 1775 to 1782 
he was Treasurer of the state of New 
Hampshire. Beside this, he was Con- 
tinental Loan Officer, one of the chief 
members of the committee of safety, 
and councilor of the state from 1777 
to the clay of his death. His relation, 
therefore, to the financial affairs of New 
Hampshire, resembled much that of 
Robert Morris to those of the nation. 
He was an active and accomplished 
man of business, and his prudence 
and skill in finance were remarkable. 
New Hampshire had no abler servant 
in the field, at home or abroad, than 
Col. Gilman. and perhaps it is not say- 
ing too much to state that he furnished 
a fourth part of the brains of New 
Hampshire in the Revolution, the 
other members of the quartette being 
Meshech Weare, Samuel Livermore, 
and Josiah Bartlett. Moreover, his 
own personal strength and the influ- 
ence of his able sons and numerous 
friends, furnished a firm support to the 
patriot cause in the eastern part of the 
state, which, if such powerful influence 
had been lacking, would probably have 
been overawed by the authority of the 

Col. Gilman survived the treaty of 
peace but one year. He died in the 
prime of life, April 7, 1783. His wife 
preceded him to the grave by a few 
days, dying March 17, 1783. Their 
tombs are still visible, in the old cem- 
etery of Exeter. They were the 
parents of three sons. John Taylor, 
Nicholas, and Nathaniel Gilman, all 
prominent men of New Hampshire in 
their day. 

The mansion occupied by this dis- 
tinguished worthy from the time of his 
marriage to that of his death, is still 
standing on Water street. It occupies 
a slight eminence, overlooking the 
street and the river, with the front fac- 
ing the south-east. The old house 
has been kept in pretty good repair, 
and has never been altered nor in any 



way modernized. It stands out alone in 
the landscape, with an air of venerable 
dignity, its huge chimneys rising above 
the tali trees, and its windows looking 
down upon the street and over the 
water, where many a time they must 
have seen pageants and sights worth 
looking upon. In its one hundred 
and fifty years of life, it must have 
seen much that was interesting in the 
history of Exeter. 

We walked up the broad pathway 
to its portal in the gloom of the fol- 
lowing morning. The storm was over, 
but the sky was still lowering, and' the 
mists were rolling up thick and heavy 
from the Squamscot. The old house 
looked stern and uninviting, and I ex- 
perienced a sensation of awe as I stood 
under its lofty front, a feeling akin to 
that I had felt when in the evening 
shadows I walked up to the portico ot 
Monticello, or when in the dull Novem- 
ber morning I first saw the roof of 
Mount Vernon. It may be that the 
august memories that invested it might 
have affected me ; the solemn mood of 
the weather may have depressed me ; 
or the old house indeed might have 
been in one of its inhospitable moods. 
Of course houses have their moods as 
well as people. 

The Gil man mansion was built some- 
where near the year 1 740, and is there- 
fore of an age contemporary with the 
Mount Vernon mansion, the Walker 
house at Concord, and the Sparhawk 
mansion at Kittery. It is only a few 
years older than the Gov. Wentworth 
house at Little Harbor, and but a year 
or two younger than the Meshech 
Weare house at Hampton Falls. It is 
a good specimen of the domestic style 
which prevailed in the colonies before 
the Revolution. Built of brick covered 
with wood, three stories in height, with 
dormer windows in its upper story, 
gambrel-roofed, and its walls a yellow 
dun color, its air of antiquity is unmis- 
takable, and at the same time it pleases 
the eye with its varied charms. It 
stands well in from the street, with a 
yard andshrubbery in front. " You have 
a goodly house here, and a sightly," 

said Judge Livermore to his friend 
Oilman, while stopping with him once 
during the Revolution ; and Judge Liv- 
ermore said rightly. 

The interior of the house is as worthy 
of inspection as the outside promises. 
There are sixteen rooms in all, exclusive 
of closets, and so forth. The principal 
apartments in the mansion are the hall, 
the parlor, and the room on the south- 
west corner used by the Gilmans for an 
office. The house is built all of hard 
wood, and the polished oaken floor of 
the hall shines like a mirror. It is a 
broad, generous room, with more than 
one reminder of past greatness in its 
wainscoted walls, its staircase railed in 
with the curiously wrought balusters 
which the taste of the times required. 
The parlor is a large room, some 
longer than it is wide. It is not very 
lofty, being rather low posted as are all 
the rooms on the first floor, those in the 
second story being higher. There are 
three windows looking out to the south. 
These windows have deep embrasures 
and seats, and folding shutters. The 
"Squire's Room," as it is called, is some 
eighteen by twenty feet, well-lighted, 
cheerful and cosy. His presence seems 
to haunt it, and it looks to-day very 
much as it must have looked the last 
time he set his foot in it, irrespective 
of furniture. To name the great and 
famous men who have sat within those 
walls, would exhaust no iittle time. 
The wisest, and bravest, and best of the 
sons of New Hampshire have gathered 
there at times, in private confab, in 
social converse, and to discuss affairs of 
state. Jean Paul Richter has declared — 
'* no thought is lost." If this be true, 
how affluent of mirth, wit and elo- 
quence that historic room must be. 

The chambers are of good size and 
noble prospect. The best chamber is 
finished entirely with wainscot work, 
ceiling and all, and there was never any 
plastering in the room. From its win- 
dows one gets fine and extensive views 
of the surrounding country. 

As we came out of the house, the 
sun broke out in its glory from the cloud 
of mist. What a sudden transforma- 

3 2 


tion underwent the old house then ! 
As the sunshine played like a halo 
over it, the homestead had the double 
charm of being both historic and 
beautiful. To see it as I did on that 
May morning, its gray walls rising amid 
the green trees, the sunlight breaking 
through the foliage and falling in 
patches on its front, and on the shady 
masses of shrubbery ; and to think of 
the noble men and the fair women who 
have passed beneath its doorways, of 
the scenes it has witnessed of joy and 
of sorrow, of the varied life it has 
known and shared, all crowding upon 
the sight and sinking deep into the 
heart, its memory will be enduring. 

At the rear extends the eli and shed, 
and in former times a large barn stood 
back of them. It was taken down 
only a few years ago. An old coach, 
cumbrous and large, with seats for six, 
that was used by Gov. John Taylor Gil- 
man, and possibly by Col. Nicholas, was 
once sheltered here, and is still remem- 
bered by the " oldest inhabitant." 
The last known of the carriage, was 
in the possession of Hon. John Broad- 
head, member of congress. A big 
elm, twenty leet in circumference, 
whose limbs sheltered the old house in 
the time of the Revolution, was cut 
down several years ago. From the 
root has grown a shoot that is now a 
tall and thrifty tree. 

After the death of Nicholas Gilman, 
the old house became the property of 
his^ldest son, John Taylor Gilman, 
who resided in it until his marriage 
with his third wife. John Taylor was the 
most prominent of the three brothers. 
He was born Dec. 19, 1753. His 
early education was scant, being no 
more than what the common schools 
of Exeter afforded at that time. At 
an early age he became interested in 
ship building, an industry that was 
then actively engaged in by many of 
the citizens of Exeter. The elder 

Gilman was a wealthy and enterprising 
man, owner of a large estate and a 
store. In connection with navigation, 
young Gilman now and then busied 
himself with agriculture and trade. 

One of the schoolmates of John Tay- 
lor Gilman was Miss Deborah Folsom. 
She was the daughter of Gen. Nathaniel 
Folsom, the rival of Gen. Stark, and a 
famous Revolutionary worthy. Born 
the same year that Gilman was. Miss 
Folsom was, during the few years prior 
to the revolution, the reputed belle of 
Exeter. The two families were inti- 
mate, John Taylor soon became an an- 
nounced suitor, and a few months be- 
fore that affair at Concord Bridge, 
"Where the embattled formers stood 
and fired the shot heard round the 
world,' 1 they were married. When the 
revolution broke out. John Taylor 
Gilman was only twenty- two years old. 

On the morning of April 20, 1775, 
at day-break, the news arrived at 
Exeter of the battle at Concord. With 
all the alacrity and ardor o f a, youthful 
patriot, the young husband gathered a 
company and marched for Cambridge, 
which place he reached at noon of the 
next day. Mr. Gilman, however, did 
little military service. He was needed 
at home. He acted as commissary in 
supplying the three regiments of the 
State, at Cambridge. In 1779, ne was 
elected a member of the N. H. legis- 
lature, and subsequently served upon 
the committee of safety. In 1 7S0 he 
was the sole delegate from New Hamp- 
shire to attend the convention at Hart- 
ford. He was absent six weeks from 
home, riding on horseback and paying 
his own expenses, as there was not 
sufficient money in the State treasury 
to defray them. This period was 
known as the " dark days." The crops 
of the farmers had been unfavorable, 
and destitution and distress pervaded 
the army. There was no money nor 
credit in either department. 



.» i' 



HH,£.,7tMtXAti .'■ r 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

NOVEMBER, 1882. 

No. 2. 



It is not yet time to sum up the life 
of William E. Chandler. When that 
time shall come, an abler, more ex- 
perienced hand shall carefully trace 
the interesting details of a public ca- 
reer intricately woven with the politi- 
cal history of his country. Although 
now comprising in himself more than 
his numerical proportion of the wis- 
dom and sagacity of the President's 
Cabinet, he is still young, active, earn- 
est, and ambitious, and far from the 
sear and yellow leaf. Mr. Chandler is 
well known personally to the people 
of New Hampshire, many of whom 
might question our priority of right to 
discuss him at all, and we shall assume 
to say nothing new of him. But he 
belongs to the whole people, and our 
apology for this hasty sketch of one of 
New Hampshire's most eminent sons, 
is to make the present a vantage- 
ground only, whereon, in the crude 
outlines of a splendid past, may be 
caught some reflection of the brilliancy 
of future promise. To be the fore- 
most politician of his state, in a state 
so closely and hotly contested that 
every good citizen is to some extent a 
politician, is no cheap encomium. We 
mean politician in the best and true 
sense of the term. Writing in the 
smoke of individual prejudices, whilst 
yet the smart of his partisan conquests 
is still felt, and personal pique and dis- 
appointment are rife at his successes, 

and whilst yet burning jealousies ran- 
kle, — to speak of him now fully and 
frankly as it is in our heart to do, might 
be premature, and might be impolitic 
toward him as well as toward others. 
To narrate the thrilling history of his 
eventful public career, with the ade- 
quate reasons for his positive courses 
.and pronounced views, through a life 
of the most unswerving independence 
and indefatigable zeal, might be to in- 
vite invidious discrimination, to awaken 
unpleasant comparisons, and to arouse 
unprofitable discussion of important 
issues hardly yet cold enough in the 
interest of living men for an unpreju- 
diced autopsy. It might, too, open 
the writer to the charge of over- 

But William E. Chandler is indeed a 
great man ; and why should it not be 
said? He is a man in whom we 
should all take pride, and of whom we 
should speak as becomes his real worth 
to his native state, where he is not 
without honor. He is a man of won- 
derful readiness of mind, of remarka- 
ble ability, and, above all else, of un- 
doubted integrity. His political op- 
ponents will tell you that. He says 
in the fewest words possible what he 
has to say, and he says what he means, 
and means what he says, — you may re- 
ly upon it. His word is to him a 
bond. This is one great reason why 
those who know him best love him 



best. This is one great reason why he 
is so trusted a leader in his country, so 
influential a citizen in his own state, 
and courted, and quoted, and counted 
upon everywhere that sound principle 
is at stake. Integrity is a crown jewel. 
Honesty is the highest and noblest 
element of human character, — honesty 
of purpose and action, purity of 
thought and mind, square dealing 
with one's fellow-men, a scrupulous 
uprightness in all the thousand-and- 
one petty details of a busy life, and a 
strict and constant adherence to truth 
and. rectitude, whether in public or 
private. But in him honesty is set off 
by and has the advantage of an intel- 
lect that rises at times almost to the 
level of genius, for as precocious lad 
at school, as astute lawyer at the bar, 
or as commanding statesman in the 
clustered head of the present national 
administration, William E. Chandler 
has developed and displayed an intui- 
tive keenness of discernment, a re- 
markable clearness of judgment, a con- 
ciseness of statement, and an almost 
supernatural aptitude for leadership, 
that have at once pressed him into the 
front ranks of those with whom he has 
been associated. 

With unflinching integrity and sur- 
passing ability, Mr. Chandler has com- 
bined the very best practical sense 
and a thorough knowledge of human 
nature in all its different phases. His 
circle of acquaintances is very exten- 
sive ; he has friends in every clime, 
and knows more men personally, prob- 
ably, than any other man in America. 
When New Hampshire shall some day 
be asked, as she should be asked, and 
as we predict she will be asked, to 
present another name for the presi- 
dency of the United States, the name 
of William E. Chandler will be first to 
spring into expression as an available 
and worthy candidate, and will find 
almost unanimous echo in the hearts 
and sentiments of the Republican ma- 
jority of his state. 

Chandler has made mistakes. Who 
has not? But they did not crush him, 
nor subdue his enthusiasm. He rose 

triumphant above them, and profited 
by their experience. He has faults. 
Who has not ? But he wears them all 
upon his sleeve. His private charac- 
ter is unassailable and above reproach. 
There is no shade of suspicion upon 
the sterling qualities of his high man- 
hood, and the detractors of his public 
career have been few, and quickly dis- 
credited without even the pretence of 

He is a contentious man, — conten- 
tious for what he believes to be the 
right. If you have him with you, he 
is a host in himself; but if he be ar- 
rayed against your cause, he is sure to 
be the central figure of the opposition, 
and you must beware of his bold, rap- 
id advances. Such is the vehemence 
of his impulsive nature and the ardor 
of his temperament that he is a parti- 
san to any cause that wins his sympa- 
thy, but no man is quicker to bury the 
hatchet, and to forgive and forget, 
when the contest is over. He is a 
splendid fighter, but is supreme at 

His characteristic frankness is a 
charm that contributes more than a 
little to his personal popularity. He 
has a directness of purpose and a firm- 
ness of execution that does not mis- 
lead you as to his objects. He is not 
politic ; he never strove to bask in the 
sunshine of popular favor ; he is not 
easily swayed by the clamor of a 
crowd ; but has kept steadily on in 
the straight path of his own convic- 
tions of duty. More than once he has 
seemed to stand in his own light, and 
more than once the people have re- 
turned to his leadership, after wander- 
ing from what he had defined to be 
the right course. He is no mere 
place-hunter. Whenever he has held 
offices it was the office that sought 
the man. He never was enamored of 
sounding titles and official positions, 
and has held only few, and solicited 
none. As a public man only, his wide- 
reaching influence has been felt, and 
his present elevation was attained by 
force of sheer ability, and by acknowl- 
edged integrity, rather than by the 



regular course of promotion, round 
by round up the ladder of political 

His indefatigable attention to detail 
is an important secret of his success 
in life. We saw him, not long ago, in 
the navy yard at Portsmouth, inspect- 
ing personally every gun, and timber, 
and rope, — everything there however in- 
significant it might seem. — giving or- 
ders as he went along, dictating memo- 
randa, mastering in his own powerful 
mind the whole situation. With a mem- 
ory skilfully attuned to the accurate 
recollection of a million details, and yet 
a mind fitted for the grandest and most 
comprehensive command, we have in 
him a secretary who will be an honor 
and a credit to the whole country. The 
people of New Hampshire may well 
sound his praises, but they do not over- 
estimate his worth and importance in 
the very responsible position which he 
has recently been called to nil at the 
head of the United States Navy. He 
has already done, and is doing, an im- 
mense amount of valuable hard work 
that makes no public showing, and the 
results of which are unselfishly put 
into the common fund, to be credited 
to the faithfulness and patience of all 
with whom he is associated in the ex- 
ecutive branch of the general govern- 

He is not a big man physically. 
Nature did not endow him with an 
especially handsome form and face, 
but he has a lithe, well-proportioned 
figure, a cheerful countenance, and a 
bright, pleasing manner. His step is 
quick and elastic, and he has a fasci- 
nating self-assurance that cheers on his 
comrades, and entitles him to the re- 
spect of his opponents. When a 
question is settled, he drops it. He is 
impatient of annoyance, and he disen- 
gages himself almost abruptly, but 
without giving offence. He is a ner- 
vous man, and does not sit still long, 
but he has an easy way of making 
himself at home with you. Hundreds 
of letters and applications, and matters 
weighty and petty, come to his atten- 

tion daily, but he accomplishes an im- 
mense amount of work with an ease 
and alacrity that are truly wonderful. 
He is brilliant in conversation, an ele- 
gant and yet unassuming entertainer. 
His hospitality is unlimited, and he is 
a great lover of good society, which 
he frequents, and where he is always 
welcomed. He always has something 
fresh and original to say, something 
important to impart, and there is noth- 
ing of the cynic about him. He is a 
man upon whom there is no discount, 
a man to tie to, a good friend. There 
is not a, lazy particle in his constitu- 
tion, nor a mean streak in his whole 
make-up. He has a big, impulsive 
heart, as many a poor man knows. 
There is nothing imposing about him, 
yet he has the faculty of winning the 
firmest friendships, and his friends 
hold him in the highest admiration. 
If you met him a stranger, you would 
at once pick him out as a great man, 
and you would make no mistake in so 
doing. His forte is in the organization 
and marshalling cf men, but he is de- 
votedly attached to his family, and his 
indulgence therein knows no bounds. 
Amidst all the bustle of public honor, 
he never once forgot his own individ- 
uality and the tender ties of relation- 
ship that bind him to the hearts of 
those who love him dearly. No re- 
nown however grand could glamour 
his eyes to the worth of old friend- 
ships, and the pleasure of old associa- 
tions and attachments at home. Upon 
his arrival in Concord, his first visit is 
always to his mother. If you knew 
him a poor boy, you need not fear to 
recognize him now, no matter whether 
you be rich or poor, high or low. He 
is an aristocrat of the true type, and 
does not judge men altogether by 
their clothes and purses. 

He is thoroughly identified with all the 
best interests of his city and state, and 
his forward public spirit has prompted 
him to favor every enterprise for our 
advantage and advancement. Should 
he serve the nation with half the zeal 
he has served the state, his services 
will be invaluable indeed. 



At Washington, Mr. Chandler is a 
prominent personage, whose acquaint- 
ance is eagerly sought, whose friend- 
ship is highly valued, and whose influ- 
ence is proverbially potent. He has 
always conducted himself upon the 
highest scale of principle, and acted 
up to a conscientious regard for the 
rights of others. The inside history 
of his political experience would fill a 
volume more startling in incident than 
any work of fiction, more dramatic in 
surprises and expediences than any 
theatrical play. He has been severe- 
ly criticised at times, and the public 
may now and then have been in the 
dark as to his ultimate motives, but we 
believe that he has always been actu- 
ated by a clear sense within himself of 
right and justice. He holds the opin- 
ions of others in uncommon respect, 
and his charity for their failures is a 
fitting cloak wherein to shroud any 
errors of judgment into which he may 
have fallen. His associations are with 
the most reputable and distinguished of 
men. He is a moral, upright man, 
with religious predilections, who hates 
vice and indolence as he does a pesti- 
lence. A true patriot, an advanced 
thinker, a vigorous writer, and a strong, 
clear, argumentative and interesting 
speaker. He is in mien and mind a 
statesman, a scholar, and a gentleman. 
He is one of those positive, advanc- 
ing, unflinching, fearless natures that 
may not be understood and appreci- 
ated by all men, diversified and differ- 
ent in taste and disposition as we are ; 
and if it should be said that we have 
drawn this sketch in the enthusiasm of 
strong personal attachment and admi- 
ration, we should plead guilty, but 
should still assert that he is a rare man, 
one above ten thousand, one of na- 
ture's noblemen. The newspaper press 
teems with glowing reports of his ex- 
cellencies. It must be remembered, 
too, that we write in the atmosphere of 
his native city, where he holds a warm 
place in the hearts of the people who 
will not think him undeserving of our 
earnest words of commendation and 
praise. We should be pleased to break 

from generalities and recite some per- 
sonal reminiscences, and characteristic 
and historic incidents in his busy life, 
but they hardly fall within the scope of 
this article. We feel that we can not 
have far overstepped a true general 
estimate of the man, inasmuch as 
another has spoken of him in these 
words : 

"I must add a few words appreciative 
of the character of one whom as a 
boy and man I have known for forty 
years. In his personal habits Mr. 
Chandler is above reproach, — pure in 
speech as in action, — with a mind quick 
to perceive, prompt to execute, and 
comprehensive in its scope. He is a 
man with convictions and the courage 
to express and maintain them. He 
has never sought advancement by flat- 
ter}- or pandering to prejudice. Those 
who know him best have the most 
faith in his integrity. The best evi- 
dence of it is the fact that in twenty- 
five years of aggressive political life, 
while occupying positions of tempta- 
tion, and criticising freely the action 
of men who forgot their moral obliga- 
tions or were shirking their official 
duties to the detriment of the public 
good, no one of them has been able to 
connect him with personal dishonesty, 
corrupt practice in official life, or polit- 
ical treachery, or double-dealing. His 
methods are direct, positive, systematic, 
exact, and logical. The positions he 
has held have all come to him in rec- 
ognition of his ability and earnest 
efforts in serving the cause he espouses." 

William E. Chandler was born in 
Concord, New Hampshire, on the 28th 
day of December, 1835. He was the 
second son of Nathan S. and Mary A. 
Chandler, of that city. He attended 
the public schools of Concord, and 
was an apt, bright scholar from the 
outset of his studentship. He learned 
with an avidity that surprised his eld- 
ers. He had a wonderful memory of 
facts and early showed an ambition, 
which has characterized his after life, 
to surpass all competitors in the race. 
He excelled in various studies. Al- 
though an uneasy, mischievous boy, 



his superior capabilities and his frank- 
ness and earnestness, together with his 
pleasant, graceful manners, won for 
him the love and esteem of his teach- 
er^ and fellow-pupils. He also at- 
tended academies at Thetford, Vt., 
and Pembroke, N. H. He began the 
study of law in 1852, when he entered 
the office of Messrs. George & Webster 
and George & Foster, in Concord. 
I le was graduated from the Harvard 
Law School as LL. B. in 1S55, and 
before he had reached his majority 
was in the practice of law in his native 
city, where he was associated in busi- 
ness for a time with Francis B. Pea- 
body, Esq., now of Chicago. 

Mr. Chandler's parents were emi- 
nently respectable persons, and did all 
they reasonably could for their chil- 
dren, but were not especially endowed 
with this world's goods, and William 
had his own way to fight. The narra- 
tive of his early struggles and triumphs 
at the bar would be interesting read- 
ing, and we hope to have it some day 
from his own pointed, piquant pen. 
At Harvard Law School he was libra- 
rian, and he was graduated with prize 
honors for an essay entitled " The In- 
troduction of the Principles of Equity 
Jurisprudence into the Administration 
of the Common Law." This compo- 
sition is spoken of in high praise and 
as especially commendable to one so 
young. It displayed a power of 
thought, and a research and applica- 
tion far beyond his years. He has 
always expressed a deep interest in 
works of true philanthropy, and his 
benevolence and good will toward all 
men is something worthy of note. In 
1857, ne accepted an invitation to 
lecture before the Concord Female 
Benevolent Association, in the L'nita- 
rian church, and he acquitted himself 
finely, and at once became known as 
a vigorous writer and an advanced, 
clear thinker. Pie took to politics as 
naturally as a fish takes to water, and 
he early took an active interest in the 
selection of candidates for public of- 
fice, and in the underlying principles 
of political parties. He was a shrewd 

organizer, and his faculty in this direc- 
tion was soon discovered and brought 
into useful service. In June, 1859, 
Gov. Ichabod Goodwin appointed 
him Law Reporter of the New Hamp- 
shire Supreme Court, and he pub- 
lished five volumes of the Reports," 
which contain much good law. In 
1856, he associated himself with the 
Republican State Committee, being 
first Secretary, and afterward serving 
as Chairman. This was in 1864 and 
1S65. The election of 1S63 took 
place during the darkest days of the 
war, following the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. It will be remembered as the 
most dubious and yet the most im- 
portant political canvass ever made in 
this state, and Mr. Chandler's execu- 
tive ability, and his wonderful power 
to marshal and control civic forces, 
were brought into the highest exercise. 
This remarkable campaign brought 
him into conspicuous public attention, 
and may be said to be the beginning 
of his especial prominence in state 
politics, and of his inestimable and 
untiring public services to his party. 
We are indebted to the recent excel- 
lent sketch of Mr. Chandler, by Hon. 
Jacob H. Ela, for much of the data 
herein contained. 

Mr. Chandler, who had been a mem- 
ber of the legislature of 1862, and, at 
the age of twenty- seven, had been 
elected speaker of the house of repre- 
sentatives, in 1863, was a g am chosen 
speaker ; and in August, 1864, presided 
over the legislature in which occurred 
the eventful conflict and riotous dis- 
turbances over the veto by Governor 
Gilmore of the bill allowing soldiers 
in the field the right to vote. Mr. 
Chandler gained his earliest reputation 
for persistency, coolness, and moral 
courage in this celebrated conflict, so 
well remembered by the Republicans 
of the state. 

In November, 1864, he was em- 
ployed by the Navy Department as 
special counsel to prosecute the Phila- 
delphia navy-yard frauds, and on 
March 9, 1865, was appointed, by 
President Lincoln, the first solicitor 



and judge-advocate-general of that de- 
partment. On June 17, 1S65, he was 
1 appointed first assistant secretary of 
the treasury, with Secretary Hugh Mc- 
Culloch, and held the office over two 
years, resigning November 30, 1S67. 
After his resignation, he practiced law 
in New Hampshire and Washington, 
and was solicitor of the National Life 
Insurance Company, and counsel and 
one of the proprietors of the Washing- 
ton-Market Company, and engaged in 

some mining and railroad enterprises. 

***** * * 

Mr. Chandler was elected as a dele- 
gate-at-large from New Hampshire to 
the national convention of 1868. and 
subsequently was chosen secretary of 
the national committee. He held this 
position during President Grant's ad- 
ministrations, and devoted himself to 
the successful conduct of the cam- 
paigns of 1S6S and 1872. In 1S76 
he declined to occupy the position 
longer, but still contributed much of 
his time to assist in the conduct of the 
canvass. He had, during this time, 
become the owner of the largest inter- 
est in the New Hampshire Statesman 
and the Monitor, the leading weekly 
and daily Republican papers in the 
state, at Concord, and he was elected, 
in November, a member from Concord 
to the constitutional convention which 
amended the constitution of the state. 

After voting in Concord at the pres- 
idential election in 1876, Mr. Chandler 
left for Washington, reaching the Fifth- 
Avenue Hotel, New York, in the early 
hours of the morning. The other 
managers of the national campaign 
had retired for the night, believing 
they were defeated ; but, coincident 
with Mr. Chandler's arrival, news 
reached the committee-rooms that 
Oregon had been carried by the Re- 
publicans, which would elect Hayes 
and Wheeler by one vote. Mr. 
Chandler at once comprehended the 
situation and the points of danger, 
and, without waiting for consultation, 
sent dispatches warning against defeat 
by fraud, to Oregon, Florida, South 
Carolina and Louisiana. At the ur- 

gent solicitation of prominent mem- 
bers of the party, he was prevailed 
upon to start immediately for Florida, 
to protect the interests of the Repub- 
lican party. He there became coun- 
sel for the Hayes electors before the 
canvassing board of the state, and it 
is universally admitted, by Republi- 
cans and Democrats alike, that to him 
more than to any other man is due 
the preservation to the Republicans 
of the fruits of their victory in that 
state. When the contest was trans- 
ferred from the states to Congress, and, 
finally, before the electoral commission 
chosen to arbitrate and decide who 
had been elected president, Mr. 
Chandler acted as counsel, and assist- 
ed in preparing the case as presented 
to the commission. 

In the report of the special com- 
mittee sent by the Senate to investi- 
gate the election in Florida, made 
January 29, 1S77, by Senator Sargent, 
of California, it contained a full state- 
ment of what the committee consid- 
ered to be the law with reference to 
"the conclusiveness of the declaration 
by a state canvassing board of the vote 
of the state for presidential electors, 
which was the earliest formal exposi- 
tion of the principles of law which 
were finally adopted by the commis- 
sion. The authorship of this state- 
ment is freely attributed by Mr. Sargent 
to Mr. Chandler. 

After Mr. Flayes had been by the 
commission declared elected presi- 
dent, when his administration surren- 
dered the state governments of South 
Carolina and Louisiana into the hands 
of the Democratic claimants, Mr. 
Chandler vigorously opposed it, and 
criticised the surrender and the men 
connected with it in most scathing 
terms, in letters published in the win- 
ter of 1877-78. His fidelity to his 
convictions of duty was conspicuous ; 
and his courage and boldness in at- 
tacking the Hayes administration gave 
him a lasting hold upon the confidence 
of the country. 



In i SSo he was elected at the head 
of the ticket of Blaine delegates from 
New Hampshire to the Chicago con- 
vention, and was especially active in 
the contests in the national committee 
prior to the convention, and as a mem- 
ber of the committee on credentials. 
of which Senator Conger was chair- 
man, and which made the successful 
report in favor of district representa- 
**■***• * * 

When his favorite candidate was 
withdrawn in the convention, he sup- 
ported General Garfield, and during the 
campaign which resulted in his elec- 
tion was a member of the national 
committee and served on the execu- 
tive committee. 

On March 23, 1SS1, he was nomi- 
nated, by President Garfield, as Solici- 
tor-General in the Department of 
Justice ; but his confirmation was op- 
posed by Attorney-General MacVeagh, 
and also by all the Democratic sena- 
tors, on account of his extreme radi- 
calism on the southern question. The 
Republicans, with Vice-President Ar- 
thur's vote, would have had one 
majority • but the whole Democratic 
vote, the absence of the New York 
senators, the abstention of Senator 
Mitchell, and the adverse vote of Sen- 
ator Cameron, of Pennsylvania, caused 
his rejection, on May 20, by five ma- 

Mr. Chandler had been, in Novem- 
ber, 1 SSo, 'elected a member from 
Concord in the state legislature, which 
assembled in June, 1SS1, and he took 
a leading position. He favored strin- 

gent legislation against bribery at elec- 
tions, and against the issuing of free 
passes by railroads, and was in favor 
of controlling by law the regulation of 
freight and fares upon all railroads 
within the state. 

The latest honor conferred upon Mr. 
Chandler was his selection by Presi- 
dent Arthur as a member of his cabi- 
net. He was nominated, April 7, 1SS2, 
for Secretary of the Navy, and con- 
firmed April 12, by a vote of twenty- 
eight to sixteen ; he qualified and took 
possession of the office, April 17, 

Mr. Chandler has been twice mar- 
ried, — in 1859 to a daughter of Gov- 
ernor Joseph A. Gilmore, and in 1S74 
to a daughter of Hon. John P. Hale. 
He has three sons, — Joseph Gilmore, 
born in 1S60 ; William Dwight, in 
1S63 ; and Lloyd Horwitz, in 1S69. 
Mr. Chandler's father died in 1S62. 
His mother is still living in- Concord. 
He has two brothers, — John K. Chand- 
ler, formerly a merchant in Boston and 
the East Indies, now residing on a 
farm in Canterbury, N. H. ; and 
George H. Chandler, who was first 
adjutant and afterward major of the 
Ninth New Hampshire regiment, and 
is now a lawyer in Baltimore. Mr. 
Chandler's father was a Whig, a man 
of great intelligence and firmness of 
character. His mother is a woman of 
equally positive traits, and has contrib- 
uted much to the formation of the 
character which -has given success to 
her sons. 



In 1 781 Mr. Gilraan succeeded Gen. the youngest man in congress, but his 
Sullivan as a member of the Federal influence was not the least. At the 
congress, and was re-elected the sue- end of his service in congress, he suc- 
ceeding year. He was at that time ceeded his father as treasurer of the 



State, showing a remarkable aptitude 
for finance, only second to that of his 

John Taylor Gilman was a Federalist 
in politics, and a firm supporter of the 
administration of Washington. Some 
of the other prominent Federalists in 
the State were Josiah Bartlett, Joshua 
Athertonjohn Pickering, and Nathaniel 
Peabody. Gen. Sullivan, John Lang- 
don, Timothy Walker and Samuel 
Livermore, were republicans, sympa- 
thizers with Jefferson and Madison. 
In 1794 Dr. Bartlett, who had been 
several times elected president of the 
State, and and who had served as the 
first governor under the new constitu- 
tion, declined all further public offices, 
and John Taylor Gilman was selected as 
the standard bearer of his party. Ti rao- 
thy Walker was the candidate of the re- 
publicans. That party was just then 
greatly in the minority, and Gilman 
was easily elected. He was at this 
time at the meridian of his strength 
and ripened manhood, and one of the 
most popular men in the State. He 
was re-elected several times, though 
opposed by such men as Walker and 
Langdon. In 1S05 the republicans 
triumphed, and John Langdon was 
elected governor. Four years after- 
ward the Federalists again came into 
power, but Jeremiah Smith was the 
gubernatorial candidate. The next 
year Langdon was again elected, and 
also in 181 1. Wiljiam Plumer, of 
Epping, was elected by the Republi- 
cans in 181 2. Plumer was re-nomi- 
nated the following year, but the Fed- 
eralists, who had again taken J ohn Taylor 
Gilman for their standard bearer, tri- 
umphed. Mr. Gilman was elected the 
two next consecutive years without 
any trouble, although opposed each 
time by that able republican chief 
William Plumer. His administration 
covered the exciting period of the last 
war with England, and though of the 
opposite party in politics, he was not 
one to dally when the honor of the flag 
was in jeopardy. He managed the 
affairs of the State with much energy 
and skill, its military defenses requir- 

ing his exclusive attention. Detach- 
ments of militia were located on the 
frontier of the" Coos country," to guard 
against invasion in that quarter. In 
1 8 14 an attack from the British fleet, 
off our coast, was expected to be made 
on the navy yard at Portsmouth, and 
upon the town itself. Great excite- 
ment prevailed. All eyes were direct- 
ed to Gov. Gilman, who, serene and 
calm, but active and determined, sur- 
veyed the scene. He issued his call 
for troops ; the State militia, prompt 
to respond, rushed forward with all its 
foimer alacrity and patriotism. More 
than ten thousand men gathered at 
Portsmouth and upon the shores of 
the Piscataqna, to meet the lion of St. 
George. But the danger passed ; the 
war closed, and New Hampshire, under 
the guidance of' its master hand, came 
out unscathed and untarnished. 

Gov. Gilman declined a re-election 
in 1816, and announced his intention 
never to participate in political strug- 
gles again. He had now reached that 
age at which it is natural for men to 
look forward to days of rest and seclu- 
sion. Few men had lived a more 
active life, or had been more prominent- 
ly before the public. He had been chief 
magistrate of the State for fourteen 
years, a much longer period than any 
other man ; John Langdon, who came 
next to him, having been governor for 
a term of eight years, and Josiah 
Bartlett, William Plumer, and Samuel 
Bell, four years each. No one of the 
royal governors held the office so long, 
with the single exception of Benning 
Wentworth, whose administration began 
in 1 74 1, and ended in 1767, a period 
of twenty-six years. 

Gov. Gilman's first wife died in Feb., 
1 79 1, and after two years of widow- 
hood he married a Mrs. Mary Adams, 
a lady who was two years older than 
himself. She died Oct. 15, 181 2, and 
for his third wife he married Mrs. 
Charlotte Hamilton, who resided on 
Front street. The governor was the 
father of five children, a son who died 
before him, and four daughters, three 
of whom married and settled at Port- 



id, Maine ; another was the wife of 
[it. I. G. Cogswell, who organized the 
\ :.': Library, in New York City. 

After the marriage with his third wife, 
somewhere near 1S14, Governor Oil- 
man rented the old house on Water 
ireet, and removed to his wife's 
residence. Col. Peter Chadwick hired 
the mansion and lived there for many 
years. Col. Chadwick was clerk of 
the court at Exeter for a long time, a 
fwjn of goodly presence, five feet 
eleven inches high, erect and broad 
shouldered, and with the courtly man- 
ners of the old regime. Of the good 
looking colonel there is related this 
c\pioit. Toward the latter end of his 
life he visited a son who was located 
in Illinois. Upon his return he pur- 
c based a horse and performed the whole 
journey on horseback, a distance of 
eleven hundred miles, being a fort- 
night on the way. This was a feat 
that few of this generation would care 
to perform. Col. Chadwick died in 
1845, and the old house remained in 
the Oilman family, only until lately 
passing out of their hands. 

The house on Front street, in which 
Gov. Gilman spent his last years, and 
where he died, is one of the large two- 
story-and-a-half dwellings, such as were 
built during the last of the eighteenth 
century. It stands near the street, 
with only a small yard between, and a 
fchite fence. The house was built by 
Kendall Lampson, in 1 790. Mr. Lamp- 
oon was an inn-keeper of large means, 
and a man of note in his day. He 
died near the end of the century, and 
the house became the property of 
Benjamin Conner, who sold it to Mrs. 
Hamilton. The rooms of the house 
are large and stately. The wide hall 
extended through the building to the 
rear. After the broad and ample 
J trior, the room of most interest in the 
house is the landscape chamber, so 
called. The room derives its appella- 
tion from the fact that over the fire- 
place is a large panel, with a picture 
painted upon it, the work of an English 
artist in the first of the present century. 
Ml this apartment John Taylor Gilman 

died, on a beautiful August dav, 

The latter part of the governor's 
life was spent in that retirement which, 
after such a public and excited career, 
could not have been uncongenial to 
him, in the rural occupations that he 
loved, and in the cultivation of the so- 
cial relations. The memories of the 
past thronged upon him. He loved 
to recall the days of Washington, and 
he wore the old costume — long waist- 
coat, breeches, and queue — to the last. 
He was interested in all educational 
projects, and was for a long time one 
of the trustees of Dartmouth College, 
and president of the trustees of Phil- 
lips' Academy at Exeter. The site 
now occupied by the academy was 
given by Gov. Gilman, who ever felt 
an affectionate concern for its welfare. 
In 1S18 Dartmouth College bestowed 
upon him the degree of IX. D. 

Of a strong and original intellect, 
Gov. Oilman was a keen observer and 
a logical reasoner. Few men could 
see so far as he could, and he was al- 
ways ready to act upon any and all 
occasions. As a man, he was ardent, 
impetuous, and unreserved, in his acts 
and feelings. A true patriot and an 
ardent lover of his country, he was 
ever wont to freely canvass the policy 
and motives involved in the old national 
struggles. Life's warfare over, he 
sleeps now near the home of his youth, 
among the friends of his boy-hood 
and noble man -hood. But the turf 
rests lightly above his grave, and his 
name is sacredly linked with the other 
illustrious dead of our early history. 

Of Governor Gilman's personal ap- 
pearance we have several descriptions. 
He was six feet high, of a portly figure, 
and weighed about two hundred 
pounds. He had keen blue eyes, a 
fair complexion, light brown hair, a 
lion-like jaw, and a nose of composite 
order, being neither Roman, Greek, 
or Jewish. There was something of 
the celestial in it, and yet it stood 
boldly out and confronted the future 
without fear. His face had a certain 
resemblance to that of Holbein's 



Henry the Eighth. It has not, indeed, 
the sensuality that marked the counte- 
nance of the royal Tudor, but there is 
the same force and energy, the frank- 
ness, and the shrewd foresight that the 
observer can perceive about the ancient 
portrait. The portrait in the State- 
house, at Concord, was painted by 
Harvey Young, of Boston. He painted 
it from a bust, and a portrait executed 
by an amateur, and it is believed to be 
a good likeness, although the family 
have other portraits that are different 
in details. The venerable Dr. William 
Perry, who has been a resident of Ex- 
eter since 1S14, says that Gov. Gil- 
man was the most dignified man he 
ever saw. He preserved his straight- 
ness and vigor to the last, and many 
now living remember the solid, digni- 
fied figure of the old man, as he took 
his daily walks, with his hands behind 

The house has undergone some 
changes since the governor's day. An 
addition has been put on one end, and 
it has been made into a double 
tenement. Martha Gilman, a distant 
relative of the governor, owned the 
house for a few years. In 1S37 it was 
purchased by a Mr. Burleigh. It is 
now owned by Mrs. Lovering. Mrs. 
Gordon, a niece of Gov. Gilman, is 
one of the present occupants. The 
grounds formerly extended westwardiy 
much further than at present, occupy- 
ing the site on which now stands the 
residence of Charles Conner, Esq. 
They comprised an acre or more, and 
were decorated by an arbor and flower 

Just beyond Mr. Conner's house, on 
the same side of the street, and just 
opposite the county-house, stands an- 
other notable building. It is the his- 
toric mansion " under the elm," the 
abode for many years of Hon. Nich- 
olas Gilman, and to which came letters 
from Madison, George Clinton, Gen. 
Knox, Webster, Langdon, John Adams, 
and many others of the distinguished 
men of the day. The place takes its 
name from a stately tree, of the genus 
u/mus, more than one hundred and 

forty years old, that stands in front of 
the house. The generous shelter af- 
forded by its shade seems to have 
been appreciated by the old mansion. 

The main part of the house pre- 
serves its antique appearance. It is 
two stories in height, with the regula- 
tion gambrel-roof. The large ell and 
the piazza have been built since 1S00. 
The square part was built somewhere 
between 1 730 and 1 740, by Dr. Dud- 
ley Odlin. Dr. Odlin obtained the 
land of his father, Rev. John Odlin, 
who purchased it from the estate of 
Rev. John Clark, by whom it had been 
purchased, April, 1696.. from Councillor 
John Gilman. The estate comprised 
some four hundred acres, extending in 
a westerly direction to the river. It 
has been preserved intact to this day. 
Dr. Odlin died in 1747, leaving the 
house and land to his son, Dr. John 
Odlin, who conveyed it to Col. Nich- 
olas Gilman, Dec.Jo, 17S2, since which 
time it has been occupied by the Gil- 

Col. Gilman, as we have said, died 
in 17S3. His large property was di- 
vided among his sons. The youngest, 
Nathaniel, had married Miss Abigail 
Odlin, a relative of Dr. Odlin, and he 
now became the owner of the original 
Odlin property. It was his home for 
the remainder of his life. Nathaniel 
was a boy of sixteen when the Revo- 
lution commenced, and did not go to 
the field at all. But he did useful ser- 
vice at home, in assisting his father in 
his manifold employments. He suc- 
ceeded his father as financial agent for 
the state, and was a prosperous and 
prominent citizen. Though he did 
not fill the nation's eye like his older 
brothers, Col. Nathaniel Gilman filled 
many important offices in his day. He 
was prominent in the state militia, was 
a state senator, and served as state 
treasurer for many years. He died 
in 1847, at the age of eighty-seven. 
He was the father of four daughters 
and seven sons. 

Nathaniel Gilman was the tallest 
and the stoutest of the three brothers. 
He was the Roman of them all, six 



• -.: and two inches in height, of re- 
r j ihlv muscular and vigorous 
1. with a Roman nose, light hair, 
. : the fair complexion of the Gil- 
tans. Grave and sober in his look, 
• n imagine the fear with which he 
regarded by the urchins who used 
. , pilfer his fruit. His older brother, 
S nator Nicholas, was the most elegant 
man of his day in New Hampshire. 
He had the fine physique of Ezekiel 
Webster, and the winning grace of 
Aaron Burr. His height was five feet 
Hid ten inches, the height of a gentle- 
roan, according to Chesterfield. He 
a nearly straight nose, mild blue 
eyes, a handsome chin, and wore his 
r in a queue. Blonde, superb in 
carriage, of striking dignity, he was the 
| ;rfect ideal gentleman of the old 

Nicholas, like his brother, John Tay- 
lor, was a soldier of the Revolution. 
His whole term of service included 
v years and three months. During 
the latter part of the war he was dep- 
iity adjutant general, and in that ea- 
[) icity was at Yorktown, where he re- 
i eived from Lord Cornwallis, to whom 
he was sent for the purpose, by Wash- 
ington, the return of exactly 7,050 
men surrendered. He held the com- 
mission of captain, and was for a time 
.1 member of Gen. Washington's mili- 
tary family. After the suspension of 
hostilities, Nicholas Oilman was a del- 
egate, from his state, to the continental 
« ongress for two consecutive years, — 
1786 and j 7S7. Under the new con- 
stitution he was a member of the 
-• of representatives in congress 
fight years, and a United States sena- 
tor for nine years. He died before 
'■■-completion of his second term, at 
1 '■■■•iudelphia, while returning from 
Washington, May 2, 18 14. He was 
never married. He resided all his life 
*'ith his brother Gol. Nathaniel. 

At the death of the latter the house 
and estate came into the hands of one 
°f his sons, Joseph Taylor Gilman. 
He married Miss Mary E. Gray, 
daughter ot the late Harrison Gray, 
*-~T> a well-known publisher of Bos- 

ton. In 1S62 Mr. Gilman died, com- 
paratively a young man. His wid- 
ow, after due time, married again — a 
man not unknown to fame, — Hon. 
Charles H. Bell, at present the chief 
executive of New Hampshire. Gov. 
Bell is a son of Hon. John Bell, who 
was governor of the state in 182S. He 
bears a noble name, a name scarcely 
second to that of the Gilmans in age 
and honor. Two brothers of the 
name have been governors of the state 
during a period of five years ; one was 
a United States senator from New 
Hampshire for twelve years, and a jus- 
tice of the supreme court for three 
years. Another of the name was chief 
justice of New Hampshire from 1859 
to 1S64, and one of the most eminent 
lawyers in the state. They have been 
speakers of the house, presidents of 
the senate, and congressmen, filling 
every office with ability, honesty, and 
honor. That one of the name should 
become master of this historic home 
seems every way fitting and appropri- 

Let us enter the ancient domicile. 
It is well worth a visit, and its hospita- 
ble guise is inviting. The hall is wide 
and lofty, and its walls are dadoed. 
The paneling is very broad, and the 
molding is deep and ornamental. On 
the right is the parlor, which also has 
elaborate moldings around the ceil- 
ing, and an ornamented mantel. On 
the opposite side is the library. The 
front side of this room was used by 
Col. Nathaniel Gilman as a business 
office. The room is thirty-six by six- 
teen feet. One side is completely lined 
with book-shelves, which are filled with 
books, many of them rare volumes, 
collected by Gov. Bell. Among them 
are several ancient Latin books, " The 
Golden Book," printed in 1415, and 
the "Book of the Virgin," with illumin- 
ated pages, printed in 15 10. There 
is also a copy of the first book ever 
published in New Hampshire, namely, 
t; Good News from a Far Country," 
by Rev. Jonathan Parsons, printed by 
Fowle, 1756. What is quite as inter- 
esting is a tragedy, written by Major 



Robert Rogers, of Ranger and Tory 
fame, entitled " Ponteach." In this 
room are two costly and beautiful cab- 
inets containing a rare and rich collec- 
tion of China and Majolica ware. Mrs. 
Bell is collector and connoisseur of 
China, and her collection is something 
to be proud of. Beyond the hall is 
the dining-room. In it is a gilded- 
framed mirror, imported by Col. Na- 
thaniel Gilman, that has hung in the 
same place since 1S15. 

Going up the broad stairway we en- 
ter the second story. Nearly ever}' 
room has the same appearance that 
it had eighty years ago. The guest 
chamber, in the northwest corner, has 
sheltered many persons of distinction. 
The wainscot is untarnished. There 
are deep window seats, and exquisite 
carving on the walls and above the 
mantel-piece. The chamber in the 
south-east corner is the room that was 
occupied by Senator Gilman all his 
life. It is in part the same as in his 
day, and is still pervaded bty his pres- 
ence. There is the furniture he used, 
the fire-place by which he sat in the 
blazing light, and some of the books 
that he read. The chamber is not 
large, and its antique look is height- 
ened by the huge beam that is left 
bare in the ceiling. 

Right across the way is the room 
that is used by Gov. Bell as his study. 
Its furnishing is modern, though there 
are several relics in the room that have 
an historical tale. Here hangs the 
sword that was worn by Gov. John 
Bell when he was sheriff of Rocking- 
ham county. A staff, or wand, that 
was used by Samuel Gilman, Esq., 
leans against the wall. Here is a gold 
ring containing the hairofCol. Nicholas 
Gilman and his wife. The crest and 
coat-of-arms of the Gilman family is 
shown the visitor. The arms of the 
English family, located in Norfolk 
county, is — Argent, a man's leg in pale, 
couped at the thigh ; sable ; the 
crest, — a demi-lion issuing from a cap 
of maintenance ; motto, — Esperance. 
The family in America has substituted, 
for a crest, a man's arm, grasping a 

stringed arrow. Why the change I do 
not know. The Gilman family is of 
Welsh origin, and has a genealogy go- 
ing back beyond the time of Edward, 
the Confessor. 

The house that Councilor Peter 
Gilman lived in is still standing in a 
state of excellent preservation. It is 
on Water street, the second building 
beyond the American House. A por- 
tion of it has antiquity of more than 
two hundred years, and is probably the 
oldest building in Exeter. It was 
erected as a block-house for defence 
against the Indians, in the far-away 
days before John Cutts was the first 
governor of New Hampshire, under 
the crown. The timbers are of oak, 
and very durable, and the windows 
originally were nothing more than loop- 
holes. Col. Gilman owned the house 
as early as 1745, and added greatly to 
it. The additions that he made are 
very high posted, and have a great deal 
of wainscot and elaborate molding. 
Two of the rooms can not be surpassed 
in New Hampshire for their ancient 
style and magnificence, the paneling 
and carving exceeding even the work 
in the old Wentworth and Warner 
mansions at Portsmouth. Colonel, or 
Councilor, Peter Gilman, was one o( 
the great men of New Hampshire be- 
fore the Revolution. He had great 
wealth, a lofty name, and the royal 
governors honored him. More than 
once he entertained the vice-rega! 
Wentworths at his noble home. His 
state and manner of living was that of 
the patrician of his time. Silver plate 
graced his table ; he drove in a coach- 
and-span, and owned several slaves. 
In 1 773, when the offices of major- 
general and brigadier-general were 
filled for the first time in tbe province, 
Gov. Wentworth bestowed the first up- 
on Theodore Atkinson, of Portsmouth, 
and the last upon Peter Gilman. At 
the same time he was a member of the 
governor's council. 

Brigadier Gilman was seventy-two 
years old when the Revolution came. 
His whole life had been devoted to the 
service of the king, and all his honors 



! *<cn derived from his represents 

n New Hampshire. There is no 
• that he was disinclined to help 
uriot cause. So well-known were 
-niiments that the Provincial Con- 
In i 775, required him to con- 
, himself within the limits of Exeter, 
i not depart from the town without 
! consent of the proper authorities. 
:; Peter Oilman was not a dangerous 

foe to liberty. His scruples seem to 
have been respected by his fellow- citi- 
zens, and he was the chosen modera- 
tor at the town-meeting of 1775. He 
lived twelve years after this, and died, 
an old man of eighty-five, in his old 
mansion which we have visited to-day. 
The house is now the property of Mrs. 



'Hie cases of the Mechanics National 

I ink of Newark, and Pacific National 

k of Boston, convey lessons to 

link directors and stockholders so 

• ■: ible and telling, that it is not likely 
: •>• will soon be forgotten. The 

fortunes of the First National 
•: of Buffalo, N. Y., and the re- 
cent performances of bank book- 
rs and tellers, however, reveal 

• • imples of shiftlessness and incom- 
petence, not less glaring and flagrant 

m cither of the other banks. As it 

it probable that a thorough reform 

yet been worked in all the banks 

■ ere lax supervision has been the 

c for a number of years, it is ne- 

ry to continue to press the matter 

I fie duties of directors upon public 

i-'.emion. • 

The object in calling attention to so 
;•■ cases of default is not to prove 
• men are any less honest than 
tftty used to be, nor that bank em- 
yes are less reliable than other men, 
'• r neither of these propositions is 
-• Hut the facts seem to prove that 
"*-' is a defect in the management 
-•iks which is equally detrimental 
' - officers and clerks, and the in- 
;' of the proprietors. 
M all the gift enterprise, chromo 

• fining stock dealers would establish 
ank by themselves, and cut the 
to of each other in the hazzard- 
jnisuses of their money, the public 

1 ' ^1 not care. But much of the 

loss by embezzlements and loaning 
the credit of a bank by certification of 
checks for stock speculators, involves 
the hard earnings of honest people, 
widows and minor children. Comp- 
troller Knox said, in his able speech 
at the Bankers' convention, in 1879, 
that "A good banker is one who takes 
better care of other people's money 
than his own." This golden rule ap- 
plies to directors as well. 

As has often been shown heretofore, 
the evil lies primarily with directors 
who habitually neglect the duties to 
which they are elected. They are 
chosen by the stockholders to guard 
their interests, and there is no reason 
why this should not be done with as 
much care as if the banks were the 
private property of the directors. But 
seldom indeed is this the case. Em- 
bezzlements occur among private bank- 
ers, but not to the extent of the joint 
stock banks, and the reason of the 
difference certainly lies in the laxity of 
the management of the latter, and 
recent visits to banks indicate this by 
conversations with directors. 

But general statements such as these 
are of little practical effect. There- 
fore, suggestions of real merit are sub- 
mitted, and which, if followed, will 
prevent many future cases like those 

In the large majority of cases of 
default that have come under public 
notice, the peculations have been 

4 6 


carried on from time to time, extend- 
ing over long periods. Now this 
would be impossible under any proper 
system of examination by the direc- 
tors, they having the advantage of 
knowing the character and habits of 
the officers and clerks. Many bank 
clerks are now tempted to fraud by 
the very negligence of those in charge. 

But what is a proper examination, 
and how should it be conducted ? We 
will consider first the points to be cov- 
ered in an examination. Banks deal 
in but two things, actual money, or 
some form of written obligation that 
represents money. The credit side of 
a bank account shows how the money 
comes into the bank, and the opposite 
side gives the disposition of it, there- 
fore the debit side is operated upon 
by the thief, either by making no en- 
try of the receipts of the credit side, 
or by obtaining money in some way, 
and counting it on the debit side in 
some of the items, or by making a 
charge. This is only done while the 
examination is going on to bridge 
over the proper debits, and credits are 
made subsequently, and the resources 
drop back short again. There are 
many ways of producing this result, 
but these are the two great principles 
to be borne in mind. 

Examples of the kind of examina- 
tion to be made are already established 
in many banks throughout the country. 
They are conducted by a committee 
of' three or four directors ever}' six 
months, but it would be better, probably, 
in most cases to have them at shorter 
intervals, and for the committee to 
choose the day without the knowledge 
of the employees. In the banks in 
which these committee examinations 
are required, they take the first of the 
month. No officer or clerk takes any 
part in the work of examination, ex- 
cept to answer the examiner's questions, 
if required, and the entire assets of 
the bank are placed in the hands of 
the committee. They commence in 
the morning so as to come out even, 
and be enabled to follow the trans- 
actions of the day, and conclude with 

the regular closing of the bank. They 
count the cash, and examine all the 
loans and securities of the bank. All 
the banks indebted to the bank send 
monthly statements of the balances 
due. The letters containing these 
statements, and all drafts, are turned 
over to the committee and are by 
them compared with the books. The 
amounts of the numerous notes held 
by other banks for collection and re- 
discount, the accounts of the corre- 
spondents, and the amounts due by 
the bank undergoing examination to 
other banks (as shown by their books), 
are in like manner certified by the 
other banks to the committee. 

Combined with committee examina- 
tions, the requirement of daily reports 
from all branches of the bank, system- 
atically arranged, is an excellent safe- 
guard # against collusion. The report 
of every clerk is proved by the report 
of another clerk, and mostly the proof 
of one is established by comparison 
with the items of several others, each 
distinct. The cashier is enabled, by 
this system, to check off the results of 
the business of each day in all the 
departments. When a report shows 
extraordinary results, an explanation 
should be required. 

In small banks, where one person 
does all the work, the temptation is too 
great, and is certainly a criminal neglect 
on the part of the directors not to in- 
quire frequently into the affairs of the 

By this method the committee and 
the stockholders are assured that the 
books give a true account of the actual 
condition of the bank, and peculations, 
such has have been carried on from 
year to year in many cases, are sure to 
be overtaken before they reach any 
large amount. The only part of the 
ground not covered is the deposit 
ledgers, which must, perhaps, always 
prove a weak point as regards ex- 
aminations, so long as they are kept 
by the method that most banks keep 
them. Some banks, where there are 
two or more ledgers, cnange book- 
keepers every month, which is an 



additional security. There is a very 
complete system used in many of the 
Koston banks, called the "depositor's 
daily balance book," which balances 
the entire deposit account at the slose 
of business each day, it is simple and 
do more work than the ordinary ledger 
system. It is this charging and credit- 
ing over long periods without giving 
any test, that opens the door to so 
much fraud. 

Such a system as given above re- 
quires no recommendation. It is better 
for the officers and clerks, because it 

saves them from many temptations. 
Directors should require it, so as to 
relieve them from heavy responsibility 
and possible loss. And, lastly, share- 
holders are entitled to, and ought to 
demand that some system providing 
for a strict vigilance be established in 
every bank, the results of all examina- 
tions published to them and the public. 
There have been too many examples 
of slipshod management in banks, and 
so necessary a reform as this should 
not be delayed. 



'T was years ago, O, years ago ! when this old town was new. 

When, in the streets we walk' to-day, a tangled forest grew ; 

When w<»lves and boars were all about, and catamounts crouched low, 

When rattlesnakes, in shining eurves, went gliding to and fro, 

When Indians skulked behind the trees, seeking for white folks' hair, 

When long-bows twanged, and arrows whizzed like rockets through the air 

After the men from Haverhill came up to view the laud. 

And laid out roads, and marked out lots and meeting-house had planned, 

While swinging axes seared the owls in old ancestral trees, 

And forest monarch* thundered down, sighing through all their leaves; 

T was then across the wilderness came Jacob Shute one day. 

Driving up Eben. Eastman's team, through that long, toilsome way, — 

'* Six yoke of oxen and a cart." an awkward team to guide. 

His "gees " and " haws " must have awoke the echoes far and wide, 

While from the woodland recesses peered many a startled eye. 

As that uncouth old vehicle went slowly bouncing by. 

It must have jostled bush and tree, lurching from left to right. 

While squirrels leaped away, and stood all quivering with fright. 

It lumbered over roots and knolls with heavy roll and tip, 

It jolted over water-beds with frantic plunge and slip, 

And what a lively time was that at " Suncook's rapped Stream ! " 

They crossed it safe, as no mishap is told of man or team. 

0, little has come down to us of that drive, long ago! 

We know not if in forest wilds he met a friend or foe; 

If bird or beast, of aspect strange, flitted before his eyes; 

If plant or tree, of form unknown, <rave him a quick surprise. 

Hut when he came to ••Johnny Ban's, in * Nuffield *" town, that day, 

I think he stopped for rest and beer, though records do not say. 

He readied, in time, old " Penny Cook," and on a " Head of Land, 

Called Sugar-Ball," where years before a fort was said to stand. 

lie must have paused to calculate the better way to go, , 

To bring himself and cattle safe to the fair plain below; 

For, " .Steep as ordinary Roofs of Houses are," this hill 

Might have appalled a weaker man with many hints of ill; 

Hut Jacob was a Yankee — though he "d never heard the name, 

The cuteness of that people had developed all the same. 

He saw the situation, which he mastered at the start, 

,; y cutting down a pine tree which he fastened to his cart. 

1I<' chained it on top-foremost, too, so that each stumpy bough. 

Among the roots and brambles would go dragging like a plough. 

* Londonderry. 


Then, with a fearful rush and din. they all went tearing down. 

And that "s the way. so wise folks say. the first team came to town ! 

* * * * ~ * * * ** * ******* 

One day. when out a riding, and the summer time was new. 

My friend asked. " What fair suburb would you most delight to view?" 

%w O. show me Sugar-ball ! *' I said. *• if I may ehoose the place ! " 

And toward the lovely Merrimack our good steed turned his face. 

We rumbled o'er the lower bridge, witir thunderous refrain. 

We bosvled, with muffled hoof and wheel, across the cool " Dark Plain.-' 

The pines gave out a balmy breath and sough of anthem grand. 

And branching pathways lead away through shadows on each hand. 

The spiky lupine mats of blue along the pathway lay. 

And columbines enticed the bees that hummed in drowsy way. 

Wild cherry trees, like scattered drifts of snow, were here and there, 

And poplars twirled their silver leaves in each fresh puff of air. 

And then — we had not seemed to climb, or noticed change at all — 

My friend said, " Xow note well the place for this is Sugar-ball." 

And here the road sloped sharply down, and seemed "to hang between 

A sand}' bluff that rose straight up. and a deep, dark ravine. 

The light, that fell in flickers, making shadows fall and rise, 

Came, suddenly, unbroken, and — I sat in mute surprise! 

Can words e'er paint the picture? There the sunny river lay. 

Each dancing wave alive with light that seemed to rise like spray. 

Beyond it stretched our city in an after-dinner sleep. 

Half hidden by its spread of green, and all in silence deep. 

Between us and the water, that bent round it like a frame. 

Lay th<^ Valley of Enchantment, though it never bore that name. 

The vale was sweet with blossoms, — tossing waves of pink and white, — 

Sending perfume out to meet us. half way up the breez}' height. 

Till, half tipsy with the fragrance, we grew light in head and word. 

And that bobolinks should mock us did not seem the least absurd. 

Where the water makes an eddy, clinging closely to the land, 

There were ducks, like tiny steamers, paddling outward from the sand, 

Or, seemingly o'er-mastered by the greatness of their bliss. 

They plunged and dipped in ecstacy that had no vent but this. 

There weie barns that stood wide open, showing scaffolds fringed with hay; 

There were houses that were dwelt in. but the people — where were they? 

One woman, in a doorway, whom the lilacs seem to shrive — 

One farmer, in a corn-field,— were they all that were alive? 

But the valley ! O. the valley! with its wealth for heart and brain! 

Though we gazed long on its beauties, yet we turned, and turned again — 

O, it seemed a restful haven for a weary, world-worn soul. 

If the height is Sugar-ball, the vale is surely Sugar-bowl. 



Only a bud on the ocean shore. More brightly than diamond e'er flashed 

A beautiful rose-bud. blooming alone, from the mine — 

In a nook of the gorge, where the wild Nothing more, 

billows foam — ~ . . 

Nothing more. Only a bud — on the mom before 

Robed in silver and jewels, now naked 
and brown : — 
Only a web of the morn before. And the ocean s dirge— and the sun gone 

Like a bridal veil, from the outer air down — 

Keeping the white bud pure and fair— Nothing more. 

Nothing more. ^„ , , .*,■■*. 

Nay, 'tis a bud on eternity's shore, 
Transplanted to bloom in the garden on 
Onlv the spravs of the ocean shore. high, 

In the beams oflthe morning that trem- By the waters of life, in its purity, 
ble and shine Forevermore. 

W. H. H. MASON, M. D. 



IV. H. II. MASON, M. D. 


There is no more valuable member 
of any community than the intelligent 
and devoted physician. If to the 
faithful discharge of all the delicate 
and laborious' duties of his profession, 
and the constant thought and study 
which enables him to keep fully abreast 
with the progress of medical science, 
the physician also develops and main- 
tains an interest in matters pertaining 
to the material prosperity of the com- 
munity and of the people at large, and 
in the direction of public affairs, he 
establishes for himself a two-fold title 
to the respect and esteem of his fel- 
low-men. Such men there are among 
the members of the medical profession 
in this state, and prominent among the 
number is the subject of this sketch. 


was born in the town of Gilford, De- 
cember 14, 1817, being now in the 

sixty- fifth year of his age. He- was 
one of the thirteen children (six sons 
and seven daughters) of Capt. Lemuel 
B. and Mary (Chamberlain) Mason, 
all of whom lived to the average age 
and reared families, but two only sur- 
viving at the present time — William 
H. H., and Benjamin M. Mason, the 
latter a well-known farmer and promi- 
nent citizen of Moultonborough. The 
father, Lemuel B. Mason, was a gallant 
soldier in the patriot army during the 
Revolutionary War. He was born in 
the town of Durham, in February, 
1759, and, although but sixteen years 
of age at the outbreak of the revolu- 
tion, joined the army immediately 
after the battle of Bunker Hill, the 
sound of cannon from that battle-field, 
which he distinctly heard at his home 
in Durham, impelling him to the 
prompt execution of his already well- 
defined purpose to that end. He 



served throughout the entire war ; was 
with Washington's army in the retreat 
from Long Island, and through the 
Highlands of New Jersey; fought at 
Trenton, Princeton, .Monmouth and 
Stillwater, and at the surrender o( Bur- 
goyne, and was with Gen. Sullivan in 
his expedition against the Indians. 
He was made a sergeant soon after en- 
listing, and subsequently received a 
lieutenant's commission, which he held 
throughout the war. He was fre- 
quently at the head of scouting parties, 
and engaged in skirmishes with the 
Indians. On one occasion, with his 
party of thirty men, he was fired upon 
from an Indian ambush, and only him- 
self and two others escaped, he 
saving himself by crawling into a 
hollow log, where he remained till 
night. He experienced many other 
hair-breadth escapes during the ser- 
vice. At the close of the war, having 
received no pay for his sen-ices, and 
having lost the small patrimony which 
he inherited, he commenced for him- 
self the battle of life under adverse 
circumstances. He married Sarah 
Nutter, of Newington, who died with- 
out children, three years later. Soon 
after, he removed to New Durham, 
where he married Mary Chamberlain, 
daughter of Ephraim Chamberlain, of 
that town. He subsequently removed 
to Alton, where he resided several 
years, and was prominent in town 
affairs. Afterward he lived for a time 
in Gilford, where he was located dur- 
ing the war of 1S12, when he again 
enlisted in his country's service, and 
served one year as a captain in Col. 
Davis's regiment. In 1S1S he was 
made the recipient of a government 
pension of $325 per annum, in consid- 
eration of his military services, and 
subsequently removed to Moultonbo- 
rough, where he died March 30, 185 1, 
aged 92 years, his death following in 
two months that of his wife, at the age 
of 85. 

The early life of William H. PI. 
Mason was largely spent in manual 
labor upon the farm. His educational 
advantages were of the limited order 

which the district school afforded, sup- 
plemented by such as his own efforts 
secured, in attendance, at different 
times, at the academies in Wolfebo- 
rough, Gilmanton, and Sandwich. He 
engaged in teaching school winters, 
from the age of sixteen to twenty-five, 
in the meantime entering upon and 
completing his course of medical study, 
having as his principal preceptor the 
celebrated Dr. Andrew McFarland, 
then located in Sandwich, subsequent- 
ly in charge of the Asylum for the In- 
sane in Concord, afterward of the asylum 
at Jacksonville, 111., and still later of an 
extensive private asylum. He entered 
the Dartmouth Medical College, grad- 
uating therefrom in the class of 1S42, 
and immediately after graduation com- 
menced the practice of his profession 
at Moultonborough, where he has ever 
since remained. 

Dr. Mason soon secured an exten- 
sive practice, and gained an enviabl- 
reputation, both in medicine and sure 
gery. As a surgeon, especially, his 
services have long been in demand 
throughout a large section of country, 
and in addition to his immediate prac- 
tice, he has been extensively called in 
consultation with his brother practi- 
tioners in the treatment of important 
and complicated cases. Not only 
among the people in his immediate 
community and section of the state, 
but with his profession at large, he has 
established a reputation for the intelli- 
gent mastery of medical science in 
principle and practice. ■ He has been 
an active member of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society for more than 
thirty years, and was its presiding offi- 
cer in 187 1. In 1 85 7 he delivered 
the address to the graduating class at 
Dartmouth Medical College, and in 
18S0 lectured on veterinary practice 
before the students of the Agricultural 

In public and political affairs Dr. 
Mason has always manifested a strong 
interest, and his time and effort have 
been as freely expended in the pub- 
lic service as the duties of his pro- 
fession would permit, in all of which 

W. H. H. MASON, M. D. 


he has gained and held the confidence 
and regard of his fellow-citizens. Me 
served as moderator at the annual 
town meetings in Moulton borough, 
from 1S57 to 1SS0, consecutively; 
was for several years town-clerk and 
superintending school committee, and 
was chosen representative in the legis- 
lature in 1859-60-62 and 69. He 
also ably represented the old sixth dis- 
trict in the New Hampshire Senate in 
1S64 and 1S65, Charles H. Bell., pres- 
ent governor of the state, being presi- 
dent of that body in the former year, 
and the late ex-Governor Ezekiel A. 
Straw, of Manchester, in the latter. 
He took a prominent part in the legis- 
lative work during his service in each 
branch of the state legislature, both in 
the committee room and in debate, 
and his speeches upon different topics 
evinced thought and judgment, and 
commanded attention. He was elected 
a delegate to the constitutional con- 
vention of 1S76 by the unanimous 
vote of the citizens of Moultonbo- 
rough, and served efficiently in that 
body. He was also a member of the 
state tax commission, appointed under 
the act of the legislature of 1877, his 
associate commissioners being Solon 
A. Carter. Nehemiah G. Ordway, 
Oren C. Moore, and William H. Cum- 

Dr. Mason has never lost his inter- 
est in the cause of agriculture, and has 
not ceased to honor the occupation in 
which he spent the early years of his 
life. He has purchased and improved 
numerous farms in his vicinity, devot- 
ing all the leisure time at his command 
to personal supervision of the work 
thereon. There are few men in the 
state, in fact, who have a more thorough 
understanding of the importance and 
the necessities of the farmer's calling 
in New Hampshire, or who have 
labored more earnestly and effectually 
to advance its interests. He has been 
a member of the state board of agri- 
culture from its organization, in iSyr, 
to the present time, with the exception 
of a single term, and has taken an ac- 
tive part in its work, having prepared 

various addresses and essays, which he 
has delivered at public, meetings under 
the auspices of the board. Among the 
subjects discussed have been " Hygiene 
ot the Farm," " Chemistry of Farming," 
<: Farming as a Profession," '"Compar- 
ative Advantages of Farming in New 
Hampshire and at the West," " Veter- 
inary Practice," &c. He has also 
served for several years as a member 
of the board of trustees of the New 
Hampshire College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts. 

Aside from his efforts in the various 
directions named, Dr. Mason has been 
called upon to contribute to the ben- 
efit and instruction of the people, in 
lectures and orations before lyceums, 
schoois, academies, societies, and on 
various public occasions. He has sel- 
dom failed to respond to such calls, and 
has spoken always to the edification 
and pleasure of his hearers. In pri- 
vate and social, as well as in public 
and professional life, he has been, 
faithful to every duty. In politics he 
is a Democrat in principle and convic- 
tion, though never an intense partisan, 
and utterly opposed to all measures of 
mere expediency. He has been prom- 
inent in the councils of his party, and, 
had the party been in the ascendency 
in the state, would have undoubtedly 
been called to higher public positions 
than he has occupied. In religion he 
is a Congregationalist, and has been a 
member of that church since he was 
twenty-one years of age. 

Dr. Mason has been twice married. 
His first wife, with whom he was united 
November 14, 1844, was Mehitabie A., 
daughter of Simon Moulton, Esq., of 
Moultonborough, who died July 25, 
1853. A daughter, the fruit of this 
union, died in early childhood. De- 
cember 21, 1854, he married Sarah J., 
daughter of John G. Brown, Esq., also 
of Moultonborough, by whom he has 
had three children, a daughter and 
two sons, the latter now living. The 
elder son, George L. Mason, born in 
1 S5 5, studied medicine, graduating at 
Bellevue Medical College in 1876. 
He practiced four years in Moultonbo- 

5 2 


rough, and is now established in La- age, remains at home in Moultonbo- 
conia, in the enjoyment of an excel- rough, and is devoting his attention to 
lent practice. The younger son, 
Charles H., now twenty-one years of 




Much is said and written about 
the astounding growth of journalism, 
and while the early settlement and con- 
servatism of New England precludes 
the startling statistics of the West, 
even our own state has made wonder- 
ful strides in printing and in the dis- 
semination of news. 

According to the list given by Geo. 
P. Rowell & Co., in a pamphlet con- 
cerning newspaper advertising, pub- 
lished in 1SS0. the United States had a 
total of 9013 newspapers ; America, 
9684, to say nothing of magazines. 
Of these 71 were published in New 
Hampshire, and all are the outgrowth 
of the New Hampshire Gazette, pub- 
lished by Daniel Fowle, of Ports- 
mouth, in the year 1 756, and which 
was the first American newspaper. 

I have zfac simile copy before me 
*of the first issue, October 7th, and I 
find by measurement its size is eight 
by nine inches, inclusive of the inch 
wide margin. The old fashioned/ is 
in use, and every noun begins with a 
capital, while at the foot of the first 
column may be seen the initial word 
of the next, acting as a sort of scout 
to the party foraging for news. 

Daniel Fowle, who modestly styles 
himself the printer, promises his patrons 
the "Freshest Advices, Foreign and 
Domestick," and in confirmation, 
perhaps, indulges in a wood-cut, rep- 
resenting a bird on a tree, with a fox 
looking up very attentively from under- 
neath. The bird may be an owl and 

* The propertj of R. P. ilarden, of Slnttford, 
K. H., who &Uo possesses bound copies (original) 
of The Buiton Post, Boston News Letter, Salem 
Gazette, &c, all of ihe year 1774. 

the tree intended to represent the tree 
of knowledge, but the fox looks so sly 
and greedy, and withal so much master 
of the situation, that you feel instinc- 
tively the bird will eventually be gob- 
bled up by the fox, just as this Fowle 
may have been by an unappreciative 

This paper, he states, "may be had 
at One Dollar per Annum, or an Equiv- 
alent in Bills of Credit, computing a 
Dollar this Year at Four Pounds, old 
tenor," and in his salutatory he says : 

Upon the Encouragement given by 
a Number of Subscribers, agreable to 
printed Proposals, I now publish the 
first Weekly Gazette for the Province 
of New Hampshire ; depending upon 
the Favor of all Gentlemen who are 
Friends to Learning, Religion and 
Liberty, to encourage my Undertaking, 
as this is the beginning of Printing in 
this Province, so that I may go on 
cheerfully, and continue this Paper in 
a useful and entertaining manner. 

Fondness of News may be carried 
to an Extreme ; but every Lover of 
Mankind must feel a strong Desire to 
know what passes in the World, as 
well as within his own private Sphere ; 
and particularly to be acquainted with 
the Affairs of his own Nation and 
Country. Especially at such a Time 
as this, when the British Nation is en- 
gaged in a just and necessary War with 
a powerful Enemy, the French, a War 
in which these American Colonies are 
most nearly interested, the Event of 
which must be of the utmost Impor- 
tance both to us and all the British 
Dominions. Every true Englishman 



must be anxious to know, from Time 
to Time, the State of our Affairs at 
Home and in the Colonies, I shall 
therefore take Pains to furnish my 
Readers with the most material News 
which can be collected from every Part 
of the World, particularly from Great 
Britian and its Dependencies ; and 
great Care will be taken that no Facts 
of Importance shall be published but 
such as are well attested, and these 
shall be as particular as may be ne- 

But besides the Common News, 
whenever there shall be Room, and as 
there may be Occasion, this Paper 
will contain Extracts from the best 
Authors on Points of the most material 
Knowledge, moral, religious or politi- 
cal Essays and other such Specula- 
tions as may have a Tendency to im- 
prove the mind, afford any Help to 
Trader, Manufacturers, Husbandry, 
and other useful Arts, and promote 
the public Welfare in any Respect. 

As the Press always claims Liberty 
in free Countries, it is presumed that 
none will be offended if this Paper 
discovers the Spirit of Freedom, which 
so remarkably prevails in the English 
Nation. But as Liberty ought not to 
be abused, no Encouragement will be 
given by the Publisher to any Thing 
profane, obscene, or tending to en- 
courage Immorality, nor to such Writ- 
ings as are produced by private Pique, 
and filled with personal Reflections and 
insolent scurrilous Language. It is a 
great Abuse of good Sense as well as 
good Manners to employ those means 
which may be serviceable to the best 
Purposes, in the service of Vice or 
any thing Indecent, or which may give 
just Occasion of Offence to any Per- 
sons of true Taste and Judgment. 
And therefore proper Caution will be 
always used to avoid all reasonable 
Grounds of Complaint on that Score. 

The Publisher will esteem it a great 
Favour to be well supplied by Corre- 
spondents of Genius and generous 
Sentiments, with such Speculations or 
Essays as may be pleasing and instruc- 
tive to the Public, agreeable to the de- 

sign of this Paper, and acknowledge 
himself obliged to any Gentlemen who 
will take the Pains to communicate to 
him any good Intelligence, provided 
they be sent free from Charge. 

Then follows the articles which he 
calls "the most material by yesterday's 
mail." News from Antigua and Halifax, 
describing a naval engagement between 
the French and English, together with 
considerable privateering, and the cap- 
ture of a French prize sloop. 

News was slow in traveling, espe- 
cially by hand, for not until Sept. 23, 
did news arrive from Kittanning, "a 
town of our Indian Enemies in Ohio, 
twenty-five miles above Fort Duquesne. 
Col. Armstrong, with about eight 
hundred Provincial Troops, gained, on 
the 3d inst., the advanced party at 
the Beaver Dam, and when within six 
miles of Kittanning, surprised the 
Indians and began the fight at day- 
break. Capt. Jacobs, the Chief of the 
Indians, it is said, defended his house 
bravely, but they were finely overcome, 
the houses were set on fire, and as they 
refused all quarter none was given. 
"Capt. Jacob, in getting out of a win- 
dow, was shot and scalped, as also his 
Squaw, and a Lad called the King's 
son," &c. It gives one a curious feel- 
ing to discover that the scalping busi- 
ness was not confined to the Indians. 

The news of Capt. Armstrong's party 
grimly concludes by the remark that 
"it is allowed to be the greatest Blow 
the Enemy have received since the 
War began, and if well followed may 
soon make them weary of continuing 

We, their descendants, one hundred 
and twenty-six years later, can testify 
that the course of Capt. Armstrong 
has been, indeed, well followed. 


Under this head we learn that on 
Wednesday evening, Capt. D wight 
came up in the prize ship Chavalmarin, 
Mons. Despararius, late Master, taken 
the 31st of August by the Privateer 
Brig Prince George, Capt. King, of 
this port. 



Saturday evening Capt. Ashfield 
arrived in a sloop from Africa, and we 
are told that its late master, Capt. 
Hope, while two leagues from coast, 
had his brains knocked by the slaves 
who watched their opportunity to rush 
on deck. The second mate, Charles 
Duncan, was also wounded in several 
places. With difficulty the negroes 
were shut in their places and secured, 
but the ringleader of the slaves jumped 
overboard and was drowned. 

The coolness with which negro 
traffic was discussed and countenanc- 
ed in those days, convinces us that in 
this regard not only the soul of John 
Brown, but the world, has been march- 
ing on to better things. 


"Yesterday one of our Scouts, con- 
sisting of 48 men, commanded by 
Capt. Hodges, were ambushed and 
fired upon by a larger Party of Indians. 
Only five of our party are yet returned 
alive. In the Evening one of the 
Boats returned, and brought the Bodies 
of the Captain and 9 others that were 
found dead on the place of action, 
scalped and mangled in a very cruel 
inhuman manner, and 3 of their heads 
cut off." 

In the news from Boston it is stated 
that a "long confused and uncertain 
Account of the taking of Oswego Fort, 

signed by one John Gael, p had been 
received, but as the Garrison were all 
made prisoners, it naively concludes 
by the remark that as every one who 
had Friends or Relations among them 
now knows their Fate, think it needless 
to insert their names here." 

Clearly the editor considered that 
"Fondness for News" was in danger 
of being carried to an extreme, and so 
he left to letters these matters which in 
our day would have been carried to a 
million homes in a twinkling. -Vs. 8 

In the Portsmouth news of Sept. 7, 
we are informed that the French were 
making some advances toward our 
camp at Lake George, and that Gen. 
Wmslow was apprehensive they had 
some thoughts of making him a visit, and 
that his Lordship, the Earl of Loudon, 
had demanded of the several Govern- 
ors of New England a reinforcement. 

Marine reports of the port of Pis- 
cataway, and an advertisement of 
sundry books to be had of the printer, 
concludes this first issue of the New 
Hampshire Gazette, and leaves us 
stranded on the idea that news was 
indeed news in those days, well attended 
and important, and that Daniel Fowle, 
to use one of the technicalities of the 
average schoolboy, was no chicken 
when he instituted the first newspaper 
on American soil. 



For gold? 

Gold is but glitter. 
Turning to dust ; 
.Fating the soul out 
With cankering rust. 

For fame ? 

Fame is a bubble 

Of the foam born; 
Flashing in sunshine 

A moment, then gone. 

For pleasure? 

Pleasure 's a night moth. 
Around the flames flyin< 

Winning its purpose 
Only by dying. 

For happiness? 

Happiness springs not 

Whore mortals have birth; 
r f is Heaven's own blessing 

.Shed on the earth. 

Not for self, soul ! 

Look farther than time. 

Aim upward, press on! 
Hope, labor, love, pray ! 
Thus heaven is won. 

Alma J. Herbert. 





Associations for a common object 
ai-e coeval with creation itself. The 
club,as an institution, is almost prehis- 
toric. Its potency was felt even through 
the dark ages. For social and recrea- 
tive purposes it is now deemed indis- 
pensable, and it has grown to be a tre- 
mendous factor in politics, literature, 
science, and art. Club-life of modern 
times has become sumptuous indeed. 
The club-house of to-day is not unfre- 
quently a splendid edifice, comprising 
within its elegant apartments the finest 
facilities for edification and enjoyment. 
The political club is the leading force 
and central power in party organiza- 
tion, and in the realms of literature, 
science, and art, the club is the com- 
bination of genius for mutual elevation. 
Such associations of strength aie irre- 
sistible. They bring together in happy 
harmony all elements of progress, and 
effect a vast deal of good. 

The purely social club is no less a 
power. Its reformatory and salutary 
influences are diffused throughout the 
best society, and their moral worth to 
the community can not be over-esti- 
mated. In publicbenefit and individual 
reform, such a club, properly estab- 
lished and conducted, is second only 
to the church. It allays temptation ; 
it gives opportunities for innocent 
amusement. Natural effervescence 
finds therein a legitimate channel.- It 
consumes a needed leisure that might 
otherwise fall to worse than a waste of 
time. If managed upon the right 
principles, it is a crucible of refine- 
ment. It knocks the rough edges from 
human nature, opens the way to inval- 
uable friendships, and binds men to- 
gether in unison of sympathy and un- 
derstanding. It inspires confidence 
snd a higher appreciation amongst 
themselves of their several superiori- 
ties. It awakens charity for one an- 

other's misfortunes, and locks hands 
in worthy enterprise for the world's 

It is an exploded fallacy, in this busy, 
bustling career of ours, to imagine 
that our time is economized in contin- 
uous application. There must be rest 
and relaxation. There must be change 
and variety. The human machine 
breaks down under the pressure of 
monotonous use. The mind needs 
diversion, and should not wear itself 
out swinging backward and forward in 
tiresome sameness, like an old door on 
its hinges. And there is rest and re- 
laxation, change and variety, and 
healthful, cheerful diversion at the 
club. The recreations there are them- 
selves varied to suit the changing tastes 
and inclinations, thereby securing the 
best and most satisfactory results of 
social intercourse. These diversions 
are directly in the interests of temper- 
ance and morality, and they have 
saved many a noble man from degra- 
dation and ruin. These institutions 
should be recognized as becomes their 
real importance, and cherished for 
their good work by all who hold dear 
the welfare especially of our young 

The Webster Club, of Concord, 
N. H., is undoubtedly the foremost 
association of the kind in the state. 
Its character is unexceptionable. Its 
pre-eminent social standing is unques- 
tioned, and its reputable membership 
includes master minds in various de- 
partments of life, many of whom are 
not unknown to fame. 

This club was formally organized on 
the 26th day of September, 1868, and 
for the fourteen years last past has 
maintained an intensity of interest and 
a purity of tone that promise to hold 
it in close organization for usefulness 
through many years to come. It was 



very appropriately styled the Web- 
ster Club, in honor of that most emi- 
nent of New Hampshire's sons. 

The constitution of the association 
strictly prohibits any thing in the line 
of gambling. Considering the char- 
acter of the persons forming the Club, 
such a clause could hardly be deemed 
necessary, but it has put summary 
check to the possible insinuation of 
slanderous tongues. 

Another article provides that intoxi- 
cating liquors shall not be introduced 
into the rooms of the Club, upon any 
pretense whatever, a rule that has been 
rigidly adhered to on all occasions. 
This has contributed to prevent those 
unprofitable and frequently dangerous 
bickerings and dissensions of which 
alcoholic stimulants are a fruitful 
source, and the utmost harmony and 
good-feeling has prevailed from the 
very outset of the successful under- 

Slang and profanity are restrained 
upon severe penalty, and every thing 
bordering on vulgarity is particularly 
deprecated. The elderly men who 
frequent the rooms add stability of 
character to the association, and their 
dignified presence seems to hold in re- 
straint any undue buoyancy or exuber- 
ance on the part of younger members. 
All in all it is a remarkable good-fel- 
lowship, that is seldom equaled and 
never excelled. 

The apartments are commodious 
and elegant, now occupying the entire 
third story of Woodward's new building, 
on Main street. They are heated by 
steam, supplied with all the popular 
periodicals and newspapers, and are 
handsomely furnished, especially the 
guests' parlor and reception-room, 
which is hung with choice pictures, 
and contains a library and magnificent 
upright piano. The card-room is very 
cheerful, and is the favorite resort. 
The billiard hall has been newly fitted 
with expensive tables of the most 
improved pattern, and with the com- 
plete appurtenances of that fascinating 
pastime. The other arrangements are 
far superior to those of the average 

private residence, and convenient and 
inviting indeed. For years the rooms 
have been the headquarters of many 
distinguished visitors in the city, and 
they are remembered and highly ap- 
preciated throughout the country, and 
even in distant climes the hospitality 
of the Club finds pleasant mention. 

The constitution of the organization, 
which is a model one in all respects, 
especially forbids political discussion 
in the rooms, and as politics are in no 
way concerned in the purposes of the 
organization, and as the members are 
representatives of 'different political 
parties, this is undoubtedly a wise 
restriction. The right and privilege of 
individual opinion is not in any way 
interfered with, and the framers of the 
constitution experienced sound dis- 
cretion in foreseeing the evils of heat- 
ed political discussion, and in provid- 
ing a refuge, as it might not inappro- 
priately be termed, from the exciting 
scenes and petty annoyances of political 
canvass and contest. 

From the ranks ot the Club have 
arisen a governor, state senators, rep- 
resentatives to the general court, and 
various officers of the government, in 
its judicial, legislative, and executive 
branches, and compared with its num- 
ber, no body of men has furnished 
more leading minds to the political 
and business centres of the state. Its 
membership is the representative of 
almost unlimited capital, and comprises 
the most influential and respected of 
citizens in various industries and ac- 
tivities of life. 

There is the respected Major Lewis 
Downing, of the far-famed Abbot- 
Downing Company, a gentleman of 
the finest social merit, and of the best 
business qualification ; also, Joseph H. 
Abbot, a member of the same exten- 
sive concern, whose jocund presence, 
with jovial face and genial manners, 
has made him a prominent feature of 
the organization from its very outset. 
Mention should be made, too, of such 
gentlemen as Horace E. Chamberlin, 
superintendent of the Boston, Lowell 
& Concord Railroads, and George E. 



Todd, superintendent of the Northern 
(N. H.) Railroad, both able managers 
and very agreeable companions. Then 
there is Col. John H. George, a prom- 
inent lawyer and public-spirited man, 
well known to this community : ana 
the bar is further represented by Sam- 
uel B. Page, a legal advocate of supe- 
rior qualifications; and by Edgar H. 
Woodman, the present honored presi- 
dent of the Club ; Robert A. Ray, 
city-solicitor of Concord ; Henry Rob- 
inson and Frank S. Streeter, young 
attorneys, with ambition, ability and 
energy, and favorably known through- 
out the state. Henry Churchill, the 
present acting director of the Club, is 
a man of sterling qualities and the 
most unbending uprightness. He was 
one of the original members, and no 
man stands higher in the esteem and 
confidence of his associates. He was 
a brave soldier during the War of the 
Rebellion, and he has a proud record 
of valor upon many a bloody held. 
He now holds the very responsible 
position of general transfer mail agent 
at the Concord railway station. Col. 
Charles H. Roberts, a popular mem- 
ber, is a very remarkable man, as well 
as pleasant companion. For the 
twenty-five years last past he has been 
actively engaged in politics and the 
management of the Republican party, 
and although never an office-seeker 
himself, he has had much to do with 
the shaping of our state legislation. 
He is a trusted and experienced ad- 
viser in the inner counsels of the party. 
He has paid especial attention to the 
management of railroad affairs, and is 
a clear, cool-headed adviser, pos- 
sessed of the best practical sense and 
a shrewd comprehension of human na- 
ture. Edward A. Stockbridge is a 
book-binder by vocation, and for many 
years was associated with the late firm 
of Messrs. Morrill cc Silsby, book- 
binders and stationers. He is a bright 
wit, a generous-hearted, whole-souled 
man. He has not held public office, 
which is due to the fact that he has 
not been a member of the dominant 
party, rather than to any lack of ample 

qualifications, for he has in an eminent 
degree many of the qualities that 
would fit him for almost any position 
of trust and honor to which he might 
aspire. Prescott F. Stevens and Charles 
H. Duncklee, of Messrs. Stevens & 
Duncklee, wholesale and retail dealers 
in stoves and tin ware, are perhaps as 
popular as any of their numerous as- 
sociates, and as influential and much 
respected in the community. They 
are not only good fellows, in the popu- 
lar sense, but first-class mechanics and 
dealers in their line, doing an immense 
business in Concord, and elsewhere. 
From a very humjbl&.-.beginning they 
have, through industry and persever- 
ance, attained to wealth in real estate 
and other valuable property, and to 
considerable influence within the circle 
of their acquaintance. Frank Mar- 
den, the well-known boot-and-shoe 
manufacturer, is closely attached to 
the organization, and he fully appre- 
ciates its many privileges and advan- 
tages. Beingan unmarried man, of ex- 
cellent habits, he spends his leisure hours 
at the rooms, and as a partner at whist, 
or in a game of billiards, only few men 
can excel him. His humorous good 
nature is very attractive, and he is 
held in high regard. Capt. Daniel E. 
Howard is also a great lover of the 
Club, although very devoted to his 
family, and he enjoys a friendly con- 
test at cards with a hearty zest. He is 
no mean opponent at the billiard table, 
where he has made some brilliant 
shots. He takes pride in whatever he 
undertakes, and devotes himself with a 
will to the matter in hand. This is the 
secret of his success in the insurance 
business, wherein he is extensively en- 
gaged. It is a fact worthy of especial 
comment that the rooms are almost 
invariably deserted « during business 
hours, but when the day's work is 
done, they are enlivened by the cheer- 
ful bearing and merry laugh of such 
estimable young men as Charles W. 
Woodward, William H. Davis, and 
Edward L. Peacock, all merchant- 
tailors, with excellent taste and judg 
ment ; and now and then drop in such 



exemplar}- gentlemen as J. Frank Web- 
ster, Frank B. Cochran, Waldo A. 
Russell, Isaac W. Hill, Sumner L. 
Thompson, Charles F. Batchelder, 
James A. Wood, Nahum Robinson, 
Charles W. Lynam, Henry O. Adams, 
M. J. Pratt, George L. Stratton, Fred 
K. Peacock, and others too numerous 
for extended personal notice. Mr. 
Webster is the present cashier and 
paymaster of the Boston, Lowell & 
Concord Railroad, and Mr. Cochran is 
efficiently connected with the clerical 
force of the road, and both occupy 
high positions in the management of 
this important line to Boston. Mr. 
Russell is the traveling agent of the 
firm of Abram French <x:Co.,of Boston, 
extensive importers and dealers in 
crockery and fancy wares. He is a 
very courteous and popular gentle- 
man. Mr. Hill has for many years 
been the clerk of the Concord 
Gas-Light Company, and has charge 
of the meters and collections. He 
is a very methodical accountant, 
and his books are kept with the most 
scrupulous accuracy and neatness. His 
services are invaluable to the compa- 
ny. Mr. Thompson is the popular 
clerk of the Eagle Hotel. It is cus- 
tomary to call even' - hotel clerk popu- 
lar, but Mr. Thompson is one of those 
very intelligent and polite gentlemen 
that has won high respect from the 
traveling public, with whom he has 
a very extensive acquaintance. His 
quiet, unassuming manners, and his 
long acquaintance in, and thorough 
knowledge of, his business, give him a 
front rank among hotel managers, 
and such is the prestige of his ability 
that he can command almost any sal- 
ary. Charles F. Batchelder greatly 
enjoys the advantages of the associa- 
tion, and in his regular visits to the 
rooms he finds a needed rest from his 
busy duties as news agent, which at 
times require the utmost exertion. 
He is an industrious, straight-forward 
business man, of good standing in the 
community. Col. James A. Wood, 
whose home is at Acworth, is the agent 
of the New Hampshire Statesman 

and the Concord Daily Monitor, and 
has an extensive acquaintance through- 
out the state. He is a prominent pol- 
itician, and takes an active part in 
politics, and enters a gubernatorial or 
senatorial canvass with remarkable zeal 
and devotion to the candidate of his 
choice. He delights in whist, plays 
an excellent game, and his even tem- 
per and cheerful countenance are ever 
welcomed. Nahum Robinson is a 
member of the Club in good and 
regular standing, but seldom finds 
time, in his extensive building opera- 
tions, to call at the rooms. He is a 
brick-builder of the widest experience, 
and has superintended the erection of 
a great many public buildings and pri- 
vate residences in Concord, and else- 
where, which stand as monuments to 
his industry and executive ability. He 
is a man of the most exemplary char- 
acter, and his name upon the Club 
roll is a guaranty of the purity and 
good character of the institution. 
Charles W. Lynam is a concreter by 
trade, but, strange as it may seem, he 
is an artist in paint, and has executed 
some remarkably fine pieces on can- 
vas, one of which adorns the billiard 
hall of the Club. Mr. Adams is the 
partner of Loren S. Richardson in the 
ready-made clothing business, in which 
they have a large trade. Mr. Pratt is 
the business manager at Concord of 
the United States & Canada Express 
Company. He is a valuable citizen, a 
kind-hearted neighbor, and a public- 
spirited man, who is held in great re- 
spect. Mr. Stratton is a member of the 
flour firm of Messrs. Stratton, Merrill 
& Co., and is a fine gentleman. He 
is a lover of fun, and the author of 
many a harmless, practical joke. Mr. 
Peacock is associated with Batch- 
elder & Co., of Concord, wholesale 
and retail grocers, and his individual 
popularity adds more than a little to 
the extensive sales of this creditable 
establishment. We should be negli- 
gent indeed if we omitted particular 
mention of Perry Kittredge, of the 
firm of Messrs. Underhill & Kittredge, 
druggists. He is a charter member, 



an I his interest in all that relates to 
Club affairs continues unabated. His 
cheery voice is always welcome, and 
his fund of anecdote and incident is 
largely drawn upon for the entertain- 
ment of the usual evening company. 
Gen. J. N. Patterson. United States 
Marshal, and colonel of the present 
Third Regiment N.H. National Guard, 
was a gallant officer in the late war, 
and wears his brevet of general with 
becoming modesty. Another member, 
who served with honor in the War of 
the Rebellion, is John T. Batchelder, 
of the firm of Batchelder & Co., 
wholesale and retail grocers, and holds 
a position as paymaster on Col. Pat- 
terson's staff. Pie is an alderman from 
his ward, and a highly respected citi- 
zen. Capt. William Walker, a director 
of the First National Bank, and Dr. 
J. W. Barney, a former member of the 
state senate, are the eldest in years of 
the present members, but their minds 
are still fresh, and they engage in the 
social entertainments with the fresh- 
ness of youth. Both have been pre- 
vented by sickness from active par- 
ticipation in Club affairs, for a few 
months, and their hearts would 
glow with pleasure, could they listen 
to the many kindly references to their 
social qualities which are made in their 
absence. Col. E. L. Whitford, United 
States pension agent, is a devotee of 
business, and. allows himself only little 
relaxation therefrom. His standing 
with the Pension Department at Wash- 
ington is superior to any other officer 
of the same line of duty, and the facil- 
ity and correctness with which he has 
discharged the duties of his position, 
have merited and received the encomi- 
ums of ail. Similar complimentary al- 
lusions are due to Col. Solon A. Car- 
ter, our able state treasurer, whose 
uniform affability and cheerful temper- 
ament make him a valued companion 
in club circles. Charles C. Danforth 
is the present treasurer of the Club, 
and attends to the monthly collection 
of the dues, which are very moder- 
ate in amount, considering the extent 
of the privileges and advantages afford- 

ed. Mr. Danforth does a large insur- 
ance business, representing several of 
the best companies, and his losses are 
paid with the most commendable 
promptness. George O. Dickerman, 
traveling salesman for a wholesale 
grocery establishment in Boston, is a 
hale frequenter of the rooms. Lewis 
C. Barr is one of the new members. 
He is chief clerk at A. B. Sanborn's 
ready-made clothing house, in Con- 
cord. He is a very fine young man, 
else he would not be a member of this 
Club, inasmuch as the memberships 
are eagerly sought, but only very de- 
liberately and considerately placed. 
A. M. Shaw, the railroad contractor and 
manager, is also a member. Frank B. 
Scribner, of the hard -ware house of 
Walker & Co., an estimable gentleman 
and companion, takes great pride in 
his connection with the institution; 
and so does Charles Foster, of the 
clerical force of the Fitchburg Rail- 

Col. John A. White, Jacob H. Gal- 
linger, m. d., Chairman of the Re publican 
State Committee, George A. Pillsbury, 
now of Minneapolis, Minn., George P. 
Cleaves, John N. McClintock, the 
editor and publisher of the Granite 
Monthly, ex- Gov. Natt Head, Dr. 
C. N. Towle, Edson J. Hill, Fred. 
H. Gould, John E. Robertson, Calvin 
C. Webster, Frank L. Sanders, James 
N. Lauder, George F. Underhill, James 
E. Larkin, E. F. Mann, Charles D. 
Warde, and many others, whose names 
are familiar words, have been members 
of this famous and influential organi- 

The following are the deceased 
members : 

Charles C. Lund, Josiah Stevens, 
jr., Fred. B. Underhill, C. L. Cook, 
E. L. Knowlton, H. A. Taylor, Frank 
Newton, and Thomas A. Ambrose, 
each of whom is entitled to a eulogy 
beyond the space allotted to this ar- 

In conclusion, it remains to be said 
that the Webster Club should go on 
with its good work, and we trust that 
it will long continue a power for right. 



Such a club, rightly organized and 
rightly conducted, is a tremendous 
social force ; it can set fashions, insti- 
tute reforms, wield public sentiment on 

men and measures, and reach out with 
a powerful grasp into an almost unlim- 
ited field of usefulness. 



In the October number of the 
Granite Monthly appeared a sketch 
of Col. Lear, to which we refer ; the 
following was necessarily omitted on 
account of the length of the main 
article. The additional letter, here 
inserted, indicates the high estimation 
of Washington for his secretary. 

Col. Lear visited England in 1 793, 
and Washington, in a letter to Arthur 
Young, the celebrated agriculturist, 
dated Philadelphia, Sept. 1, 1793, 
said: "The bearer, Sir, is 'Mr. Lear, 
a gentleman who has been a member 
of my family seven years, and until 
the present moment my secretary. 
-He is a person of intelligence, and 
well acquainted with the states, from 
New Hampshire, inclusive, to Virginia, 
and one in whom you may, as I do, 
place entire confidence in all he shall 
relate of his own knowledge, and be- 
lieve what is given from information, 
as it will be handed with caution. 
Mr. Lear has been making arrange- 
ments for forming an extensive com- 
mercial establishment at the Federal 
City, on the river Potomac, and now 
goes, to Europe for the purpose of 
taking measures there to carry his 
plan into effect. I persuade myself 
that any information you can give him 
respecting the manufactures of Great 
Britain will be gratefully received, and, 
as I have a particular friendship for 
him, I shall consider any civilities 
shown him by you as a mark of your 
politeness to, Sir, your most obedient 
and very humble servant 


• Joseph M. Toner, m. d., of this city, 
has a letter, written by Washington, 
addressed on the outside, 



The letter was mailed at "Alex, Va.," 
bearing that postmark, and is rated 
"Free." It was written at Mount 
Vernon, July 2, 1799, and toward its 
close Washington writes that he would 
inclose a check on the bank of Alex- 
andria for one thousand dollars, for 
the purpose of paying Mr. Blagdon 
the expenses incurred on Washington's 
building "in the Federal City." This 
house, which was once occupied by 
Alexander Hamilton, is situated near 
the Capitol, on North Capitol street, 
and is now known as the "Hillman 

Washington, when' writing to any 
one at the seat of government, directed 
the letter to ''Federal City," it being 
the name he selected for the national 
capital. His modesty prevailed to the 
last, for the letter directed to Mr. 
Thornton was written in the year of 
his death. 

Another peculiarity, — he was never 
known to write his name in full. George 
was always abbreviated as above in- 
dicated on the face of the letter. 

In the October! number of this mag- 
azine, a history of Col. Lear and his fam- 
ily is given, but the notices which ap- 
peared in the Portsmouth papers relat- 
ing to them may be interesting. We 
copy from the New Hampshire Ga~ 



zttfe, of October 22, 1S16, the follow- 
ing : 

** At Washington City, suddenly. Col. 
Tobias Lear. Accountant of the War De- 

Mr. Lear was a native of this town, 
and had received a liberal education. 
His inclination at iirst led him to a mar- 
itime life, but circumstances introduced 
him to other and important situations, 
which he sustained with deserved rep- 

The " Oracle of the Day;' printed 
in Portsmouth, in announcing the 
death of Mary (Long) Lear, the first 
wife of Col. Lear, copied the following 
from a Philadelphia paper : 

••On Sunday, October 4. 1703. in Phil- 
adelphia, after a short but severe illness. 
universally lamented. Mrs. Mary Lear, 
the amiable and accomplished wife of 
Tobias Lear. Esquire. Secretary to the 
President of the United State-: and on 
-Monday her funeral was attended by a 
train of unaffected mourners, to Christ 
burying-ground (North 5th. corner of 
Arch), where her remains were inter- 

Youth, beaut}', virtue, loveliness and 
grace, in vain would soothe the dull, 
cold ear of death." 

Mrs. Lear died of yellow fever, 
which at that time was prevailing and 
very malignant; not less than five 
thousand persons, including ten valua- 
ble physicians, having fallen victims to 
the disease. 

We also find in the Oracle a notice 
of the second marriage of Col. Lear. 
Miss Frances Bassett, a niece of Martha 
Washington, married Col. George 
Augustine Washington, a nephew of 
the General. He died in 1793, and 
his widow became the wife of Col. 
Lear : 

%i Tobias Lear. Esquire, married to 
Airs. Fannie Washington, of Mount 
V ernon. Aug. 22, 1705/' 

W r e also read in the Portsmouth 
Journal of December 2, 1856 : 

"Mrs. Frances Dand ridge Lear, the 
widow of the late Col. Tobias Lear, and 
the niece of Mrs. Martha "Washington, 
aged 75." 

Col. Lear married two nieces of 
Mrs. Washington. 

In the sketch published in the Oc- 
tober number of this magazine, we 
gave a description of several choice 
relics and mementos, which were once 
in the Lear mansion at Portsmouth, 
and now preserved in the family. We 
will here notice a few of the many 
valuable articles which belonged to the 
Lears, and are also in the possession 
of the widow of Col. Albert L. Jones, 
n£e, Mary Washington Storer, the only 
daughter of the late Admiral Storer. 
Her lamented husband was a highly 
respected and influential citizen of 
great promise, whose untimely death 
the city mourns. At Mrs. Jones's 
beautiful and spacious home, on the 
corner of Richards avenue and Mid- 
dle street, the many very precious 
and interesting relics of the Lear fam- 
ily are carefully preserved. Among 
these are portraits of Col. Lear, not 
full size, one taken just after his grad- 
uation, the other during his service as 
Military Secretary of Washington ; a 
portrait of his wife, Frances Dandridge 
Lear, in pastel, cabinet-size, framed 
and glazed ; a fine painting in oil, on 
panel, cabinet size, of Benjamin Lin- 
coln Lear, believed to have been 
painted by Gilbert Stuart : a miniature 
of Col. Lear, in a gold case, painted 
while he was a student at Harvard ; 
also photographs of two portraits in 
oil, full size, one of Col. Lear, the 
other of his wife, both painted at 
Malta, on their way to or from Algiers, 
and once in the possession of the 
Storer family, but now with Wilson 
Eyre, Esq., of Newport, R. I. 

Capt. Tobias Lear, the father of 
Col. Lear, brought from Europe, 
among other valuables, a silver cream- 
pitcher, two silver salt-cellars, and two 
silver pepper-boxes, on which is en- 
graved the crest of the Lears. These 
are now preserved as heir-looms. Mrs. 
Jones has also a silver cup bearing the 
family arms of the Custises. 

Among a very large and valuable 
correspondence are to be found letters 
from many illustrious men, including 
Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Mad- 
ison, Knox, Timothy Pickering, Rob' 



ert Morris, R. B. Livingstone, Oliver 
Wolcott, Ed. Randolph, Thomas Mif- 
flin, Christopher Gore, Benjamin Lin- 
coln, John Langdon, John Sullivan, 
Lord Nelson, Sir William Pepperell, and 
Commodores Preble and Bainbridge ; 
also from George, Martha, Bushrod, 
George Augustine, and Lawrence Wash - 
ington, with others. Among these 
papers is the original draft of Martha 
Washington's letter of Dec. 31, 1799, 
addressed to the President of the 
United States, in response to a resolu- 
tion of Congress in relation to the 
death of Washington, and to the re- 
moval of "her dear, deceased hus- 
band's" remains from Mount Vernon 
to the Capitol at the city of Washing- 

There is also a letter of Dec. 15, 
1799, which Col. Lear addressed to 
President John Adams, communica- 
ting the death of Washington, as well 
as one of Dec. 16, 1799, sent to tne 
Lear and Storer families at Portsmouth, 
giving a full and minute account of the 
last illness and death of his illustrious 

Among these treasured relics is also 
a heavy mourning ring, which Admiral 
Storer wore for many years previous 
to his death, containing the hair of 
General and Mrs. Washington, with an 
inscription on the inside of the ring — 
"George and Martha Washington." 

Another of these mementos is a 
painting, in water colors, of a stem 
with leaves and tlowers, executed in 
Philadelphia by Miss Eleanor Custis, 
grand-daughter to Martha Washington, 
and sent as a present to Mrs. Lear, 
the Colonel's mother, in 1792. An- 
other is an engraving, representing 
Hope pointing upward, while Eleanor 

P. and George W. P. Custis, the two 
grand-children, are weeping at the grave 
of Washington. 

The late Admiral Storer was justly 
proud of his distinguished uncle, Col. 
Tobias Lear, and was also devotedly 
attached to his most excellent cousin, 
Benjamin Lincoln Lear, and honored 
him by calling one of his sons by his 

On the northerly side of the granite 
shaft erected to the memory of the 
Admiral, in the "Proprietors' Burying- 
Ground," at Portsmouth, we read, — ■ 
"Lincoln Lear Storer, Born May 21, 
1S28. Died at sea, April 15, 1S49." 

From the uniform responses to in- 
quiries concerning B. Lincoln Lear, 
by those now living who were his con- 
temporaries, I am particularly im- 
pressed as to his great ability, his purity 
of life, his manly virtues and noble 

These testimonials all accord to him 
those beautiful traits which contributed 
so largely to the universal esteem in 
which he was held wherever known. 

Correction*. — On page 14 of the Octo- 
ber number of the Granite Monthly. 
near the close of the article, mention is 
made of Capt. Tobias Langdon. who died 
Feb. 20. 172.'). aged 04. as the first husband 
of Elizabeth Sherburne Langdon, who 
married Tobias Lear Oct. 11. 1667. lie 
was her son. born fti 1060, married Mary 
Hubbard of Salisbury. Mass.. in 1686, 
and had seven sons and two daughters. 
Capt. Langdon possessed the property 
from his grandfather, lie was born on 
the farm and was buried in the inheri- 
tance. His father. Tobias Langdon. 
married Elizabeth Sherburne. June 10. 
1650. and died July 27. 1664. The sen- 
tence requiring correction should read 
his mother instead of his widow "became 
the wife of Tobias Lear as heretofore 



The family of Gage, which is of Nor- 
man extraction, derived its descent, from 
DeGaga, Gauga, or Gage, who accom- 
panied William the Conqueror into Eng- 
land in 1006. and after the conquest wa3 

rewarded with large grants of land in 
the forest of Dean, and the county of 
Gloucester, adjacent to which forest he 
fixed his abode, and erected a seat at 
Clerenwell, otherwise Olarewell. 



He also built a large mansion house in 
flic town of Chichester, where he died. 
and was buried in the Abbey there; and 
hi- posterity remained iti that county for 
luany generations, in credit and esteem, 
ut whom there were Barons iu Parlia- 
ment in the reign of Henry II. 

John Gage. 1 1408, had a son .John- who 
married Joan Sudgrove: their son. Sir 
John, 3 married Eleanor St. Clere. He. 
was knighted 1454, and d. Sept. 30. 1480. 
His heir, William. Esq., 4 b. 145G. m. 
Agnes Bolney. Their son. Sir John. 5 b. 
14S0, married Phillippa Guilderford, and 
was made knight May 22, 1541. lie died 
April 28, 15o7. aged 77. leaving four 
sons and four daughters. Sir Edward. 6 
his eldest son. created knight by Queen 
Mary. lit. Elizabeth Parker, and had nine 
sons* and six daughters. John Gage, 
Esq.,' the eldest son. was 30 years old at 
his father's death, and heir to rif teen man- 
ors, with many other lands in Sussex. 
Ac. but having survived all his broth- 
ers and leaving no issue the estate de- 
scended to his nephew, John/ who was 
advanced to the degree of baronet. Mar. 
26. 1022. and m. Penelope, widow of Sir 
George Trenehard. by whom he had four 
sons and five daughters. He d. Oct. 3, 
1033. John. y his second son. of Stone- 
ham, in Suffolk, came to America with 
John Wiathrop, jr.. son of the governor, 
landing in Salem. June 12, 1630. In 1033 
they, with ten others, were the first pro- 
prietors of Ipswich. His wife. Anna. d. 
at Ipswich June, 1658. in Nov. follow- 
ing, he tn. Sarah, widow of Robert 
Keyes. who. by one account, survived 
him. though by another m. 3d, Mary 
Keyes, February. 1663, who d. Dec. 2 J. 
1008. He removed to Rowley in 1004, 
and there died in 1073. having been a 
" prominent man and held responsible 
offices of trust and fidelity.'' both in 
Ipswich and Rowley. Of his eight chil- 
dren, seven of whom were sons, the sec- 
ond. Daniel. 10 of whom we find the 
earliest mention among the Gages of 
that part or "Old Rowley," which is 
now Bradford, Mass. W'e there learn 
from Bradford towu records that he m. 
Sarah Kimball. Mav 3. 1675. and d. Xov. 
S, 1705. He had eight children, three suns 
of whom Daniel," the oldest, b. Mar. 12. 
1070, m. Martha Burbauk, Mar. 0. 1G97, 
and about that time settled in the ex- 
treme northwest corner of Bradford, on 
the banks of the Merrimack, establishing 
the well known "Gage's, or Upper 
Ferry," on the then main road to Methu- 
en, where the grotesmie •• Gage house." 
as built and afterwards enlarged, now 
stands (1370) in dilapidation, the oldest 
in the town. She there d. Sept. 8. 1741, 
and he d. Mar. 14, 1747. Their children 
were — 

MehitabelJ- b. Dec. 29. J 008. 

Josiah, b. 1701. settled in Pelham. 

Martha, b. April 17. 1703. 

Lvdia. h. Mav 24, 170."). 

Moses.^b. Mav 1. 1700. 

Daniel, b. April 22, 1708; rem. to Pel- 

Sarah, b. Feb. 10. 1700 or 1710. 

Jemima, b. Dee. 2, 1711; m. Richard 
Kimball, Xov. 8, 1733. 

Xaomi. b. Feb. 25, 1714 or 15; ni. Da- 
vid Hall. Sept. 22. 1737. 

Esther, b. May 15, 1710; m. Jona. 
Currier, of Methuen, Aug. 1, 1739. 

Amos. b. July 28. 1718; m. Mehitabel 
Kimball, of Bradford. Dec. IS, 1740, in 

Abigail, b. Dec. 22, 1720. d. voting. 

Mary. b. Aug. 31. 

Hardy. Mav 24.^1744. 

Abigail, 2d, b. Mar. 

1722; m. Gideon 
13, 1724 or 25. 

Moses. 12 in. Mary Heaseltine. April 12, 
1733 ; retained the farm at the Ferry, and 
there lived and died. Their children 
were — 

Moses. 13 b. Mar. 7, 1735 or 30; m. 1st, 
Thurston, of Bradford (says tra- 
dition) ; m. 2d. Abigail Kimball, of Me- 
thuen. Xov. 1. 1770; lived at the Ferrv. 

Sarah, b. Xov. 9. 1737. 

James, b. June 10, 1739; m. Rebecca 
Kimball. Aug. IS. 1757; rem. to Pel- 
ham; there d., April 17, 1?j4. aged 55; 
his grandson. James, now in AVoodsville, 
X. H. (1879). 

William, b. Aug. 10. 1741 ; d. Dec. 14, 
1747, aged 6 years, 4 months. 

Richard, b. July 10, 1743 ; d. Dec. 25, 
1747. aged 4 years. 5 mouths. 

Abigail, b. June 25. 1744; d, Jan. 4, 
1747 or 8. aged 3 years, months. 

Mary. b. Feb." 15, 1740; d. Jan. 23, 
1747 or S. in her 2d year. 

[All four of these children being now 
reported traditionally in Bradford to have 
died of malignant throat distemper, at 
nearly the same time]. 

William. 2d, b. Xov. 24. 1748 ; m. Rho- 
da Norton, a native of Xewburyport, 
though at that time, of Bradford, Xov. 
25, 1709. He built an addition to the 
original house, and the farm is stUl 
owned, but not occupied, by his great- 
grandson. Charles Hazelton. Mrs. Anna 
Mitchil. the daughter of his son. Daniel, 
b. 1S0O, is still living (1879) in Bradford 

Richard. 2d. b. May 20, 1751 ; d. Feb. 
21. 1750. 

Thaddeus, 1;J b. April 17, 1754; d. May 
11. 1S45. 

Thus was a family in old Bradford 
essentially ••sifted." in the Providence 
of God. to furnish one settler for the 
wilds of Sanbornton, X. II. 

Thaddeus, L3 m. Abigail Merrill, of 
Bradford, Xov. 30, 1775, who was b. 



1756. and probably soon after marriage 
moved to Sanbornton. X. EL, settling in 
what is now Franklin, on west slope. of 
hill between New Boston and the pres- 
ent river road. She there d. Dec. 17S9. 
aged 33. and he in., 2d. Molly Bean. July 
29, 1790. (Woodman), who was b. April 
37.1761, and d. May 13. 1S31. aged 70. 
He died at his homestead May 11, 1S45, 
aged 91 . 

Children b}- his first wife : 

Richard," b. Dee. 11. 1776; was a 
farmer in Boscawen, and d. May IS, 
1856, aged 79 years, 5 months. 

Mary. b. June 12. 177:>: d. young. 

Daniel, b. Sept. 9. 1781; moved back 
to Bradford. 

Moses, b. Aug. 16. 17S3- m. Nancy 
Bean Feb. 26, 1806. (Crockett) : m. 2d, 
Sarah (Rollins) Tenney, daughter of 
Jothaui Rollins (see), who died Nov. 39, 
1852. aged 6S years, 5 months. 22 da vs. 
He d. Get. 1. 1851. aged 6S. Had among 
other children: 1. John, who lies buried 
at his side (without grave-stones. New- 
Boston cemetery), and 2. Julia A. (2d 
wife) m. Elkms Chapman (see). Abi- 
gail, b. Sept. 8. 1785; m. Jeremiah Ells- 
worth (see). 

Lydia, \ b. May 12. 1788; both died 

♦John, f young. 

Mehitabel.'b. Nov. 21. 17S9. 

Children by his second wife: 

William Haseltine, 14 b. Mar. 21, 1791 ; 
d. Sept. 26. 1872. 

Kboda. b. July S. 1793; m. John D. 
Clark (see). 

David B., b. April 3, 1795. 

Betsey B.. b. June 22. 1797; d. Oct. 5, 
1S02. aged 5 years, 3 months. 

James, b. Sept. 27, 1799: d. Oct. 7, 
1802, aged 3 vears. 

John, b. Fen. 2, 1802; died Oct. 11, 
1802. aged 8 months. 

[All three of these children died with 
dysentery within a single week, as 

Polly, b. Dec. 30, 1804; m. David D. 
Thorn pson (see). 

William Hazeltine, 14 (Thaddcus 13 ) born 
in Sanbornton ; moved to Boscawen 1804 ; 
m. Molly B.. daughter of Bradbury 
Morrison, of Sanbornton, Jan. 25. 1814. 
She died Feb. 15. 1833; m. 2d, Sarah 

Children of Molly B. : 

Sophronia S.. 15 b. Jan. 21, 1815; m. 
John O. Russ Nov., 1835; d. May 23. 

Eloander Wood. b. July 11. 1816; 
drowned in canal near Contoocook river, 
iu Boscawen, May 25. 1819. The body 
was recovered nine days later in the 
Merrimack, at Concord, seven miles dis- 

Isaac Kimball, born Oct. 27, 1S18; m. 

Susan G.. daughter of Reuben Johnson, 
Oct. 27. 1812. 

Asa Morri-on, b. Nov. 17. 1820: m. 
Sophia W.. daughter of John Caldwell, 
of Boscawen. 

Phebe Preseott, b. Sept. 23.1822: m. 
Andrew J. Kuss: d. Aug. 9, 1853: 3 

Rosilla Morrison, b. Aug. 8,1824; d. 
Oct. 28. 1827. Child of Sarah. 

Pollv Rosilla. b. Aug. 1, 1838 : m. Sam- 
uel R. Maun. 

Isaac Kimball," (William H. 14 ) m. 
Susan Gr., (see above"). 

Children of Susan : 

Frederick Johnson. 10 b. Sept. 12. 1843. 

Georgiana Judith, b. Jan. 16, 1848: m. 
Abiel \V. Rolfe. (2 children— Ha rrv 
Gage. b. Julv 5. 1872: Herbert Wilson. 
b. May 14. 1875). 

Mary Morrison, b. Dec. 28. 1849: m. 
Milton W. Wil>on. (2 children— Florence 
Lee. I). Jan. 9. 1877; Susie Gage, b. Jan. 
.26, 1879). 

Charlotte Hubbard, b. Mar. 13. 1852; 
d. June 2<J. 1866. 

Lucy Kimball, b. June 11. 1859. 

Isaac William, 115 b. Sept. 1, 1861. 

Frederick Johnson, llj (Isaac K., 15 ) ; m. 
Harriet A. Morse. Mar. 11, 1868. 

Children of Harriet: 

Blanche. 11 " b. Nov. 24. 1S69. 

Lottie II.. b. Feb. 22. 1873. 

Fred.Healey. lr b. Oct. 20, 1874.. 


1. John. 1408. 


2. John. in. Joan Sudgrove. 

3. Sir John. in. Eleanor St. Clere; d. 
Sept. 30. 1486. 

4. Esquire William, b. 1456; m. Agnes 

5. Sir John, b. 1480; m. Philippa 
Guildcrford; d. April 28. 1557. 

6. Sir Edward, m. Elizabeth Parker. 

7. Esquire John. d.. aged 30. 

8. John, in. Penelope, widow of Sir 
George Treuchard; died Oct. 3, 1633. 

9. John, m., 1st, Anna ; 2d. 

Sarah Keyes; 3d, Mary Keyes. He 
came to America, landing in Salem. June 
12. 1630; died in Rowlev. 1673. 

10. Daniel, m. Sarah Kimball, Slav 3, 
1675; d. Nov. 8.1705. 

11. Daniel, b. Mar. 2. 1676; m. Martha 
Burbank; d. Mar. 14. 1747. 

12. Moses, b. May 1, 1700; m. Mary 

13. Thaddeus, b. April 17, 1754; d. 
May 11. 1845. 

14. William Haseltine, b. Mar. 21, 
1791; d. Sept. 26, 1872. 

15. Isaac Kimball, b. Oct. 27, 1818. 

16. Frederick Johnson, b. Sept! 12, 

17. Fred Healey, b. Oct. 20, 1874. 





I / 

t/^^rtX' /Cc^>£tJ-^^ 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

DECEMBER, 1882. 

ISTo. 3. 


' From the earliest settlement of New 
England, the name of Tilton has been 
honorably known. As early as 1642, 
the name of John Tilton appears upon 
the records of Lynn. Contemporary 
with him were William Tilton. of Lynn. 
and Peter Tilton, of Hadley. Early 
in the last century, there were several 
in the town of Hampton of the name. 
From one of these probably descend- 

1. Nathaniel Tilton, who settled 
in Sanbornton, about the year 1770. 
He was a member of the original 
church in that town, and was chosen 
its second deacon, which office he held 
for thirty-nine years. He married Ab- 
igail Oilman, a relative of John Taylor 
Oilman ; she died Oct. 14, 1803. He 
died Feb. 11, 18 14. 

2. Col. Jeremiah Tilton, son of 
Nathaniel and Abigail (Oilman) Tilton, 
ton, was born in 1762. He was a sol< lier 
in the Revolutionary army. Pie built the 
original hotel on the site of the Dexter 
House in Tilton, and was one of the 
founders of that flourishing village. 
He was actively engaged in manufac- 
turing, carrying on a trip-hammer shop 
and a grist-mill, was a colonel in the 
''late militia and was a justice of the 
peace. He married Mehitable Hayes, 
K*b. 21, 1786, who died Jan. 19, 1840. 
a o e d 72. He died April 10, 1822. 

3- Hon. Samuel Tilton, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, son of Teremiah 

and Mehitable (Hayes) Tilton, was 
born Aug. 20. 1789. He commenced 
life as a blacksmith in his father's trip- 
hammer shop, and carried on an ex- 
tensive mechanical business in early 
life. Later he occupied the hotel. 
He was a man of great business ener- 
gy and sagacity, and did much for 
the prosperity of his native town, of 
which he was a leading spirit for many 

In 1826. he was elected a repre- 
sentative of his town, to which office 
he was re-elected for six successive 
years. In 1836-7, he was elected 
councilor of the Strafford councilor 
district. In 1840, upon the division 
of the old county of Strafford, he was 
appointed sheriff of the new county of 
Belknap, in which office he was con- 
tinued until 1846. In 1848, he was 
chosen one of the electors of the state 
for president and vice-president of the 
United States. In 1852, he was elect- 
ed a delegate to the Baltimore conven- 
tion. In 1853, he was appointed by 
President Pierce. United States mar- 
shal for the district of New Hamp- 
shire, which office he ably filled for six 
years. In 1S53, upon the establish- 
ment of the Citizens' Bank in San- 
bornton, he was elected one of its 
directors, and was so continued until 
his death. 

He was always prudent and cau- 
tious in his business matters, and his 



general success through life evinced 
most clearly great soundness of judg- 
ment. As a friend, he was honest. 
firm, and unwavering, and no false- 
hood or pretence whatever had the 
least influence in detaching him from 
those in whom he confided. In his 
dislikes he was equally decided. He 
was public spirited, and with every 
movement calculated to enhance the 
growth of his native village and town, 
he fully and freely identified himself: 
and the records of the schools, sem- 
inar}', and houses of religious worship, 
will all bear witness that no man gave 
more freely or abundantly than he did 
toward their establishment. In his 
politics, he was a democrat, a strong 
friend of the Union, always conserva- 
tive and patriotic in his feelings, and a 
most decided and outspoken opponent 
of all kinds of radicalism. 

In his judgment his friends reposed 
great confidence. This was manifest 
not only in the influence he always ex- 
erted over them, but also in the fact 
that he was almost continually, during 
a long life, called upon by his fellow- 
citizens to fill offices of trust and re- 
sponsibility. But few men. in this 
respect, have been more fortunate in 
securing the good will of those in in- 
terest — the reward of a faithful per- 
formance of dutv. 

He died Nov. 12.1861. H is funer- 
al was attended by a large number of 
his relatives, neighbors, and townsmen, 
among whom was an unusual number 
of venerable looking men, who came 
out to pay their last respects to one 
who in the fire of youth., the vigor of 
manhood, and the gravity ot age. had 
with them walked step by step to the 
end of a long and active life. 

Early in life, Jan. 31, 1S15, Samuel 
Tilton was married to Mvra, daughter 
of Samuel Ames, of Canterbury. She 
was born Sept. 28, 1792, and died 
March 7, 1857. He married, second, 
March 16. 185S, Mrs. Elizabeth (Cush- 
man) Haven, of Portsmouth. 


1 . Alfred Edwin Tilton, born Nov. 
11, 1815 ; died March 30, 1877. 

2. Sarah Tilton, born Oct. 23, 
18 1 9 ; married Charles Minor, May 
11, 1841 : died Feb. 25, 1S82. 

3. DeWitt Clinton Tilton, died 

4. Caroline Augusta Tilton, died 

5. Charles Elliott Tilton, bora 
Sept. 14, 1 82 7, resides in Tilton. 

The facts in this article are taken 
from the very able history of Sanborn- 
ton, latelv published, written by Rev. 
M. T. Runnels. 



In a sketch of the families of Neal 
and Lear, which appeared in the Gran- 
he Monthly of April, 1881, it was 
intimated that we might prepare an 
article for publication on Benjamin 
Lear, the Hermit of Sagamore. 

With the view of making the sketch 
more complete, and regarding the in- 
formation as reliable, we shall have re- 
course to the " Rambles about Ports- 
mouth" for such facts as we may dis- 
cover relating to one of the singular 

men whose names were familiarly 
known to the south-end boys in the 
days of yore. Mr. Brewster, the au- 
thor of the " Rambles," is remembered 
with gratitude by the sons of Ports- 
mouth. Notwithstanding a very busy 
life, and the constant pressure of his 
editorial profession, together with the 
severe labors incident to a printing 
office of his time, he placed on per- 
manent record, as the result of most 
patient investigation and exhaustive 



research, many incidents connected 
with the history of his native town, 
which would otherwise have been un- 
recorded and lost. " Ramble" num- 
bered 42, relates to Sagamore creek, — 
the origin of its name, the residences 
which skirt its romantic shore, the 
bridge which spans its bewitching 
waters, and some of the peculiarities 
of the odd and eccentric character 
who forms the subject of this sketch. 

The references to Benjamin Lear are 
substantially in accord with the infor- 
mation we obtained when a youth from 
the " oldest inhabitant," and also from 
our grandmother, Margaret ( Lear ) 
Xeal, who was a relative of the '"Her- 
mit" — a cousin of some degree. She 
occasionally visited the " Hermitage," 
and received calls from its occupant 
when he came to the " Bank," as he in- 
variably called the compact part of 
Portsmouth, where she resided. This 
was the ancient name of our goodly city, 
which he, at times, visited, perhaps once 
ortwiceannually. VVehavealsoin mind 
mauy events of his life which have not 
heretofore been printed, and which will 
be embodied in this sketch. 

Benjamin Lear died at his home, 
near the beautiful Sagamore, in Ports- 
mouth, X. H., December 17, 1S02, 
aged 82 years. 

His mother died in 1775, at trie af l" 
vanced age of 103, in the cottage built 
on the land her son Benjamin had in- 
herited from his father. Savage, in his 
" Genealogical Dictionary," mentions 
a Mrs. Lear who died at Portsmouth, 
X. H., in the year 1775, aged 105. It 
i^ related of her, that when she reached 
the age of 102 years, she heard a bell 
tolling for a funeral, an immemorial 
custom of Portsmouth still observed. 
She remarked to visiting friends, "Oh. 
when will the bell toll for me? It 
seems to me that the bell will never toll 
for me. I am afraid I shall never die." 

The farm on which Benjamin Lear 
lived, and which he inherited, was sit- 
uated on the south side of Sagamore 
creek, just west of the road leading 
from Sagamore bridge to Rye, about 
midway up the creek from Little Har- 

bor. The bridge was built in 1S50, 
previous to which time no traveled 
road existed there. 

The foundation of the Hermit's 
cabin is a few rods west of the only 
house now on the premises. The 
cellar was not large, as the excavation 
for it was unci^r but a portion o( the 
building. Some of the stone under- 
pinning and bricks belonging to the 
chimney remain, and the spot where 
both the house and barn were located 
can be easily designated. 

The stone wall, which is covered by 
the house recently removed from 
Greenland by Josiah F. Adams, the 
present owner of the farm, was in good 
condition when the cellar was cleared 
of the debris which partially filled it. 
This site has often been represented 
as the spot which had been occupied 
by the Hermit's cot. But it belonged 
to the house built by Miss Hannah 
Randall, who frequently ferried to the 
opposite shore any one desirious of 
crossing the creek, and needing assist- 
ance. Many have supposed that she 
was a sister of Benjamin Lear, but 
she was only a neighbor, whose parents 
lived at one time on the banks of the 
creek below where Hannah "run the 
ferry." After her father and mother 
became aged, she built a small house 
on the spot where that of Mr. Adams 
now stands, and with them occupied 
it. James Randall survived his wife, 
and Hannah kindly "took care of 

There was a sister, Mrs. Gowdy, 
the cellar of whose house is in the 
immediate vicinity, but nearer the old 
Peverley Hill road leading from Ports- 
mouth Plains to Odiorne's Point. La- 
fayette, one of the roads now used to 
reach Sagamore, was not built until 1825. 
One of his two sisters, Benjamin 
Lear buried in the valley where his 
own body was subsequently interred. 
The family burial-ground was on the 
point of land just beyond Bull Rock, 
where the graves of the other members 
of the family are to be found. The 
Hermit remarked, when one of the 
sisters died, that they did not fully 



agree in life, and he thought it would 
be well to separate them in death ; and 
consequently he gave sepulture to one 
of them in the valley where his own 
body now reposes. 

" For more than twenty years he 
dwelt entirely alone. He made his 
own garments, which were in fashion 
peculiar to himself. He tilled his land, 
milked his cows, made butter and 
cheese ; but subsisted principally on 
potatoes and milk. Owing, no doubt, 
to his simple and temperate mode of 
living, he exhibited, at the age of 82, 
a face freer from wrinkles than is gen- 
erally seen in those of fifty." 

The farm which he owned and oc- 
cupied " was of sufficient extent and 
fertility to have supported a large fam- 
ity," but he had the idea that he might 
live to spend the whole property. I 
Have heard it related that his domicile 
was once invaded by 'Toughs" from 
the " Bank," who, supposing he had 
money, and intent on plunder, entered 
his dwelling at night ; but Mr. Lor 
retreated to the lofi, or upper story, 
where, handling a place spear with 
dexterity, he succeeded in spearing 
one of the number, when all retired, 
the way of their retreat being easily 
traced, the following morning, by blood, 
to the shore where their boat had 
probably landed. Mr. Lear was quiet, 
peaceable, and inoffensive, but capable 
of protecting himself when occasion 

A venerable lady, a good friend and 
for years a near neighbor to our family, 
on Franklin street, and who died Nov. 
16, 18S0, at the ripe age of 95, men- 
tioned to us, the year before her death, 
the following incident, as her recollec- 
tion of what was said concerning the 
Hermit: " He cut his garments, some 
said, with tongs, and made his own 
clothes. It was a common remark, 
spoken in jest, when clothing was rude- 
ly made, or uncouthly cut, " Oh, cut m 
Ben. Lear's style, by tongs." He had 
favorite dogs as his companions, and 
it was said he allowed them to lap the 
milk pans, and thus saved labor in 

Bull Rock, a bold and massive rock 
which rises almost sixty feet perpen- 
dicularly from the shore, though but 
slightly elevated above the land back 
of it, is one of the features of the 
place. It derived its name from this 
circumstance : A bull, belonging to Mr. 
Lear, becoming frightened, or, from 
some other cause, rushed upon this 
rock with such momentum that he was 
precipitated over the cliff and broke his 
neck. The name, Bull Rock, has since 
adhered to it, and is likely to be per- 
petuated. It is west from the bridge, 
just above the bend, on the southerly 
side of the creek. We have heard it 
called " Lover's Leap," but that desig- 
nation applies to a prominent eleva- 
tion farther up the creek, on the Beck 
place, where one of the sons had a 
temporary fort. The farm is now 
owned by John W. Johnson, having 
been recently purchased of the Beck 
heirs, after having been in possession 
of the family many generations. 

As Mr. Lear became advanced in 
years, he was repeatedly and urgently 
invited, particularly by the parents of 
the late James Moses, to spend the 
winter months with them, or accept 
the proffered hospitalities of other kind 
neighbors ; but he alsvays declined, "al- 
leging that he had every thing he want- 
ed. He would not suffer any one to 
spend a night in his house to take care 
of him, even in his last illness." For 
several weeks prior to his death he had 
been in feeble health. December 17,. 
1802, was excessively cold, the ther- 
mometer having ranged during the pre- 
vious night at 4 below zero. . The 
severe weather caused thoughtful solic- 
itude on the part of a good Samaritan 
lady, Abigail, wife of Nadab Moses, 
who^e ancestral farm, now in posses- 
sion of the family, adjoined the Her- 
mit's land on the west, and the Beck's 
on the east. At an early morning 
hour Mrs. Moses sent her son James 
(who died Dec. n, 1863, aged 82, 
and who frequently related the story), 
to the dwelling of Mr. Lear, remark- 
ing, — " If our neighbor Lear has lived 
throucrh so cold a night as last night, 



he can stand almost any thing." Mr. 
Moses promptly went to the house, 
saving distance by crossing on the ice. 
the bend in the creek, and found 
Mr. Lear alone and in bed, alive and 
sensible, but he died soon after Mr. 
Moses entered the dwelling. The eve- 
ning previous he had appeared to his 
neighbors, who visited him, quite com- 
fortable, and talked freely, planning 
work for the ensuing spring. Though 
eccentric, he was industrious, possessed 
a good disposition and kindly nature, 
but preferred solitude and loneliness. 

Although with ample means at his 
command, he voluntarily denied him- 
self many of the comforts, as well as 
the luxuries of life. He died Friday 
morning, Dec. 17, 1802, and was in- 
terred the following day on his own in- 
heritance, in the valley, south from Bull 
Rock, by the side of his sister. 

According to the " Provincial Rec- 
ords," he signed the Association Test 
of 1776, ordered by the General Con- 
tinental Congress and by the Commit- 
tee of Safety ot the Colony of New 
Hampshire, — an obligation to oppose 
the hostile proceedings of the British 
fleets and armies. 

The place of his abode was visited, 
during his life time, by many persons, 
through motives of curiosity. The 
Portsmouth Oracle, of Dec. 25, 1S02, 
noticed Mr. Lear's demise, and de- 
scribed his home as situated by the 
waters of Sagamore, or Witch creek, 
as the stream was often called. It was 
diversified by irregular hills and val- 
leys, a decent orchard, an interval for 
tillage, towering pines and craggy 
rocks, which, appearing in various di- 
rections from the ancient lowly cot that 
formed the hermitage, exhibited a 
scene truly romantic. Many have vis- 
ited the spot since his decease, and 
have admired it " as beautiful for situ- 

t An enjoyable ramble was in the vi- 
cinity of Sagamore creek, either boat- 
ing on its waters, or perambulating its 
shores, watching the deepening shad- 

ows of the grand old trees mirrored 

in the moving tide ; or, penetrating its 
forest retreats and shady glens, listen- 
ing to the music of the pines, and in- 
haling their fragrant and healthful ex- 
halations. Writing this in the Federal 
City, in the heat of summer, may give 
intensity to our description of Saga- 
more ; for we vividly imagine, while 
not realizing, the invigorating tendences 
of its bracing air, attractive scenery and 
health-giving aroma. 

The Sagamore was a favorite resort. 
It had its charms, traditions, and his- 
toric associations. Changes have oc- 
curred, but we trust its banks will not 
be further denuded of majestic trees, 
or its picturesqueness marred by need- 
less innovations. 

The entire locality is of great inter- 
est, and should remain, so far as possi- 
ble, undisturbed. Its natural attrac- 
tions induced the early settlers on our 
shores to select it for their habitation. 

In its immediate vicinity is Odiorne's 
Point, where the first colony landed, 
and built the Manor House, or Mason's 
Hall, as sometimes called, and occu- 
pied and improved the contiguous 
territory. Here they established per- 
manent homes : and their ancestral 
acres have continued in a marked de- 
gree, for many generations, down to a 
period within our own memory, in pos- 
session of their descendants. 

The Governor Wentworth mansion, 
with its council chamber and other 
colonial attractions, is also near by. 
Sagamore Creek and its surroundings 
constitute a region of great historic 
interest, which must always attract at- 

We have blended in the foregoing 
sketch all the incidents, recorded, or 
otherwise, which have come to our 
knowledge, concerning Benjamin Lear, 
the. Hermit of Sagamore. It has been 
submitted to Alfred Davis Moses, of 
Portsmouth, who is well informed in 
all that relates to Sagamore. He cor- 
roborates the narration, and can not 
furnish any additional items. 




Arm? and the chief I sins:, who, with a band 
Of wandering 1 heroes, fled far o'er the sea; 
Thrust out and e.xiled from the Trojan land. 
He came from thence, the first. !>.- [Tate's decree. 
To Latiau coasts, to strands of Italy. 
Tost to and fro was he 'mid dangers great, 
On land and wave, in deep adversity"; 
By power supernal, whose dread aid might sate 
The ruthless Juno's rage and unrelenting hate. 

And when he reached the far Lavinian shore, 
The clime predestined for his future race. 
Unnumbered toils in war he suffered more. 
While he would build a town — i dwelliug-place — 
And give his gods in Latian land a space — 
Those sacred guardian- of his Trojan home. 
Thence their famed titie do th \ Latin- trace: 
From thence the lines of Alban fathers come. 
And the high walls and battlements of mighty Rome. 

Say, Muse, thou prompter of heroic verse. 
What god-head was constrained in anger so. 
To cause such toils? Do thou in song rehearse 
Why the fair queen of heaven such ire should show 
To plunge „Kneas into deepest woe. 
And cloud his way with dangers thickly strown, 
Causing his limbs to quake, his tears to flow. 
Can heavenly souls such high resentment own, 
And exercise their rage on frail mankind alone? 

South of Italia, upon Afric's shore. 
A thriving city stood, of ancient date. 
And Carthage was the name the city bore; 
A tribe from Tyre did erst its rise create. 
'Twas full of W'-alth and stronir in amies great. 
That place did Juno love with dear delight, 
More than her Samian isle or Argive state; 
There were her weapons stored, of brazen might. 
And there her chariot stood, for ever gleaming bright. 

And Juno sought — it was her firm intent — 
To make that realm of wide-extended sway. 
Both far and near, if Fate might thus be bent; 
Yet she had heard a hateful rumor say 
That hosts from Troy woidd come in future day, 
And all her Tynan towers o*erihr«»w — 
Whose empire then would spread and force its way 
O'er every land, and never limit know: 
That things of future years were predetermined so. 

Then dark forebodings filled Safurnia's mind, 
In the remembrance of the part ehe bore. 
When deities of heaven with men combined, 
In long-continued war on Ilium's shore; 
Nor yet have faded from her heart the sore 
For beauty's prize, to Venus' self decreed 
By Paris' judgment, given in days of yore; 
Her scorn and hatred of Electra's seed, 
And honors placed above on heaven-rapt Ganymede. 


Thus fired at heart she sent the Trojan hand 
Hither and thither o'er the watery way; 
A herd of exiles driven from land to land. 
The doleful remnant of the Grecian fray. 
That swift Achilles' spear had failed to'slay. 
On them the vengeance of the goddess came; — 
Far from Italia were they doomed to stray. 
So much it cost to found the Roman name. 
Such heavy toil and strife to raise so vast a frame. 

Scarce lost in distance were Sicilian lands. 
As full of hope the Trojans onward bore. 
With full-spread sails and innny laboring hands. 
Were plowing through the brine with brazen prore. 
When Juno, harboring in her heart the sore. 
The lasting wound, thus to herself said she: — 
** Ah ! am I vanquished? And must I give o'er? 
Have I not power to keep from Italy 
That Trojan king, aud am 1 barred by Fate's decree? 

Might not Minerva wrap a ileet in fire. 
And plunge the Grecians in the deep below, 
For Ajax's only crime aud fury dire? 
Jove's herself presumed to throw. 
That lent tie* ships atwain in vengeance so. 
And all the sea turmoiled. Himself she caught 
Up in a whirlwind blast, while forth did flow 
Flames from his bosom pierced by wild-fire shock. 
And hurled him headlong down upon a pointed rock. 

But 1 who walk in majesty above. 
A queen of gods who dwell in mansions bright — 
Ay. consort-sister e'en of supreme .Iwt' — 
Must I wage war so long in cruel might 
With one lone race? Thenceforth will any wight 
With suppliant hand- gifts on my altar lay?"' 
And saying thus, unto JEolia's height. — 
The realm of storms, — the goddess went her way. 
Where winds imprisoned lie, hid from the light of day. 

There, in a prison eave. king .Eolus 
Confines each struggling wind and howling blast; 
They rage and bluster, and seek ever thus 
Through the strong bars to break from fetters fast. 
And m ike the mount resound through caverns vast; 
Their seept*Ted king sits on a rocky steep. 
Controls their wrath, or else, swift would they cast 
Earth, sea and sky into confusion deep, 
And carry all before them with impetuous sweep. 

But knowing this the site omnipotent 
Did hide them deep in a dark place alone. 
Within a mountain in a cavern pent. 
And o'er them set a weight}' mass of stone. 
And gave a keeper, who by laws well known. 
The rule of blustering subjects well conceives, 
When to confine them in the eave their own. 
Or give them rein to scour the land and seas. 
To whom did Juno supplicate in svords like these:— 

k * O. JEolus! since he. the sire of all, 
Has given dominion of the winds to thee, 
To calm the billows, or let tempests fall; — 
A race 1 hate now sails the Tyrrhene sea — 
Troy and her conquered gods— to Italy 
They bear along. O, from thy prison-keep 


Send forth hi fury all thy subjects free; 
Overwhelm their vessel? all with direful sweep. 
And strew them diverse ways amid the watery deep. 

Of twice seven nymphs, who near my person wait. 
Fairest of all is one Dei'ope : 
Her will 1 give thee for thy loving mate. 
In wedlock firm to live in harmony. 
To pass in gladness all her years with thee. 
And make thee father of a beauteous line.'' 
Then answered Mollis : * k Thine let it he. 
O queen, to speak whate'er thou would'st design. 
To execute thy will shall evermore be mine. 

Thou givest me to enjoy the smiles ot' Jove. 
My kingdom and my sceptre of command, 
To rule the wind- and feast with gods above." 
lie said: then with uplifted spear in hand. 
He smote the mount. Quick, as in ordered band. 
Rush forth the winds o'er earth with whirling blast; 
They swoop the sea and pour along the land. 
And all the deep from lowest depths upcast; 
East. West, and stormy South, pile up the surges vast. 

The creak of ropes succeeds, and doleful cries 
Of men : and heavy clouds the heavens control. 
Shutting out daylight from the Trojans' eyes; 
And night broods o'er the deep. From pole to pole 
The lightnings flash and awful thunders roll, 
And all things threaten death to every man. 
Forthwith -Eneas, all unmanned in soul. 
While through his limbs a freezing tremor ran, 
Stretched forth his hands to heaven, and. groaning, thus began 

" O blest were ye! thrice favored of us all. 
Whose lot it was. before your fathers' eyes. 
By .Troy's dear sacred wails in death to fall! 
Thou son of Tydeus! of all Greek allies 
Most brave. had i been thy prize. 
Slain by thy hand to join the spirit throng. 
Where 'neath Achilles" lance great Hector lies. — 
Where fell Sarpedon, where Simois rolls along 
The shields and helms or men and bodies of the strong." 

While thus he cried the rushing northern gales 
Burst in dire tempest on the foaming tide; 
Lift to the clouds tie; sea. and smite his sails; 
With shattered oars his vessel yields her side; 
Some ships upon the mountain billows ride. 
And some the bottom of the deep descry. 
And three the south wind, in his ansrry pride. 
In whirlpools dashed on hidden rocks that lie 
In midmost sea. called Altars still in Italy. 

Three more, the victims of the eastern blast. 
Were dashed on shallows of the moving sand; 
There, woeful sight, were they entangled fast, 
And in mid-sea were left and moored a-land. 
One with Orontes and his Lycian band. 
To certain wreck the whirling waters threw; 
The men were struggling seen, and near at hand. 
Were lost for ever in their chieftain's view. 
And Trojan goods and arms the foaming flood bestrew. 

And now Uioneus' ship doth reel, 
\nd Abas' vessel in dread terror rides. 


And that of brave Aeates, and of leal 
Aletes, open wide their leaky sides. 
And. half o'ereome. drink in the hostile tides. 
Meanwhile, when all the ocean was upheaved, 
Neptune, who o'er the rolling deep presides, 
The dismal turmoil of his realm perceived. 
Uprose, with placid faee, though inwardly he grieved. 

And when the scattered vessels met his eye, 
, Thnt bore the remnant of the Trojan state. 
Half crushed by all the tempests of the sky. 
He saw. ami. conscious of his sister's hate. 
Her guile, and warfare with unyielding Fate. 
. He sternly called the winds of East and West. 

And South, fraught with convolving storm, and straight 
With injured majesty these words addressed: — 
K - What pride of birth or race hath all yourselves possessed? 

To rend the ocean into such turmoil. 
To raise such watery masses to the sky. 
And heaven and earth in trouble all embroil.' 
Without my sovereign leave, ye Winds, whom I — 
But first it meeter seems to pacify 
The raging tumult of the foaming seas. 
A penance more severe henceforth will lie 
On you who dare such sad malpractices. 
Go to your king and bear to him such words as these : — 

That not to him the empire of the sea 
Was given, and sceptre of the nereid train. 
But these by lor, were granted unto me. 
His is the realm of rocks, your bleak domain; 
There let him vaunt himself and ever reign. 
And guard his winds in caverns of the night." 
He said, and speedily he brought again 
Peace to the troubled sea. and put to flight 
The mustering clouds, and brought the sunshine clear and bright. 

The sea-green Triton and Cymothoe. 
They who in grottos of the deep abide. 
Together strove to get the vessels free 
From pointed ro--ks in midmost sea to ride. 
Neptune himself his three-tined spear applied. 
And from the quicksands safe the navy speeds 
Back to deep water and a peaceful tide. 
Then in his chariot, drawn by tinny steeds. 
Swift o'er the tranquil surface of the sea proceeds. 

As when — within a ba- \ igi >ble crowd. 
Hu^e riot reigns and vile seditious cries. 
When sticks and stones are thrown with clamor loud, 
And through the low-born herd fierce tumult tlies. — 
If but a man of noble mien arise. 
A man renowned in wisdom and in years. 
He with calm words their terror pacifies; 
Then hush they all and stand with listening ears, 
They lay aside their rage ind all their angry fears : 

So was it when the monarch of the sea 
Uprose and saw the turmoil of the main. 
And straight again was there tranquillity; — 
To his fleet steeds he gave a loosened iein. 
And in his chariot skimmed the liquid plain. 
Beneath the azure of heaven's open day. 
Then did the .Eneade their vessels gain. 
And sought the land across the ocean way; 
And reached the Afric shores. — the shores that nearest lay. 




Ox THE 9TH OF OCTOBER, A. D. 1 85 I. 


The officers of the New Hampshire 
State Agricultural Society, in concert 
with the city authorities of Manchester, 
invited Mr. Webster to attend their 
fair at Manchester in 185 1'. He ac- 
cepted their invitation. This was their 
first exhibition at Manchester, and the 
second year of the existence of the 
State Agricultural Society. An im- 
mense throng of people, from all parts 
of the state and Massachusetts, were 
assembled on this occasion. The fair, 
or exhibition, was then interesting from 
its novelty, creditable to our state, and 
especially to the city whose enterpris- 
ing citizens contributed so much to 
give it life and successful progress. 
The month of October seldom fur- 
nished so bright and so beautiful sun- 
shine, as was exhibited on this 9th "of 
October. Mr. Webster was received 
at the station of the Concord railway, 
upon the arrival of the cars, by an en- 
thusiastic assemblage of people, and, 
in behalf of the committee of arrange- 
ments, was addressed by Hon. S. H. 
Ayer, a young and talented orator, 
whose premature death was, and still 
is, lamented by a multitude of friends. 
Our limits will not admit the whole of 
his speech on this occasion. We 
give an extract : 

"Mr. Webster ! lam selected by 
this immense gathering of men of New 
Hampshire, to bid you, in their names, 
a cordial welcome to our state. No 
party is here to claim you as its own, 
unless it be that great party in our 
state, which admires the genius, and 
acknowledges the signal services of 
Daniel Webster. The men you see 
here come as citizens of New Hamp- 
shire — come with open arms to receive 
the first and foremost of her sons. 

They have come as citizens of the 
Union to do homage to its great states- 
man whose name is familiar as house- 

hold words, wherever a civilized lan- 
guage is spoken. While they are not 
insensible to the high official position 
you adorn, it is the man they are here 
to honor. 

The place where we have met for 
the reception of New Hampshire's 
most distinguished son we can not 
deem inappropriate to the occasion ; — 
in this youthful city, washed by the 
stream that flows by your early 
home, called into existence by the en- 
terprise and industry of your native 
state, and the wealth and liberality of 
your adopted city, the home and final 
resting-place of Stark, who so nobly 
fought for the country you have loved 
and served so well. 

Now, Sir, in the name of the masses 
around you ; in the name of our State 
Agricultural Society here assembled ; 
in the name of our city and its people ; 
in the name of the state and its citi- 
zen's of both sexes and of all ages, 
from the White Mountains to Straw- 
berry Bank, I bid you welcome." 

In response to Mr. Ayer, Mr. Web- 
ster said : 

"If I say to you on this occasion, 
that I thank you for this kind welcome, 
I should but use old and common 
language, unsuited to the warmth of 
my heart, and the deep gratitude which 
this occasion inspires. 

Allow me to say that there is not 
on the face of the earth a spot in 
which such a welcome as this, by such 
an assembly as this, would carry so 
much cheering gratification to my 

I am here in the state which gave 
me birth ; I am here in the state of 
my early education and associations, 
and where the bones of my ancestors 
repose, and I can say with the great- 
est truth, although my visits to New 
Hampshire have not been unfrequent, 



that never in my life have I crossed 
anv rod of it. without feeling with a 

-low OI 

delight that this is mv 


my native state." 

'Later in the day Mr. Webster said, 
•• I delight to. dwell upon the consid- 
eration that I am now among New 
Hampshire men. 

I delight to feel that I stand on 
my native soil, and among those whom 
we have always regarded with favor 
from my infancy. We recollect that 
the tomb of the great hero of Ben- 
nington is near us. I am proud to 
remember that many of my own 
friends, especially my own father were 
with him on that occasion. And I 
know that on these hills, in early life, 
i have seen his comrades. I have 
often seen him. Now, it we turn back 
to our own New Hampshire people, if 
we remember the men who shed their 
blood, and employed their counsels 
for the liberty of tin's country ; if we 
think of Bartlett, and Whipple, and 
Thornton ; of the Gilmans. the Lang- 
dons, and all those patriots of two or 
three generations ago, who founded 
our New Hampshire government, who 
connected us with the great govern- 
ment of the Union, who sought with 
all their hearts, and recommended 
with all their powers, always as far as 

proper, to lead the people into its 
adoption. And if we could see them 
all here to-day, Josiah Bartlett, William 
Whipple, John Taylor Oilman, and the 
rest of them, and ask them how we 
should deport ourselves in the present 
crisis of the country, what would they 
say? If any should say, ' we were for 
breaking off from this union, were for 
cutting loose the ties that are binding 
us together,' would they not say we 
were staik mad, departing from every 
thing ihey had taught us? 

Gentlemen, let me assure you that 
in my conviction, the thunder-bolt that 
rives the hardy oak, and splits it from 
its top to the ground into ten thousand 
pieces, and scatters those pieces over 
the earth, may be a more sudden mode 
of destruction, but it is not a surer 
mode than a spirit of disunion will 
show if it is let forth, in its angry zeal 
upon the united government under 
wnich we live. Its fragments will 
cover the earth, and we shall feel the 
smoke of the sulphur so long as we 

live. Now, gentlemen, let 


where our fathers stood. Let us say 
that we are Americans, one and all ; 
that we go for the general liberty, the 
general freedom, the general security 
of the whole American Republic ! " 



Lo. countless thousand snow-white sheep 

March ou to pastures fair and vast. 
The self-same flock we see to-day. 

That moved there in the voiceless past. 

From living springs, exhaustless yet. 

They drink of lift:, and ne *er grow old; 
With silver how. in beauty bent, 

A chosen shepherd guides the fold. 

He drives them through the golden gate: 

Each name he knows; counts all at night; 
Though oft he makes the journey long. 

No lamb is ever lost from sight. 

A ram bounds fortli to lead the way. 

A trusty watch-dog helps to guide; 
Know'stthou the flock? Canst tell me. pray, 

Who is the shepherd by their side? 

Alma J. Herbert. 





Old Gilmantoi was formerly one of 
the largest and > >ost important towns 
of New Hampshire. It comprised an 
area of sixty-three thousand acres, 
and before Belm >nt was severed from 
it the value of agricultural prod- 
ucts exceeded that of any other town 
in the state. Among its citizens were 
numbered many men of large wealth 
and usefulness, not a few of whom ac- 
quired a name that was known and 
reverenced beyond the limits of their 
own neighborhood. Gilmanton citi- 
zens, bearing the proud name of Gil- 
man, Cogswell, and Badger, during 
more than one generation, exercised 
active influence in the councils of the 
state. They were militia officers, sher- 
iffs, judges, senators, and governors. 
They were the owners of broad acres 
among her hills and romantic val- 
leys, the movers of prominent indus- 
tries, and the dispensers oi prodi- 
gal hospitality. Gilmanton was then a 
star of the first magnitude in the gal- 
axy of New Hampshire towns. It di- 
vided with Dover the honor of emi- 
nence in old Strafford county. The 
county courts were held alternately at 
these two boroughs. Business was 
flourishing, and a population of over 
three thousand gave the town an out- 
look toward the future, so to speak, 
that was not surpassed by any other in 
the Granite State. 

That was in the good old days when 
the lumbering stage-coach rattled over 
the highways, and old-fashioned hostel- 
ries at " Smith's Corner," at " Gilman- 
ton Corner," and at the " Center" 
welcomed the traveler with that cour- 
tesy and good cheer which Longfellow 
has so admirably characterized in his 
"Tales of a Wayside Inn." A npw 
era was ushered in with the laying of 
railroads. The " center" of business 
moved to other localities, and Gilman- 
ton, like many another ancient seat, 
was left out in the cold. That was the first 

adverse stroke of a sternly jealous fate. 
In 1859 followed the severing of Bel- 
mont. The new township was first 
incorporated as " Upper Gilmanton." 
Mutation is the law of nature, and Gil- 
manton has little now to attract the 
visitor, save her ancient ancestral 
homes, her hills and healthful air, 
which are beginning to be valued 
by an increasing number of annual 
sojourners. The hills — the eternal 
hills — remain ; the farms are there, and 
the sturdy, hospitable yeomanry, bear- 
ing the old historic names, but the 
greatness has departed. 

A ride over the Gilmanton hills can 
not but be enjoyed by any one. You 
enter the hilly region as soon as you 
start from Tilton. Such stage-riding ! 
Well, it is delightful. The country is 
beautiful, superbly diversified by wood, 
streamlet, and cultivated fields. The 
sunshine is radiant, and the air is laden 
with vitality. The stage travels slow- 
ly, or else the miles are of greater 
length than any others we know of. 
They are country miles ; they have in- 
deed three hundred and twenty rods 
to the mile, but then the rods are 
longer too. We do not murmur ; we 
are really enjoying the ride, and we 
are going to get off at Belmont. 
Mountains are in the distance, and 
hills are all around us. Off at our left 
toward the north rises an eminence 
that attracts our eyes. It is a long, 
high ridge, smooth and fertile. At 
the highest point stands a huge, long 
barn, and in close adjacency a man- 
sion painted white. Above all toss 
the wide-branching arms of giant elms. 
" That is the place," says the stage- 
driver. We remain silent and admire. 

Anon we arrive at a little hamlet, 
situated in a smiling green valley, bi- 
sected by a rapid, rushing stream. 
Thirty or forty houses, several factories 
and mills, two churches, and three or 
four stores, constitute the village. It 



;<, Belmont ; Gilmanton Center is four 
miles beyond, but we shall go no fur- 
ther. Our destination is the large, 
white farm-house on the hill, under the 
drooping elms. We walk slowly up 
from the valley northward. A distance 
of a mile and a half is traversed. We 
have reached the highest point of the 
ridge of land that stretches out broad 
and nearly level — a charming plateau. 
Before us, set in from the highway, 
and surrounded by lofty ancestral trees, 
ri-es a stately mansion ; around us 
stretch the broad acres of the Badger 

What a glorious site for a dwelling- 
place ! I do not know as there is a 
nobler one in New Hampshire. The 
prospect is extended and beautiful. 
Standing here under the trees we can 
see into two states — Maine on the east 
and Vermont on the west. A succes- 
sion of hills and valleys stretches away 
on every side. Rising beautifully 
green and blue, and impressive, tower 
the gentle undulating eminences. And 
the general hilliness is intensified* by 
the mountains which may be seen by 
the dozen. Kearsarge lifts its gray 
summit forty miles to the west ; and 
northward are the Gilford moun- 
tains, Chocorua, Belknap, and White- 
face, while beyond even these, its peak 
misty and white against the horizon, 
Mount Washington may be seen on a 
clear day, completing the circle. With 
such an outlook as this no wonder the 
occupants of the mansion towered into 

To this site, in 1784, came Gen. 
Joseph Badger, jr., one of the brave 
soldiers of the Revolution. But he 
*as not the first Badger who was emi- 
nent in the history of Gilmanton. His 
father, Gen. Joseph Badger, sr., was 
one of the early settlers and a promi- 
nent man in the town and in the state. 
? n J 773, when Gov. Wentworth organ- 
ised three additional regiments in the 
militia of the state, he placed as colonel, 
at the head of the tenth — the first one 
organized — his friend, Joseph Badger, 
then a man a little past fifty. His reg- 
iment comprised the towns of Gilman- 

ton, Barnstead, Sanbomton, Meredith, 
and New Hampton. Colonel Badger 
was in command of his regiment when 
the war opened, and took an active part 
in favor of the patriot cause. For 
many years he represented the town at 
the General Assembly, and in 17S4 he 
was councillor for Strafford County. 
Before the war closed he was appoint- 
ed brigadier-general of militia, and had 
a commission signed by Meshech 
Weare. He was moderator 20 times 
in 25 years, a selectman 11 years, and 
town treasurer 6 years. He died in 
1803, at the age of eighty- two years, 
after living one of the most active and 
useful lives of his generation. 

His oldest son, Joseph, jr.. followed 
in the veteran's footsteps. He was a 
soldier in the Revolution, and fought in 
several of the battles of that contest. 
He was a lieutenant of his regiment 
during the campaign against Burgoyne, 
and did eminent service under Gates. 
After the close of the war he returned 
to Gilmanton and turned his attention 
to farming. He owned three hundred 
acres o( land, the nucleus of what be- 
came ultimately a magnificent country 
estate. His residence was a simple, 
one-story, frame house, but it was the 
home of contentment, prosperity, and 
happiness. The people knew his worth 
and honored him from time to time 
with a testimony of their trust. They 
sent him several successive years to the 
legislature as the representative of the 
town. In 1790 he was chosen coun- 
cilor for the Strafford district and was 
reelected eight times to that im- 
portant office. He was promi- 
nent in the state militia, passing through 
various grades of office in the tenth 
regiment to its command in 1795. In 
1 796 he was appointed by Gov. Gil- 
man brigadier-general of the second 
brigade. He died at the age of sixty- 
one, Jan. 14, 1809. Says Judge 
Chandler E. Potter, in his "Military His- 
tory of New Hampshire," "As a brave 
soldier, earnest patriot, and upright cit- 
izen, few men have better deserved 
the favor of the public than Gen. 



The inheritor of his wealth, his abil- 
ity, and his popular favor, was his son, 
William Badger, who was the third gen- 
eration of a family to whom honors 
came by a sort of natural descent. 
Born in 1779. William was but a boy 
of five years when his father settled 
upon the bill. Thus his youth was 
passed among the charming influences 
of this unsurpassed location. Much 
of what he achieved in life must be as- 
cribed to the environs of his boyhood, 
and thus is exemplified the helpfulness 
of lofty surroundings. He did not owe 
all to his ancestry, nor to his train- 
ing ; the fact that he rose higher 
than his fathers he owed undoubt- 
edly to the exquisite beauty of 
the landscape he gazed upon, and to 
the strengthening breezes that blew 
around his boyhood home. His early 
school advantages were good. He at- 
tended the district schools, and when 
he was fifteen went several terms to 
Gilmanton Academy, which had been 
incorporated the previous year. He 
was proficient in the English branches, 
and there his education stopped. 
Choosing to be neither lawyer, divine, 
or physician, he wisely let the classics- 
alone, although, perhaps, if he had been 
able to read Virgil's Georgics in the 
original, it might have added a renewed 
charm to his chosen vocation — agri- 

On May-day, 1S03, William Badger 
married and look his wife home to 
the paternal roof. She was Martha 
Smith, daughter of Rev. Isaac Smith, 
the first settled minister of the town. 
She was one year his junior and an 
excellent and beautiful lady. She was 
the mother of two children, — John 
Badger, born in 1804, and died while a 
student at Bowdoin College, in 1824, and 
Martha Smith Badger, bom in 1806, 
and died in 1S26. Mrs. Badger died in 
1810, — the next year after his father, — 
and he was left a widower at the age of 
thirty, with two small children to care 
for, a large estate to look after, with 
the added responsibilities of public 
office to weigh him down. For Wil- 
liam Badger, following in his father's 

path, had just set out in that career that 
was to lead him to the executive chair 
of the state, and was that year the rep- 
resentative of the town to the legis- 
lature. He had previously served upon 
Gov. Langdoivs staff, with the title of 

Dividing his attention between the 
cares oi his farm and the welfare of his 
constituents, — for he was annually elect- 
ed to the legislature, — four years passed 
with Badger. At the end o( that 
time he married again. His second 
wife was Hannah Pearson Cogswell, 
who came of a distinguished family. 
She was born in Atkinson, N. H., July 
6, 1 79 1- Spirited, energetic, and 
capable, Miss Cogswell made an excel- 
lent help-meet. She was fitted to be 
the mistress of a large house, and had 
the faculty for conducting business. 
She had the thrift of a " Widow Scud- 
der." Some of the neighbors who re- 
member her say she had the faculty of 
getting more work done in a day than any 
other woman in Gilmanton. 

The very year that he married his 
second wife, William Badger was elect- 
ed a state senator from district No. 6. 
He was twice reelected, and the last 
year, 1S16, he was President of the 
Senate. This latter year he was ap- 
pointed an associate Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, an office that 
he held until 1820. In May of that 
year Gov. Bell appointed him Sheriff 
of the county of Strafford, and 
he served in that capacity ten years, 
retiring in 1S30. 

Col. Badger was a democrat of the 
Jefferson and Jackson school, and 
about this time be^an to be regarded as 
a sort of prospective candidate for gu- 
bernatorial honors. His large wealth, his 
noble ancestry, his long and meritorious 
services brought him before all men's 
eyes. He had moreover those popular 
democratic manners that endeared him 
to the people. In 1 83 1 the elder Sam- 
uel Dinsrnoor, of Keene, was the nom- 
inee of the party, and was three times 
successfully elected. In 1834 Col. 
Badger became the candidate, and re- 
ceived a triumphant election. The 



next year he was reelected. Gov. 
badger was a very efficient chief magis- 
trate. He possessed strict integrity, 
his judgment was sound, and when 
determined upon a course of action, he 
was not to be swerved from it. During 
the" Indian Stream Territory Troubles " 
his duties were of great responsibility, 
but he performed them with prompt- 
ness, and at the same time ju- 
diciously. A man with less care and 
prudence might have greatly increased 
our border troubles. His course re- 
ceived the hearty commendation of all 
parties and doubtless saved us from a 
war with Great Britain. At the close 
of his second term he refused a renom- 
ination and retired to his farm, glad, 
like Cincinnatus, to be relieved of the 
cares of state. 

He was now fifty-seven years old, 
and for twenty-five years had been con- 
stantly in the harness. He felt that 
other and younger men should now 
take the reins. He filled no other im- 
portant office after his retirement from 
the chief magistracy. In 1836, and 
again in 1844, he was chosen to the 
board of electors of President and 
Vice President of the United States. 
Gov. Badger was also one of the trus- 
tees of Gilmanton Academy, and for 
several years was president of the board. 

Beside the large farm which he in- 
creased until he had a goodly estate of 
between five and six hundred acres, 
Gov. Badger was largely interested in 
manufacturing. He owned a saw and 
grist mill on the " Great Brook," and 
in the latter part of his life established 
a cotton factory where Belmont village 
now stands. He seems to have been 
the first to foresee the possibilities of 
the future in the manufacture of cotton 
goods, and the present village of Bel- 
mont owes much of its thrift and pros- 
perity to his energy and enterprise. 
He died Sept. 21, 1852, at the age of 
seventy-three. Mrs. Badger survived 
him seventeen years, dying Feb. 22, 
1869. The governor and his two wives 
are buried in the family lot at the old 
^mith meeting house, five miles from 
the mansion. 

Gov. Badger was a tall, stately man, 
strong six feet in height, and at 
some periods of his life weighed near- 
ly three hundred pounds. He was ac- 
tive and stirring his whole life. Though 
a man of few words he was remarkably 
genial. He had a strong will, but his 
large good sense prevented him from 
being obstinate. He was generous and 
hospitable, a friend to the poor, a kind 
neighbor, and a high souled, honorable 
Christian gentleman. 

The grand old mansion that he built 
and lived in has been a goodly resi- 
dence in its day. Despite its some- 
what faded majesty, there is an air of 
dignity about the ancestral abode that 
is not without its influence upon the 
visitor. It is a house that accords well 
with the style of its former lords ; you 
see that it is worthy of the Badgers. 
The grounds about its solitary stateli- 
ness are like those of the "old English 
gentlemen." The mansion stands well 
in from the road, an avenue fourteen 
rods long, and excellently shaded, leads 
to the entrance gate. There is an 
extensive lawu in front of the house, 
and a row of ancient elms rise to guard, 
as it were, the tall building with its hos- 
pitable portal in the middle, its large 
windows, and the old, moss-covered 
roof. The house faces the south-west, 
is two stories and a half high, and forty- 
four by thirty-six feet on the ground. 

As the door swings open we enter 
the hall, which is ten by sixteen feet. 
On the left is the governor's sitting- 
room, which occupies the south-east 
corner of the house, showing that Gov. 
Badger did not, like Hamlet, dread to 
be too much " i' the sun." It is not a 
large room, only twenty by sixteen feet, 
yet it looks stately. In this room the 
governor passed many hours reading 
and entertaining his guests. In it is 
the antique rocking-chair that was used 
by the governor on all occasions. A 
large fire-place, with brass andirons and 
fender, is on one side, big enough to 
take in half a cord ot wood at a time. 
Near by it stood a frame on which was 
heaped sticks of wood, awaiting, I sup- 
pose, the first chilly evening. It rau«t 



be a splendid sight to see those logs 
blazing, and the firelight dancing on the 
old pictures, and the mirror and the 
weapons on the walls. 

The most noticeable thing in the 
room is the paper on the walls. It 
was bought by the governor purposely 
for this room, and cost one hundred 
dollars in gold. It is very thick, almost 
like strawboard, and is fancifully- illus- 
trated with all sorts of pictures — land- 
scapes, marine views, court scenes, and 
other pageants. It will afford one in- 
finite amusement to study the various 
figures. On one side is a nautical 
scene An old-fashioned galleon, such 
an one as Kidd the pirate would have 
liked to run afoul of, is being unladed 
by a group oi negroes. Swarthy marin- 
ers, clad in the Spanish costume of the 
seventeenth century — long sausage 
shaped hose, breeches pinned up like 
pudding bags, and fringed at the bottom, 
boats with wide voluminous tons, buff 
coats with sleeves slashed in front, and a 
broad-brimmed, Flemish beaver hat, 
with a rich hat-band and a plume of 
feathers — are watching the unlading, 
and an old Turk stand- near by com- 
placent and serene, smoking his pipe. 
On the opposite wall th^re is a grand 
old castle, with towers and spires and 
battlements. In the foreground is a 
fountain, and a group of gallants and 
ladies arc promenading the lawn. One 
lady, lovely and coquettish, leans on 
the arm of a cavalier, and is seemingly 
engrossed with his conversation, while 
yet she slyly holds forth behind her a 
folded letter in her fair white hand 
which is being eagerly grasped by an- 
other gallant — like a scene from the 
Decameron. In the corner a comely 
maiden, in a trim bodice, succinct pet- 
ticoat and plaided hose, stands below a 
tall tree, and a young lad among the 
branches is letting fall a nest of young 
birds into her extended apron. The 
expression on the boy's face in the 
tree, and the spirited protest of the 
mother bird, are very graphically por- 

The loveliest scene of all is that of 
a bay sweeping far into the land ; boats 

and ships are upon the tide ; on the 
shore, rising from the very water's edge 
is a fairy-like, palatial structure, with 
machicolated battlements, that reminds 
one of the enchanted castle of Armida. 
Under the castle walls is assembled a 
gay company. A cavalier, after the 
Vandyke style, is playing with might 
and main upon a guitar, and a 
graceful, full bosomed, lithe limbed 
Dulcinea is dancing to the mu- 
sic in company with a gayly dressed 
gallant. It is the Spanish fandango. 
Another scene is a charming land and 
water view with no prominent figures 
in it. 

Upon the mantel are several curios- 
ities, notably a fragment of the rock on 
which Rev. Samuel Hidden was or- 
dained at Tamworth, Sept. 12, 1792, 
several silhouettes of various members 
of the Badger family, and the silver 
candlesticks, tray and snuffers used by 
Mrs. Gov. Badger. Suspended above 
upon the wall are a pair of horse pis- 
tols, a dress sword, and a pnir of spurs. 
These were the governor's, which were 
used by him in the war of 1S12, and 
also when he was sheriff of the coun- 
ty. The sword has quite a romantic 
history. It was formerly Gen. Joseph 
Badger's, who obtained it in the follow- 
ing manner : when a lieutenant in the 
army near Crown Point and Lake 
Champlain, just after the retreat from 
Canada, in 1777, Badger undertook, at 
the desire of Gen. Gates, to obtain a 
British prisoner. With three picked 
men he started for the British camp at 
St. Johns. Arriving in the neighbor- 
hood, he found a large number of the 
officers enjoying themselves at a ball 
given by the villagers. One of the Bri- 
tons, in full ball dress, they were fortu- 
nate enough to secure, and took him to 
their boat. Badger then exchanged 
clothes with the officer, returned to the 
ball, danced with the ladies, hobnobbed 
with the officers, and gained much val- 
uable informatiofi as to the movements 
of the British army. Before morning 
light he returned in safety with his pris- 
oner to Crown Point, when he received 
the commendations of the command- 



ing general for his bravery. The offi- 
cer's sword he always kept, and is the 
vame weapon that now hangs on the 

The parlor is the grandest of all the 
rooms, and the outlook through its deep 
casemated windows on the lawn dotted 
here and there with trees, is thorough- 
ly charming. The carpet, paper and 
furniture, are of the ancient time. The 
sofa is a huge but comfortable and lux- 
urious seat. The large, gilded framed 
mirror came from Philadelphia. The 
moldings on the walls and the orna- 
mented fire frame and mantel are excel- 
lent specimens of carving. A magnif- 
icently carved card table in the center 
of the room has on it several relics of 
the Badger family. Here is the family 
coffee-pot of silver, ancient decanters, 
wine-glasses, in which have been drunk 
many a bumper, and a sampler that 
was worked by Mrs. Governor Badger 
when she was nine years old. 

Just where the light strikes in a broad 
band there hang two portraits done in 
oil. They are likenesses of the Gov- 
ernor and his wife, painted by Pierce. 
The portrait of Governor Badger repre- 
sents him at the age of forty-two, 
dressed in the civil costume of 1S20 — 
a black, double-breasted coat, with 
bright buttons, a high collar, a white 
necktie, and a queue. The governor's 
face is that of a well-fed, frank, bluff, 
generous English squire. That is a 
good forehead and a handsome nose, 
with a dash of the Roman in it. The 
eyes are blue, keen, and discriminating. 
The lips show firmness. The hair is of 
a brown, glossy texture. The portrait 
at the State House represents him at a 
later period, when he was governor, and 
when he also weighed more avoirdu- 

The portrait of Mrs. Badger is of 
me same date. It represents her a 
dooming beauty of thirty years. She 
wears the short-waisted dress of the 
time, with a wide lace collar standing 
around her neck which *is encircled by 
a necklace of gold beads. The neck 
,s fair and round, and beautifully 
molded as that of a Venus. Her hair 

is blonde, done up in rolls and curls, a 
very becoming coiffure for the young. 
fair, witching face. From the pearly 
ears hang golden pendants. She was 
a very handsome woman. The full 
blue eye is full of a winsome vivacious- 
ness. The lips are pretty ; there is a 
peachy bloom on the fair cheeks, and 
there is a vivacity, a womanly grace, 
and a certain lively expression about 
the whole face that was strongly indic- 
ative of character. 

The ancient dining-room is twelve 
feet wide and twenty-five feet long. It 
looks dim and antique and stately. At 
one end is the gaping fire-place. An 
ancient eight-day clock ticks as cheer- 
fully in its corner as when, in the for- 
mer time, the " great fires up the chim- 
ney roared, and strangers feasted 
at the board." The time-piece was 
purchased by Gen. Joseph Badger, and 
has been in the family a hundred years. 
The table is a huge ailair and fit to 
grace a baronial hall. It is fifteen feet 
long and four in width. It is of solid 
mahogany, and cost — we do not dare to 
say how much. In the governor's day 
that table was always crowded. I 
thought of the old Thanksgiving days, 
the training days and the court days, 
when the uncles and aunts and cousins 
came home, and when the country gen- 
try, and the judges, pompous, grave, but 
loving good cheer as well as any Helio- 
gabulus orVitelliusCresar, feasted at the 
hospitable board. The aroma of those 
old banquets can almost be distin- 
guished yet. 

At that table have sat not a few of 
the prominent men of New Hampshire, 
beside the governor himself. Florid, 
stout, Jacksonian in will and temper 
and generosity, full of jests and stories 
and overflowing with merriment, Gov. 
Benjamin Pierce has been one of a 
circle around the board. The young 
man by his side, bright and eager faced, 
brown haired, slight, gentlemanly, ur- 
bane, is his son, Franklin Pierce, ex- 
member of Congress, and sometime to 
be President of the Republic. The 
fine intellectual head of Judge N. G. 
Upham has been conspicuous in the 



throng, and a near kinsman, a man in 
whom all the beatitudes seemed to find 
expression, a tender poet, a learned 
college professor, a theologian, an au- 
thor, one so exceptionally pure, large- 
hearted, so genial and courteous that 
he could be faithful to truth and duty 
without making an enemy, Thomas 
Cogswell Upham, has here broken 
bread with his friends and relatives.* 
That tall, gaunt, swarthy man, with the 
pale ascetic face of the scholar, yet 
whose keen eyes and eagle nose be- 
spake the man of action and execution. 
is Hon. Henry Hubbard, of Charles- 
town, and governor of his native state. 
Levi Woodbury, with the head of a 
statesman on his broad shoulders, Ira 
A. Eastman, tall, slim, and intensely 
alive in every feature and gesture, and 
Long John Wentworth, whose mother 
was also a cousin of Mrs. Badger, have 
been among those to sit down in this 
old hall. 

The silver tea-service and the China 
plate that graced the governor's table 
is still preserved at the mansion. Open- 
ing from the dining-room and the sit- 
ting-room is a small closet. It is the 
silver room. There was a double set 
of China, and it was all brought from 
Portsmouth in a pair of saddle-bags. 
Many and many a grandame have 
poured the ' ; beverage that cheers but 
does not inebriate " from the precious 
ware. Although in general use by the 
family, only two or three pieces have 
been broken. 

In the north-west corner of the 
square part, and leading cut from the 
dining-room, is the Governor's sleep- 
ing room. It is a pleasant, cosy re- 
treat. There is a fire-place in it so that 
it can be warmed during the cold sea- 
son. Three windows give plenty of 
light to the apartment, and there is a 
closet connected with it. The bed- 
stead is a huge cumbrous affair that 
was made for the governor's own use. 
It seems capable of supporting an Og 
of Eashan. The governor and his wife 
were no light weight, — hence a strong 

•The mother of the Uphuins y.'iis a cousin to 
Mr=. Gov. Hud-er. 

bedstead was necessary. 'The windows 
on the ground Moor are all protected 
by shutters. 

In the ell part, which is also two 
stories in height, is the great kitchen, 
"the old, clean, roomy New England 
Kitchen, 1 ' of whose thrift, warmth and 
coolness. Mrs. Stowe writes so loving- 
ly. This one fills one's ideal com- 
pletely. There is plenty of space, 
there is cleanliness, there is comfort, 
and there is alike warmth and coolness. 
The ancient fire-place lias been walled 
up, and a modern range now does ser- 
vice in cooking. There is bustle here 
but there is no confusion. It is half 
past eleven, and the noonday meal is 
in preparation. Ah ! the fragrance of 
that dinner haunts me yet. 

While the viands are cooking, and 
graceful hands are spreading the snowy 
linen over the mahogany table (I am 
rather of the opinion that the ancient 
Roman custom of eating without table 
cloths was the happiest after all), we 
will ascend the wide stairway to the 
second story. The guest chamber is 
over the parlor. In it is a mahogany 
bedstead with a canopy. It is almost 
a perfect fac simile of Lord Byron's 
bed at Newstead Abbey, only the testers 
are not surmounted by baronial coro- 
nets. The furniture is of the old 
fashioned type. Paper of a hand- 
some light pattern is on the walls. 
Above the mantel are four pictures in 
water colors, done by Mrs. Badger in 
her girlhood days ; also a picture done 
in silk, which is very exact and tasteful. 
The window frames are heavy, and 
were made by hand. The size of the 
lights is nine by thirteen inches. The 
other chambers, and there are five of 
them, are of modern furnishing. 

Before we descend we will go up 
still higher, to the garret, and take a 
look from the windows. The view is 
extensive and picturesque. You can 
see a dozen villages from your eyrie. 
Belmont lies just below in dreamlike 
repose, save for the smoke that rises 
from the factories into the blue ether, 
and even that is curling lazily as if 
dreaming. Fertile fields, white farm 


houses, and green woodlands, stretch 
away on every side, and bounding the 
horizon of this glorious panorama are 
the mountains, misty, dim and distant 
m the shimmering noonday light. 

The garret is full of treasures, if one 
could linger long enough to find them 
all* Here are the relics of three 
generations, wardrobes, old weapons, 
and chests packed with ancient articles 
whose history, in many cases, borders 
upon the romantic. Here are dresses 
that were worn when Jefferson was in 
the White House, and Burr and Hamil- 
ton filled the nation's eyes ; calashes 
that fluttered to the breeze when 
Webster was in his cradle and Marie 
Antoinette was queen of France, and 
rusty old fire-locks that gleamed bright 
and new at Bennington and Stillwater. 
The bric-a-brac hunter would here find 
his paradise. 

We descend to the hall and pass out 
of the antique portico into the yard 
once more. It is still, and cool, and 
shady under the towering elms whose 
branches toss their arm* around the 
two tall chimneys. These elms are 
almost a hundred years old, having 
been transplanted by Gen. Joseph 
Badger, jr., in 17S4. Several horse 
chestnut trees and spruces adorn the 
front yard. At the south end of the 
house is an English honeysuckle, a 
magnificent. vine, that ascends to the 
attic window, covering nearly the whole 
side with greenness. 

The man-ion anal the adjacent build- 
ings were ail built by Gov. Badger in 
1825. No expense was spared in 
their erection. The governor was a 
solid man in more respects than one. 
and he builded solidly. He was the 
squire of the neighborhood, a man of 
authority, and moreover rich in lands, 
in cattle, in silver and gold, like the 
ancient patriarch. Twenty-two co.v- 
'»vere milked every summer on his 
farm, and one hundred and fifty sheep, 
six horses, eight yokes of working oxen. 
i>es:de young stock ted in his pastures. 
A dozen swine were slaughtered 
annually. Six field hands were regu- 
larly employed, and three domestics 

assisted Mrs. Badger in the house. 
His income from his lands, his stock, 
his mills, was large. Probably there 
were not ten other men in New Hamp- 
shire that were as rich as was William 
Badger when he served as chief magis- 
trate of the State. 

The barn is over one hundred feet 
long, and can hold tons and tons of 
hay. It lias a solid foundation of split 
stone, and an excellent cellar. The 
hennery and hog-house are separate 
buildings. A walk laid with broad 
stone digs leads to each one. The 
hog-house has a floor of solid stone, 
and the feeding trough itself is a 
hollowed stone. In the latter building 
is a huge potash kettle, that has done 
good service in its day. Each year 
that Mr. Badger was governor, his 
neighb >rs and townsmen collected and 
escorted him to Concord. The crowd 
was breakfasted by his excellency, and 
this kettle each time was boiled full of 
potatoes. This picture of the huge 
kettle full of steaming tubers, the 
tables set on the lawn, the feasting 
crowd in home-spun or store clothes, 
the picketed horses, the running and 
going, reminds one of a scene at a 
Highland cistle as depicted by Scott, 
when a clan is assembled to march 
against a neighboring clan, or to attend 
their lord to Edinburgh. 

The estate at present is somewhat 
reduced,, and consists of about three 
hundred acres. One field contains 
sixty acres, and is nearly as smooth 
as a fl )or. — only two rocks upon 
it. The governor had two children 
by his last wife who lived to grow 

The eldest of these, Col. Joseph R ld- 
ger, is the present owner of the man- 
sion and estate. Col. Badger was 
born in 1S17, and graduated a: Part- 
mouth in 1839. In 1842 ami 1S43 
he served upon the staff of Gov. 
Hubbard, with the title of colonel. 

He ha : 

presented the town at the 

General Court on two occasions, but 
though much respected by the com- 
munity, he has led for the most part a 
quiet, retired life, upon the old home. 


stead. He married, October n, 1865, east of Bismarck, Dakota. We under- 

Hannah Elizabeth Avers, and they stand that he is improving his leisure 

are the parents of four children. in the accumulation of data prepara- 

The younger brother, Major William tory to writing a history of his native 

Badger, is an officer in the regular town. Major Badger will, we have no 

army. He is the owner of some valua- doubt, be an able and faithful historian, 
ble lands on Long Lake Creek, south - 


[Written for and road at the reunion held at Barnstead. August 30, 1882/ 


Old Barnstead! grand and noble town. 

The fairest gem in a nation's crown, 

With thy broacl fields, thy hills and waters. 

Thy noble sons and peerless daughters. 

Thy daughters fair, wherever found. 
With memories sweet thy name surround: 
Thy absent sons, where'er they roam. 
!Still think of thee, old town, as home. 

No skies so fair have they e'er seen. 
No bird- so gay. no fields -so green. 
No other waters e'er so bright. 
As sparkled to their youthful sight. 

Then life seemed bright as morning's dew. 
And earth seemed good and pure and true. 
(). that those dreams were dreams of truth. — 
Those of our free and buoyant youth. 

But "mid this day of festal gladness 
We will remember, not in sadness. 
How far from childhood's faith we turned. 
As we life's bitter lessons learned. 

Again we view each treasured nook. 
By rocky height or babbling brook, 
And they bring back", with magic power. 
Remembrance of youth's fleeting hour. 

It only seems the other day. 

Wc frolicked there in childhood's play. 

And we forget the flight of years, 

Life's struggles, triumphs, joys, and tears. 

As here we meet *mid scenes of yore. 
And friend greet- friend with joy once more; 
We join the sport, and not in vain. 
Wc dream that we are young again. 

Though passing time has left its traces 
Upon the old, familiar faces; 
And many to-day we miss, among 
Those dear to us when life was young. 

Old Barnstead, 'round oar natal shrine. 
The strongest, tendrils always twine. 
r Kound early friends and playmates dear. 
Now in reunion gathered here. 



Then let joy's merry tones ring out. 
Ring far and wide in gladsome shout. 
Till vale and hill shall give reply 
In echoes sounding to the sky! * 

Long may the old town guard with euro 
That honored station now its share; 
And may its truant children all 
Return at each reunion's call. 

To pass at least one happy day 
With those at home, who wisely stay. 
To ever keep thy growing fame. — 
With them 'tis safe — thy honored name. 

From heaven to earth no bliss descends 
3Ior<> pure than greeting childhood's friends; 
And may we hope reunions here 
Will mark with joy each passing year. 

For they will ever truly be. 
Like islands green in life's drear sea. 
And grow more dear as years shall glide 
Adown time's ever ebbing tide. 

Yet 'mid our joy comes thought of pain. 
We may not all meet here again; 
For one by one we journey 'lone 
Unto the land of the unknown. 

But through the years of coming time. 
As pilgrims in an eastern clime 
Gather at .Mecca, their shrine so dear— 
So may our children gather here. 

When earth ami time no more shall be. 
I hope and trust, old friends, that we 
Shall yet a grand reunion hold 
'Vond gates of pearl, in streets of gold. 
Manchester. August 24, 1SS2. 




In the year 1836 Congress voted 
to distribute about thirty-six millions 
of dollars of surplus revenue, then ly- 
ing in the treasury, among the several 
states. These millions had accumulat- 
ed from the sales of public lands, and 
were still increasing. The national 
•lebt had been all paid. Gen. Jackson 
told his party that this money was a 
source of danger to the liberties of 
the country. The Democratic partv 
»n those days was hostile to internal 

improvements, and opposed them 
every where. Railroads were built 
by individual energy ; rivers were 
obstructed by snags, sawyers, rafts, 
and sand-bars, and even the harbors 
of the lakes, and the St. Clair flats were 
found pretty much in the condition 
nature left them. This money was to 
be distributed in four installments, — 
three of which were paid when an 
angry cloud hovered over our northern 
borders, threatening war with England, 



and the fourth installment .of nine 
millions was retained to pay the ex- 
penses of transporting troops to Maine, 
to Niagara, and to the Indian Stream 
country in northern New Hampshire. 
The amount paid over to our state, 
exceeded SSoo.coo. The legislature 
voted to divide the money among the 
towns in proportion to population. 

At the annual meeting. March 14, 
1S37, the town ct Canaan voted to 
receive the money, and Mr. William P. 
Weeks was appointed financial agent 
in relation to it. The money 
($3003,75), three thousand three 
dollars seventy-five cents, was ordered 
to be loaned at 6 per cent, interest, 
paid in advance, in sums of not over 
three hundred nor less than one hun- 
dred dollars to any one individual, the 
interest to be appropriated to the 
schools by the scholar : and a census 
of the scholars was ordered to be 
taken on April 1. for that purpose. 

The agent received die money and 
loaned it to such persons as complied 
with the terms agreed upon : no dis- 
crimination being made in regard to 
the politics of the person applying 
for it. 

Through this year ai! things moved 
on smoothly, and at the annual meet- 
ing in 183S, a similar vote was passed 
and the scholars got {he benefit of 
the interest money again, amounting 
to S1S0.22. At this date there was a 
heap of malignant cussedne.^s slumber- 
ing in the hearts of our people. It 
came in with the mo!) that destroyed 
the academy, and it cropped out upon 
all occasions of excitement. 

One morning in December of this 
year, the windows of the academy 
building were missing; some person 
during the night had removed them. 
Search was made for them with great 
zeal, and in a Itw hours a heap of 
broken glass and window sash was 
found upon the shore of the pond. A 
cry was instantly raised and echoed 
irom corner to corner that it was the 
work of tne abolitionisis. This was 
sufficient reason for calling a " legal 
town-meeting," so that coming genera - 

tions might read the recorded opinions 
of the people concerning that diaboli- 
cal act. 

On the 17th December, Rev. J. L. 
Richardson. James Arven and Phine- 
has Eastman, posted a warrant for a 
meeting, in the second article of which 
they happily expressed their opinions 
of the suppo>ed felons, in the follow- 
ing elegant language. As the Rev. 
Richardson was a teacher also, it is 
fair to infer that he is responsible for 
the grammar in this sentiment : 

'"To see what the town will do 
about repairing the damage to the 
academy on Wednesday night last, by 
a midnight mob, got up by a party 
who profess all the Religion, Morality, 
and Humility, and who preach so much 
a^a'nst Mobs, the Mobites and the 
Mob committees." 

These words were received with 
yells of delight by the assembled 
voters, and threats of personal violence 
were uttered against the men of the 
other party. Earnestly serious and 
solemn were those voters on that day, 
deeming it of vital importance to the 
preservation of national unity that 
they should give utterance to their 
opinions. And they voted finally and 
decisively "that ail the surplus revenue 
in the hands of the abolitionists be 
collected forthwith by the town treas- 
urer," and "that Jonathan Kittredge 
be consigned over and included with 
the abolitionists." 

Thomas Flanders and James Pattee 
were appointed an " Investigating Com- 
mittee," and it was made their duty to 
learn all the facts that would tend to fix 
the conflagration upon Jonathan Kit- 
tredge, Nath'l Sumner, W. W r . George, 
and their abolition associates. They 
"investigated" suspicions, and rumors, 
and innuendoes, and then reported 
to the town that they had not been 
able to "fix" any charge upon any 
body except the town, and the town 
paid their charge for expenses, amount- 
ing to ^59.68. and discharged the com- 

At the same meeting it was voted 
to repair the academy, the expense 


of which was paid from the surplus 
revenue fund, and amounted to S^S.37. 

While they were passing these votes 
in tones that were to echo through ail 
the capitals of the south, making glad 
the heart of every man who was loyal 
to slavery, it was discovered that the 
outrage to the academy, which they 
had met to avenge, was committed by 
a man named George Drake, a black- 
smith, who had a bill for labor upon 
the academy which the trustees were 
too slow in paying, and he took that 
unusual method to receipt it. But 
this discovery produced no change in 
the sentiments of the ki legal voters " 
of Canaan. They were not going 
back on their own mouths. If the 
abolitionists did not commit that 
outrage, it was because Drake got in 
ahead and took away their oppor- 

At the annual meeting in March. 
1 S39. it was " voted to apply the school 
fund and the literary fund the same as 
in the preceding year.'' Interest on 
the surplus revenue was also included, 
amounting this year as before to 
£180.42. It was also "voted to collect 
a sum of the surplus revenue sufficient 
to buy a farm for the poor, ami to 
-tock it, and to furnish the house on 
said farm." 

The farm they proposed to buy was 
the old Dca. Welch farm, then owned 
by Moses Puttee, now owned by Har- 
rison Fogg. The farm had co.-t the 
impecunious Moses about eleven 
hundred dollars ; but his brothers 
Daniel and James held a mortgage 
against it. They were willing and 
anxious to receive their money back, 
and as Daniel was chairman of the board 
of selectmen, it was not difficult for him 
to persuade the "Board" that the 
farm was worth much more than the sum 
>t cost Moses, and that it would be 
greatly to the interest of (the Patlee 
family) the town and the poor thereof, 
to purchase it at the price asked. He 
x yas successfully persuasive, and thus 
the town became the happy possessor 
of that valuable real estate ; the 
poor had a home, the Pattees got 

their money back, and a large hole- 
was made in. the sum total of the sur- 
plus revenue. 

But there were many voters who 
were not satisfied with tin's disposition 
of the money. They thought there 
was too much family interest at work in 
getting rid of that farm for so much 
money. — 8 1450 for the land, and 0550 
to carry out the second part of the 
'•vote." The town worked this farm 
with the usual results to such specula- 
tions — -that means losses every year — 
for eight years, and then was glad to 
find a purchaser in 1S47, at £1200. in 
Moses French of Enheld. The furni- 
ture and stock were sold for what they 
would bring at auction. The loss to 
the town in this operation, amounted 
to 10 per cent, per annum on its invest- 
ment, without leckcning the dimin- 
ished amounts paid to the schools. 

For two years, namely in 1837 and 
1S3S, the interest in advance on ihe 
surplus revenue distributed to the 
schools was Si So. 2 2 for each .year. 
In 1839 the amount fell off to $60; 
in 1840 it was 860; in 184 1 it was 
860. And the sum total of this reve- 
nue which accrued to the benefit of 
the schools during the five years it 
attracted the greed of the people, was 



1043 it ceases to 

appear in the records, because it had 
then been absorbed into the pockets 
of the tax-payers. 

The dissatisfied people got up a 
town meeting on the 15th of April- 
It will be noticed tint town-meetings 
were very common among that people. 
The men who ruled here in those 
years believed that a ''vote" or ''re- 
solve" at a " legal town-meeting " gave 
them great credit in South Carolina, 
particularly after they drove the 
"niggers" out of town. This meeting 
of April 15th did not amount to much. 
r l ne wrong men got it up, and when 
they came together and moved a vote 
"to appropriate a portion of the sur- 
plus revenue to the building of a 
town-house and academy." they were 
voted down promptly and the meet- 
ing dissolved. The selectmen were 



lei't free to pay as much as was asked 
for Moses Pattee's poor farm. 

For the next two years various plans 
were suggested for the disposal of the 
balance of the money, but none of them 
were matured, and it remained undis- 
turbed at interest much to the annoy- 
ance of the men who were ever reach- 
ing out to get a grab at it. The in- 
terest, however, for those years amount- 
ed to only £60, which was still divided 
among the schools. 

At the annual meeting in March, 
1S42, the usual vote to distribute these 
funds to the schools was passed, and 
as usual, toward the close of the day, 
their business well done, many of the 
men from the back roads left the hall 
and went home. At this point in the 
day's work, Rev. J. L. Richardson 
moved to reconsider the vote already 
passed, appropriating the money to 
theschools. This motion was second- 
ed by S. P. Cobb. A majority of the 
persons remaining in the hall were in- 
terested in the motion, and it was de- 
clared carried in the affirmative. On 
the heels of this motion it was — 

''Voted, that the town treasurer remit 
to the proprietors of Canaan Union 
Academy, the interest on their notes 
given by them to the town treasurer 
for surplus revenue loaned them." It 
was also " voted that these notes be 
given up to said proprietors when they 
make and deliver to said town a deed 
of the academy land, and buildings 
thereon, owned by said proprietors." 

This vote was the fruit of the chronic 
antagonisms which had developed in 
social and political life, all growing 
out of academy troubles. In order 
to understand this vote it is necessary 
to go back two or three years, and 
rehearse a chapter in our history, 
which had an interest for every body. 

On the 8th of March, 1S39, in the 
morning, the academy building, from 
which the colored children had been 
violently expelled lour years previously, 
was burned to the ground. Each 
party accused the other ofincendiarism ; 
but the incendiary was never known. 
There was wild excitement among the 

people, who said and did many wicked 
things. The strife engendered was 
bitter and long enduring to such a 
degree that even at this late -day it 
sometimes crops out. It has proved a 
source of misfortune to the interests- 
of the town in its business, religious 
and educational relations. 

After the excitement attending the 
burning of the building had subsided, 
a number of men assembled in Mr. 
Weeks's office, and proposed to erect 
a new academy upon the site of the 
one burned. It was estimated that 
twelve hundred dollars would defray 
all the charges. These men decided 
to make twelve notes of one hundred 
dollars each ; each note to be* signed 
by five men, and each man to be a 
member of the new association on 
payment of one fifth of his note. 
Thus there were to be sixty shares in 
the new building at twenty dollars 
each. It was decided to take these 
notes to the town agent, and ask the 
loan of twelve hundred dollars of the 
surplus revenue remaining on hand. 
With this money they built the academy, 
calling it "Canaan Union Academy/' 
believing it would prove a successful 
and profitable investment. But this 
belief was a delusion, if not a snare. 
No steps were taken by the dominant 
party to conciliate the large number of 
citizens who were aggrieved. No 
kind words were spoken, nor did any 
one propose any method to harmonize 
the antagonisms. And there the two 
nearly equal hostile factions stood, 
making faces at each other. The one 
pointing to that building as a monu- 
ment of acts of aggression unatoned 
for, and the other flinging back con- 
temptuous epithets ad libitum. 

Dr. Thomas Flanders contracted to 
erect the new building, and deliver it 
complete into the hands of the trustees 
on the first of September, 1839. He 
engaged a number of efficient work- 
men, and the work proceeded rapidly 
until the outside of the house was 
finished. And here came in a little 
episode that created some amusement 
at the time. The Doctor boarded all 



his workmen. His wife was pleased 
with the progress of the work, and 
spoke cheerfully to the men as long 
as the outside was unfinished. The 
finishing of the inside was slower 
work which she could not appreciate. 
She said the men were getting lazy, 
and she would have them all discharg- 
ed. She called upon Mr. Weeks, who 
held the contract, and asked to be 
permitted to read it. He placed it in 
her hands, and turned away to attend 
to other affairs. She sat down, read 
it through very deliberately, then 
quietly tore it into small pieces, and 
placing them in a heap on the table, 
passed out of the office, saying " I 
guess T've taken the life out of that 
tiling, any how ! " She went home, and 
when the men came in to dinner, they 
found nothing to eat. She told them 
she had got done boarding lazy men, 
and they must go elsewhere to board. 
When the Doctor learned of the affair, 
he went to Mr. Weeks and renewed 
the contract. And the building was 
ready for occupation at the time ap- 

The school was organized on the 
first of September, 1839, with a for- 
midable board of officers. Mr. Jona- 
than E. Sargent, an undergraduate at 
Dartmouth, who had taught the last 
term in the old building, was engaged 
as principal. The trustees, feeling 
very confident of success, engaged to 
pay him $40 a month and board, for 
three months. Great efforts were made 
by the sixty proprietors of this school, 
to fill all the seats, and it opened with 
one hundred and forty-three pupils. 
The other party also organized a school 
in Currier's hall, and employed Mr. J. 
N. Hobart, a classmate of Mr. Sargent, 
to teach it. He drew in about sixty 

But these efforts were strained. 
Many of the pupils who trod those 
unclassic floors, were there by reason 
of the social and political antagonisms, 
which had not been allayed nor soften- 
ed as the years went by. 

There always was a trace of stingi- 
ness in the people of Canaan in matters 

pertaining to schools, and it is not sur- 
prising that the interest in this school 
should fall off, when it became a matter 
of paying out money for board and 

Mr. David H. Mason, a classmate 
of Mr. Sargent, taught the spring term 
of 1S40, to a dimmished number of 
pupils, so much so that the speculation 
looked likely to prove a failure, and 
on the 30th of May, 1 840, the proprietors 
offered the building and its privileges 
"to any suitable person who would 
take the school upon his own risk." 
Mr. Mason accepted the school upon 
these terms, and conducted it two 
terms. Thus suddenly the hopes of 
these sixty men faded out, and they 
found themselves indebted to the town 
in the sum of twelve hundred dollars 
and accruing interest. 

Socially, affairs were not much 
changed. There still existed a good 
deal of sullenness, but there was a 
decrease of malicious personal vitupera- 
t ; on. The proprietory however, were 
not pleased with their investment. The 
terms of the loan requited the interest 
on their notes to be paid in advance, 
and the town was now asking for the 
principal also. The most interesting 
query with many of them was, how 
to avoid payment, and free themselves 
from their obligations. The sugges- 
tion that was acted upon and accepted 
was made by S. P. Cobb and Joseph L. 
Richardson, namely, to sell the land, 
and buildings to the town, and thus 
cancel their obligations to the town. 
The vote quoted above passed at the 
annual meeting 1842. "remitting in- 
terest," (Sec, was the result of that 
suggestion, and led to an outburst of 
wrath and indignation seldom equaled 
and never excelled, against the men 
who had borrowed the public money, 
and had attempted by a trick to vote 
away that money to pay their private 
debts. There was a very radiant 
atmosphere in Canaan for the next two 
weeks, as the following "whereas" and 
"resolved" witness. 

Onthe24thof March, 1S42, a special 
town-meeting was held. William E. 



Eastman was moderator ; Jonathan 
Kittredge, bravely seconded and assist- 
ed by James Eastman, took the lead in 
the services, and offered the following- 
preamble and resolution, which seems 
to be weighted down with indignant 
distinctness : — 

"Whereas, at the close of the annual 
meeting on the Sth instant, a vote 
was passed purporting to be a vote of: 
the town of Canaan, to the effect, as 
recorded, that the treasurer remit to 
the proprietors of Canaan Union 
Academy, the interest on the notes 
given by them to the treasurer of the 
town of Canaan' or to the agent of 
said town, and also that said notes be 
given up to said proprietors when they 
make and deliver to the town a good 
and valid deed of the academy land, 
and buildings thereon ; and whereas, 
the design in passing said vote was 
carefully concealed from the legal voters 
of said town in the article in the war- 
rant for said town-meeting under which 
said vote was pretended to be passed, 
giving no sufficient notice thereof; 
and whereas, the absence of a majority 
of said legal voters was designedly and 
fraudulently taken advantage of by said 
proprietors to secure the passage of 
said vote ; and whereas said vote was. 
carried by the votes of said proprietors 
contrary to the wishes of a large 
majority of the legal voters of said 
town ; and whereas the said vote is 
for the above reasons illegal and void — 

" Resolved \ by said town, in legal 
town-meeting assembled, that the said 
pretended vote be, and the same; is, 
hereby rescinded. That the town will 
not accept of any deed of the acad- 
emy, and the selectmen have no right 
or authority to accept the same, or to 
perform any other act in relation 
thereto, obligatory upon the town." 

The treasurer was directed not to 
give up the notes. Jonathan Kitt- 
redge svas appointed agent of the 
town, and directed to demand and re- 
ceive, from the treasurer, all notes and 
papers relating to the matter. A mo- 

tion to reconsider these several votes 
was negatived. 

The other party were much disturb- 
ed at the passage of these votes. They 
met and talked earnestly together. 
But feeling quite confident that they 
could maintain their position, they re- 
quested "William P. Weeks, Esq., to 
consult some learned counsellor-at-law, 
and procure his opinion as to the bind- 
ing force of the vote passed at the 
annual meeting," concerning the re- 
mission of interest and deed of the 

A special town meeting, called 
April 23d, for various purposes, gave 
rise to some lively talk. Mr. Kittredge 
was seeerelv criticised and unceremo- 
niously dismissed asagentof the town, 
and Mr. Weeks was reappointed to 
receive from him the notes and papers 
in question. Bat Mr. Kittredge did 
not stay dismissed. He had already 
brought suits against the makers of the 
notes, which he determined to push to 
judgment, either as agent of the town 
or as an interested citizen, and the 
party was late in discovering that they 
had passed one more illegal vote, as 
the subject was not named in the war- 
rant for the town-meeting. 

In consequence of the vote of * : re- 
mission, ? \\zc, passed at the close of the 
annual meeting, the proprietors of the 
academy appointed Joseph Wheat 
their agent to convey the property to 
the town. He hurried up the business 
so rapidly that the deed was made and 
delivered to the town agent before Mr. 
Kittredge was authorized to enjoin the 

The '* learned counsellor-at-law " 
(Mr. Josiah Quincy, of Rumney), 
whose opinion they procured, in view 
of the suits which had been com- 
menced against the makers of the 
notes, advised them to compromise 
with the town's agent upon the best 
terms they could obtain, as Mr. Kit- 
tredge was in a frame of mind to push 
them to the utmost extent of the law, 
and his cost might soon exceed the 
principal of the notes. 



The "learned counsellor" held the 
same opinion of the action of the 
town and oi the proprietors of the 
academy as did Mr. Kittredge — that it 
was unlawful for a part of the tax-pay- 
ers of the town to vote away the pub- 
lic money to pay the private debts of 
the proprietors of the academy, with- 
out first giving notice, in the warrant, 
to that effect. 

In August the proprietors held a 
meeting, and offered to pay into the 
town treasury the principal due on 
their notes to the town, and to take 
back their deed, ''provided, at their 
next meeting, the town would vote to 
give the said proprietors the interest 
due on their notes." 

They made one desperate effort to 
check the strong measures adopted by 
the town agent, by calling a town- 
meeting on the 2 2d of August, 1842, 
to reconsider the work 01 .March 24. 
Cut they failed. William E. Eastman 
was chosen moderator, much to their 
chagrin, and then it was "voted to dis- 
solve the meeting." And thus the 
frost of public condemnation once 
more struck a chill to their hopes and 

From August until the next Febru- 
ary no public steps were taken, but the 
proprietors rallied and get their parti- 
sans well in hand, so that on the 1st of 
Feb., 1843, feeling confident of then- 
case, they called a town-meeting, at 
which it was "vo.ed to give the pro- 
prietors of Canaan Union Academy 
the interest on their notes given to the 
town, for the surplus revenue and liter- 
ary fund, on condition that they take 
back their deed of the academy land 
and buildings to the town, and pay 
into the treasury the principal due on 
their notes, and they shall give satisfac- 
tory bonds for the payment of their 
notes to the town." Passed by yeas 
149^ nays 159. 

The bill in chancery, and all the suits 
brought by Mr. Kittredge against the 
individual proprietors, were ordered to 
be dismissed and stopped, and "Jon- 
athan Kittredge is dismissed and dis- 
charged as agent of the town in regard 

to said notes and in all other matters 

in which he is authorized to act as k 

agent for the town." 

This vote caused much dissatisfaction 
with a large number of voters who 
were not present at the meeting, inas- 
much as it gave to a few men the ac- 
cumulated interest on the money of 
the whole people. They said "if was 
not a fair division, and if the public 
business was to be done in that partial 
way. they would all turn out next time, 
and make it musical for some of 

It soon became evident that some- 
thing must be done to soothe and pla- 
cate these stay-at-home fellows ; but 
they became troublesome. Various 
schemes were considered and aban- 
doned. But at the annual meeting, in 
March, only one month afterward, the 
following extraordinary vote, which 
seemed to meet the worst features of 
the case, as it gave every body a grab 
at the bag, was passed : 

" To give all the inhabitants of the 
town, including widows and maiden 
ladies, paying taxes, a sum of money 
out of the surplus revenue equal to 
the sum voted to the proprietors of 
Canaan Union Academy, Feb. 1, last ; 
and then, that the remainder of the 
money be equally divided among all 
the inhabitants, including said widows 
and maiden ladies, as also said propri- 
etors, who are in town on the 1st day 
of April, and who are liable to the as- 
sessment of public taxes, not including 
persons seventy years of age." 

The amount of surplus revenue in 
the treasury, at this date, was $814.32. 
and the division, pro rata, among the 
tax-payers, was S 2. 34. 

At the same meeting, the following 
respectful language was adopted in re- 
gard to " Messrs. Kittredge and Weeks, 
the gentlemen employed as counsel in 
the suits brought against the proprie- 
tors of the academy, that they be re- 
quested to dismiss all suits now pend- 
ing against any and all of said propri- 
etors." And that request was subse- 
quently complied with. 

9 2 


And now the story of the disposi- 
tion of the surplus revenue in Canaan 
is about finished. The vicissitudes to 
which it was exposed, during the (cw 
years it continued in the town treasury, 
were pregnant with danger, and called 
into active circulation more vicious 
human ugliness than was supposed 
could exist in the heart of man. We 
have finally traced it into the pockets 
of all the inhabitants, including "wid- 
ows and maiden ladies," in town, and 
there it has remained, every dollar of 
it, for nearly forty years. 

The subject rises to the surface once 
more, spasmodically, and then sinks 

into oblivion so profound that even 
the persons whose taxes were paid by 
its distribution need to be reminded of 
the fact before they recall it. On the 
1 2th of March. 1S44, the people de- 
clared that the proprietors of the acad- 
emy had got more than their share ot 
the surplus revenue, and ordered them 
to pay into the town treasury an 
amount equal to the excess they had 
received above the rest of the inhab- 
itants. But it does not appear that 
any one of those proprietors ever 
complied with the request ct the peo- 
ple. They took all that came into 
their hands and kept it. 



At Nashua, on the 26th of February. 
1 88 1, David Crosby, a. m., finished a 
long life of patient continuance in 


"The path of the just is 

as the shining light that shineth more 
and more unto the perfect day." From 
beginning to end, without retreat, halt, 
or deviation, he advanced in thatpath. 
In respect to use of talents and op- 
portunities, he gained to the utmost 
the benefits of the Saviour's maxim, 
"To him that hath shall be given ;" 
in respect to beneficent service, he 
gained to the utmost the benefits of 
that opposite maxim, "It is more 
blessed to give than to receive." 

He was born at Hebron, September 
1, 1 So 7. His father, a frugal, hard- 
working farmer, wac, or felt he was, too 
limited in resources to afford him ad- 
vantages for education beyond the 
brief winter school in his own district. 
In youth he formed the determination 
that he would have more than that. 
He adapted his means to this end. 
He wasted neither time nor money in 
pursuit of youthful pleasures. He 
was on the alert to find, and resolute 
to improve, every chance to earn money 
by extra work in any kind of reputable 
service. And so, with invincible in- 

dustry and perseverance, he worked 
his way into the academy and through 
college. He graduated at "Dartmouth 
in 1S33. 

Beyond the inevitable dependence 
of childhood, he was, with scarcely 
any outside help, a self-made man. 
And in making himself he followed 
the Divine rule, "Building up your- 
selves on your most holy faith, — keep 
yourselves in the love of God." His 
faith in God as he is revealed in the 
Holy Scriptures, and in himself, was 
without variableness or shadow of turn- 
ing, and he kept himself so steadily in 
the love of God that it constituted" his 
main-spring of action, and a clear 
limit and guide to all his purposes and 

He was "effectually called" to 
teach. Paul said a necessity was laid 
on him to preach, and added, "If I 
do this thing wittingly, I have a re- 
ward." But Mr. Crosby seemed so 
conscious of his willingness to teach, 
and so sure of his reward, that there 
was no ground for an " if" in the case. 
In a letter, written in January. 1S78, 
he said : " I have never had the least 
doubt that I have pursued the calling 
for which the Lord designed me. And 



although, several years ago. it seemed 
that he was about to deprive me of the 
ability to pursue my calling, still he was 
merciful, and has enabled me to con- 
tinue it lor the past four years with the 
very imperfect sight of one eye only. 
And although I pursue my daily rou- 
tine with embarrassment, still I desire 
to be very thankful that I can pursue 
it at all. Many years ago I did hope 
to teach fifty consecutive years. This 
term I entered on my fifty -fourth. 
Ought I not to be very very thankful?" 

He continued at the head of his 
school between one and two years 
longer, after which he taught classes at 
his home until within a few weeks of 
his death. 

Of course his first teaching was in 
the district school. While in college, 
beside a school during each winter 
vacation, then of fourteen weeks, he 
managed to keep along with his class 
and be occupied in academical teach- 
ing several terms. He taught at New- 
port one or more terms before his grad- 
uation, and a year and a half imme- 
diately following it. He then accepted 
an invitation to be one of a corps of 
teachers in the academy at " Nashua 
Village." His associates were Gard- 
ner S. Brown, Miss Rhoda Spalding, 
Miss Henrietta Thatcher. Miss Loti- 
i/a S. Hunton, and several '"assistant 
pupils." He entered on his duties 
April i, 1S35. The academy was then 
in a very flourishing condition. In the 
term following the summer vacation, the 
attendance was largely increased. But 
before it ended, a spark of discord, 
thoughtle-sly dropped, occasioned an 
explosion which scattered teachers and 
pupils and left the academy pros- 

Mr. Crosby at once received and 
accepted an offer of a " professorship" 
in the New Hampton Institute. But 
in the spring of 1836, the discerning 
citizens of Nashua, knowing that 
neither he nor Miss Hunton had 
dropped or fanned the fatal spark, of- 
fered both such inducements that they 
returned and took charge, the one of 
me male, and the other of the female 

department. At the close of the first 
term they were united in marriage. 
She continued to be his efficient 
helper in teaching for some years, and 
the light of his very happy home while 
he lived ; and he to teach without in- 
terregnum, first in the old academy, 
and then in the Nashua Literary In- 
stitute, until his life-work was finished. 

What were his special excellencies 
as a teacher? 

First. He loved teaching. It was 
not to him a make-shift, a mere tem- 
porary pontoon bridge to save him from 
drowning while crossing over to his 
chosen vocation. But as soon as he 
had, by a hard struggle, worked his 
way up to the point of gaining a 
passport into the teacher's desk, he 
was in his chosen vocation. And had 
he been driven out, and an angel sta- 
tioned at the gate of his paradise with 
a flaming sword turning every way, he 
would have had to be on the alert to 
keep him from getting in again. While 
occupied in teaching he was at his 
center of attraction, where all the lines 
of his tastes, aspirations, and ambitions 
met and terminated. 

. Second. He not only loved to 
teach, but he loved his pupils. In in- 
terest and affection for them, he 
adopted them as his children (he had 
no other), and in the spirit of a wise 
Christian father he exhausted his skill 
in endeavoring to develop and dis- 
cipline all their faculties of mind and 
heart for the highest usefulness, honor, 
and happiness that the best improve- 
ment and right use of the talents 
given them would admit of. Pupils 
who had been under his tuition for any 
length of time he held in memory as 
well as affection, with singular tenacity. 
In his last letter to one of his first stu- 
dents at Nashua, he says of five from 
the same family — looking back through 
all the mutations of more than forty 
years — *'all their countenances are dis- 
tinctly portrayed on my chamber of 
imagery, so that I can recall them as 
readily and as clearly as those of my 
most intimate friends." He had a 
most hearty fellow-feeling for students 



whose only means of education were 
their own earnings. He had felt the 
weight of the burden they were carry- 
ing, and it was his joy to lighten it 
where he could, and where he could 
not, to inspire the bearers with pluck 
and perseverance to carry it through. 

Third. He was not merely an in- 
structor, he was an educator. In 
teaching, his chief aim was. not to stuff 
in what was without, but to draw out 
what was within. It was not his way 
to do for learners the work of solving 
their hard problems and unraveling 
their tangled difficulties, but first, to 
inspire them with the conviction that 
they had the ability to do this for 
themselves, if they would only go to 
work in the right way, and then, insist 
that they sfiou/d.go to work in the 
right way. With respect to mental 
education, the ultimate achievement at 
which he aimed — to which he made all 
other acquirements subordinate, and 
all teaching, discipline, and drill to 
contribute, was to elaborate and estab- 
lish in the mind right habits in doing 
its work ; the habit of beginning what- 
ever study or occupation at the right 
point and mastering the first difficulty 
in the process before advancing to the 
next, — of conquering all enemies in 
the rear before attacking any in front ; 
of maintaining a sharp distinction be- 
tween knowledge clearly gained and 
dubious guess-work : of regarding no 
information as clearly in possession 
until it could be clearly stated ; and 
of working, in the season of work, with 
clear method, concentrated force, and 
steady application. These modes of 
working, wrought out and fixed in the 
mind as its habitual methods in what- 
ever employment, he regarded as the 
sum and substance of a good, practi- 
cal education. The results of experi- 
ments and observation had convinced 
him that pupils, among the slowest and 
dullest by nature, if ihey can only 
have the elements of mental power in 
them systematized, concentrated, and 
fashioned into permanent habits of 
working with logical method, persistent 
application, and thorough mastery of 

the first thing to be learned before ad- 
vancing to the next depending upon 
it. will eventually outstrip the quickest 
and brightest who fail to acquire these 
mental habits. It is reported that a 
few weeks before his death " a promi- 
nent and wealthy manufacturer," of 
Newport, said : "I owe more to Pro- 
fessor Crosby than to any other man 
in the world, — in fact I owe all that I 
am to him. I was a very dull boy at 
school, so dull that my parents and 
teachers gave my case up as hopeless, 
until he came to Newport to teach ; 
when I came under his influence and 
instruction. He saw what my mind 
required. He put me into mental 
arithmetic and kept the drill up until 
my mind expanded and took on a new 
turn entirely. That was many years 
ago, but I date my success in life from 
his instruction." Doubtless many 
others, once dull and self-distrusting, 
can look back to "many years ago," 
and see how, under his sagacious dis- 
cipline, they acquired self-reliance, 
and their minds expanded and took 
on a new turn entirely, and their suc- 
cess in life was assured. 

Fourth. He combined with intel- 
lectual moral education, and that based 
on the essentials of Christianity. The 
modern notion of excluding from ed- 
ucation in public schools, all inculca- 
tion of duty to any government higher 
than human, the notion of teaching 
morality by substituting, for the author- 
ity of the Divine Law-giver, the au- 
thority of the maxim. " honesty is the 
best policy," in which the judge is the 
same that has decided in favor of all 
the dishonesty, vices, and crimes ever 
indulged in, namely — selfishness ; this 
notion, carried out in practice, he be- 
lieved would convert the best govern- 
ment into the worst, — republicanism 
into communism with all its anarchic 
horrors. In contrast with it. he sedu- 
lously nurtured and stimulated a sense of 
obligation, not to what one might judge 
his best policy, but to the moral law of 
our Creator and Final Judge. He 
sedulously taught, as he believed, that 
the best, noblest, and most enduring 



of all human attainments, is a char- 
acter controlled by motives and prin- 
ciples in harmony with the law and 
will of God. He taught, as he most 
heartily believed, that he alone is safe. 
strong, invincible, and ultimately suc- 
cessful, who is right in the sight of 

Fifth. In the most important part 
of education — that of the character — 
he taught effectively by the reflex in- 
fluences of his own character and 
habits. He was guileless., frank, system- 
atic, self-reliant, prompt, resolute and 
a model of industry. His official su- 
periority was limited to school-hours. 
Outside of those he was the familiar 
friend and companion of his pupils. 
Though one of the most decided and 
conscientious Christians, he was en- 
tirely free from religious affectation 
and sanctimonious parade. His relig- 
ion was truth in the inward parts spon- 
taneously regulating the outward life — 
the quality in the good tree which 
makes the yielding of good fruit nat- 
ural, and bad fruit impossible. These 
characteristics were magnetic, and all 
his pupils who had any genuine steel 
in their composition, were, in some de- 
gree at least, permanently magnetized 
by them. 

A few of his distinguished pupils 
may be named. He was represented 
in the Union army by Maj.-Gen. John 
G. Foster, Brig.-Gens. Stevens and 
Estey, Chaplain S. J. Spalding. l>. d., 
of Massachusetts, and Surgeon Henry L. 
Butterheld, of Wisconsin ; in congress 
by the late Clark B.Cochran, of Albany, 
a most eloquent advocate of the Union 
cause during the war, both in congress 
and on the stump, and the acknowl- 
edged leader of the New York legisla- 
ture at the time of his death ; by Gen. 
A. F. Stevens, of New Hampshire and 
by George C. Hazelton, of Wisconsin ; 
in the chair of state by Gov. Natt 
Head ; on the bench by ex-Judge A. 
W. Sawyer ; in national agriculture by 
J. R. Dodge, the eminent statistician 
and editor of reports in the depart- 
ment of agriculture ; ;md in the do- 
main of art bv H. \V. Herrick. All I 

have named are natives of New Hamp- 
shire. A host uf others, male and 
female, might be named, who, largely 
owing to his sound, systematical cul- 
ture, have worked their way up to 
leadership, on the right side, in what- 
ever calling, position, and community 
their lot has been cast. 

Mr. Crosby's claims to high appre- 
ciation were not limited to his pro- 
fession. In his family and among his 
kindred and relatives, he made his 
kind, beneficent spirit a source of help 
and happiness in many ways. As a 
friend, he was sincere, faithful, and te- 
nacious. As a citizen, he was a posi- 
tive, fearless advocate, and a consistent 
exemplifier of whatsoever things are 
true, honest, just, pure, lovely, and of 
good report. As a professor of relig- 
ion, he was not a Fharisee, going 
through religious ceremonies to be 
seen of men, and not a Diotrephes, 
loving to have the preeminence, but a 
Demetrius, having good report of all 
men, and of the truth itself. The 
meaning is not, that he was a. man to 
escape opposition and criticism. The 
great Teacher, whose apt disciple he 
was, said to the most effective bene- 
factors the world has ever known, "woe 
unto you when all men speak well of 
you !" 

Mr. Crosby was too independent of 
current fashion, custom, practice, or 
public sentiment, in forming his con- 
victions of right, and too positive and 
outspoken in advocating them, to in- 
cur that love. But the meaning is, 
that he was so apt to be right, and so 
conscientious and open in opposing 
what he believed to be wrong, that, 
as Paul, alike through good report and 
through evil report, by manifestation 
of the truth, he commended himself 
to every man's conscience in the sight 
of God. 

Among natives of New Hampshire, 
of his own generation, some have won 
more of the glitter of a transient renown 
than he. Some, perhaps, at the start, 
had more talents entrusted to them, 
but whether five, three, or one, none 
have occupied them with greater indus- 

9 6 


try, fidelity, or productiveness. Very 
few have equaled him in the effective- 
ness, perpetuity, and manifold distri- 
bution of his power for good. He 
made that power as a saving, purifying 
leaven, permeate the family, the church, 
the community, and the school in all 
its grades ; the bar and the bench, 
pulpit and pew, platform and audience, 
state and national counsels, Christian 
missions *at home and abroad, and all 
causes of patriotism, justice, and phi- 
lanthropy, in civil conflicts and on mili- 
tary battle-fields. And he solved, in 
moral agency, the unsolved problem 
in mechanics — he invested his agency 

in benefiting the human family with 
the power of perpetual motion, inso- 
much that when the work of his life 
ended, his life-work, as a source of ben- 
efits to the state, nation, and man- 
kind, was at its beginning. 

No native of New Hampshire has 
earned a better right to be counted 2. 
benefactor to the state. And no one 
of his competitors, in life, has earned 
a better right to adopt, at its close, the 
language of the Master he followed, 
and reverently say, "I have glorified 
thee on the earth — I have finished the 
work which thoulsavest me to do !" 



'Hie following is a complete list* of Yale College graduates now residing in 
New Hampshire : * 

Valpey. St. Paul's 
M. i).. Concord, 

Rev. I. Sumner Lincoln, Wilton. "22. 

Rev. George Goodyear, Temple, "24. 

Rev. Joseph JI. Towne, D. ]>.. North 
Hampton. "27. 

Dr. Marshall Meriam. Derry, r 33. 

Abraham II. Robinson, m. i>.. Con- 
cord, ".ft. 

Rev. J. Gardner Davis. i>. p.. Am- 
herst, ? 3G. 

Arthur Fletcher. Concord, "J<\. 

Rev. Frederick T.Perkins, Tilton, '39. 

Levi Abbot. Ilollis. "40. 

.Joseph E. Bennett, Manchester. '43. 

Rev. Philips Titcomb, Kensington, '43. 

Hon. Joseph I>. Walker, Concord, "44. 

Rev. Swift Byington. Exeter. *47. 

Frederick H. Copp, Wakefield, "47. 

Rev. Prof. Henry G. Jessup, Hanover. 

Lauren S. Scott, '47. 

Rev. Frederick Alvord, Nashua. '55. 

Col. Alfred P. Rockwell, Great Falls 
(and Boston), 7>5. 

Rev. Henrv Powers. Manchester, 7)7. 

Ralph H. Cutler, Ilollis. '58. 

Rev. George E. Street, Exeter. "5S. 

*The graduates of '81 and '82 have been purposely omitted, because of the uncertainty of 
their residence. Having had some talk, with a number of New Hampshire graduates about form- 
ing a Vale association in New Hampshire, I think this list will be of considerable interest. 

Rev. Thomas G 
School. Concord, '5S. 

John C. W. Moore, 

William T. Smith. M. i>., Hanover, *G0. 

S. Arthur Bent, Nashua. '01. 

Rev. Lorenzo Sears. Manchester, *61. 

Buel C. Carter. Dover, '02. 

Rev. William C. Reed, Candia, 'Go. 

Rev. Charles E. Sumner, Lancaster. 

Marshall R. Gaines. Meriden. 'Go. 

John H. Chapman. Nashua, '07. 

Charles II. Smith, Newmarket, '00. 

Rev. Edward G. Selden. Manchester. 

Henry P. Warren, Plymouth, '70. 

Charles R. Walker, m. i>.. Concord. 

Rev. Samuel If. Barnum. Salisbury. 

Edgar S. Buffum, Great Falls, 77. 

Henry A. Buftura, Great Falls. 71). 

Frank H. Aver, Nashua. 'SO. 

Henry C. Ordway, Hampstead. "50. 

/^/rC^k^^- <?u » 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

JANUARY, 1883. 

No. 4 



S'rangcrs visiting New Hampshire when looking with all his might into a 
in pursuit of novel experiences and difficult case, and neither must a hint 
fresh subjects of study or of amuse- of depression affect his tones as he 

stimulates some weak impressionable 
system into a semblance of cheer- 
fulness and fair working order ; he 

ment, are prone to exclaim at the 
continual succession of hill and dale, 
as well as at the population which 
bears a great resemblance to the phy- 
sical features of the state itself. 
Between the ruggedness of the moun- 
tains, with their heights forever purely 
crested in snow, and the fascination 

must be at once frank as sunlight, an I 
reserved as the sphinx ; he must com- 
mand and cajole, be sarcastic and 
sympathetic, free and discreet, seeing 
everything and yet nothing; a mm 
of the wild bluffs and lovely coves of who shall be able to wield the knife 
its sea-coast, rest the gentle swells and without compunction, and yet with a 
beautiful valleys of the ''Old Granite tender heart. It is of one of this 

hard-worked, often unappreciated, 
yet often beloved class, that this brief 
sketch treats. 

About the year 1675 a father and 
mother, dwelling in the town of New- 
ton, Ma>s., were killed by Indians 
during King Philip's war. A son of 
edv, since human nature is every these parents, named S.imuel Parker, 

State," whose sjns have bjen might v 
in war, wise in council, and sturdy in 
the maintenance of their stiffly set 

In a region such as is New Hamp- 
shire, thi lite of the country physician 
is filled with a'ternate comrdv and 

where prevalent, and with the un- 
avoidable drudgery of all day and all 
night work over the many roads which 
branch from his town. For him there 
is no sureneasof that particularly com- 
fortable state of mind and bodv induc- 

went, while quite young, to Connecti- 
cut, and w'th others founded the town 
of Coventry. He was the first deacon 
officiating for the church in that town, 
and died greatly respected at a very 
advanced age. From him were de- 

ed (or more fortunate men by a warm scended John, Samuel, and Clement 

"earth and pleasant companionship, 

with well fastened doors and close 

windows, on a night when storms seem 


envelop the world ; he must be 
a 'e»t at a word, and ready in five 
minutes to drive any distance, whether 
,l he a lovely June morning or the 
w«»rst winter night of the season ; his 
r ' l! <gne must not lead him to indul 
jnany attack of '• nerves," nor 


who was the father of bright sons and 
daughters. His third child was born 
in Bradford, Vt., April 10, 18 13, and 
was named David Taylor Parker. A 
short time after the birth of this son, 
his father removed to Cabot, in the 
same state, where he lived until the 
winter of 18 16, when he removed to 
the West Parish, Chester, N. H., for 
the Presbyterian church of which town 

le allow it to color his spectacles he was ordained, and with which he 

9 S 


labored for ten years, when he was in- 
duced to accept a pastorate in Maine. 
His last days were passed in Farming- 
ton, N. H., and, like many persons of 
great age, his mind somewhat failed 
a short time before his death; but 
notwithstanding his feebleness, it was 
a common remark in the town that 
"old Priest Parker never forgot to be 
a gentleman." His son David follow- 
ed the fortunes of his father, with 
occasional seasons of farming for 
neighbors, as the custom was in those 
days of "New England Bygones," 
until he was about seventeen years 
old, when he went to attend the 
academy at Alfred, Me. 

He studied in summer and taught 
in winter until his twentieth year, when 
he began the study of medicine with 
L. M. Barker, m. d., at Somersworth. 
He attended lectures at Dartmouth 
College in 1S33, and continued his 
studies with Dr. Charles F. Elliott and 
Dr. B. Smart, of Kennebunk, Me., 
graduating at Bowdoin College, May 
j 7, 1836. 

Dr. Parker began the practice of 
his profession in Farmington, N. H., 
March 3, 1837. This town was then 
a small obscure village of fifteen houses 
and about one hundred and twenty-five 
inhabitants ; it has increased twenty 
fold, and is now an opulent, enterpris- 
ing town, whose chief industry is the 
manufacture of shoes. It lies midway 
between Dover and Alton Bay. and while 
being probably no more picturesque 
than are many New Hampshire villages, 
it is characterized by one or two 
features which may be worthy of men- 
tion. The majority of the operatives 
in the great shoe factories are house- 
owners, their dwellings being neat 
cottages as a rule, while a few are more 
pretentious, and their stables contain 
teams for pleasure-driving in many 
instances ; and there is hardly a house, 
either owned or hired by its inhabitants, 
which does not hold a cabinet organ 
or a piano. Especially noteworthy is 
the fact that, of its three thousand 
and more inhabitants, there are 
ro more than a half-dozen heads 

of families who are not Ameri- 
cans, — the foreign element being 
Swedes, French, and Irish, while of 
blacks there may be three individuals. 
It is, to an unusual extent, purely 
democratic in social estimates, its 
people being largely connected by 
intermarriage, inherited friendship, 
and the like. While not a very literary 
or intellectual community, in the usual 
acceptation of those terms, it is one 
of the brightest to appreciate a lecture 
filled with keen wit and practical com- 
mon sense, or a thoroughbred enter- 
tainment — if one may so speak of any- 
thing of the kind ; to be sure it rather 
enjoys being amused to being barely 
edified ; but it delights in a judicious 
combination of the two attributes. 

Here and there, as will be the case 
with all localities, there are extraordi- 
nary settlements composed of persons 
of doubtful origin and customs ; on 
the other hand are those of long de- 
scent and inherited individuality of 
another sort. An experienced novelist 
might find, in this town lying in the 
bottom of a cup, with hills for sides, 
material for many a new notion, for, 
since to a place so situated there comes 
every, variety of climate which should 
range over a great extent of country, 
there belong also human caprices to 
correspond with its varying tempera- 
ture and skies. 

To this town, then, came the young 
medical man, married and a father, 
as is proper for medical men, in the 
first flush of enthusiasm for his pro- 
fession, and gifted with that hardly to 
be analyzed faculty which goes to the 
making of good doctors and nurses, 
and which, like the soul of the poet, 
is born but not made. For forty-five 
years Dr. Parker's horses, mostly of 
the enduring Morgan breed, have been 
well-known for miles around, as they 
have sturdily trotted over the rough 
roads by night and day, through sum- 
mer heat and winter cold ; and there is 
scarcely a family within a large radius 
that has not welcomed the stout figure 
and keen blue eye of "the old Doctor" 
as ne has come in time of need, bring- 



ing a vision of health and a sound of 
life in his cheer}' tones ; or, if it must 
be a decision of doom, a word of 
sympathy and even a starting tear, 
since, like other men of choleric, im- 
petuous temperament, he no sooner 
sees a trouble than he longs to alleviate 
it, even though it be for the most bitter 
enemy, and a hasty word from him is 
oftener than not followed as hastily by 
a kindness. 

The family doctor, as well as the 
minister, is often called upon for 
counsel in all sorts of matters outside 
his particular province, and probably 
no physician in the state has been 
asked more advice in extraneous things 
than has the subject of this paper. 

Sympathetic in the extreme, and 
interested in the welfare of the body 
politic as well as corporal, many a 
farm has been bought and sold advan- 
tageously, many a choice bit of land 
has been improved, homes have been 
preserved, and bequests turned with a 
word of sensible advice into . their 
legitimate channels, through the friendly 
influence of Dr. Parker. 

With regard to his success as a prac- 
tising physician, it may be enough to 
say that families who employed him 
forty-five years ago employ him to-day ; 
but, while all detail of medical prac- 
tice is like the relation of lawyer and 
client, priest and penitent, it is proper 
to say that Dr. Parker is indebted not 
only to his solid attainments of knowl- 
edge, but also to his rnarvelously mag- 
netic and intuitive nature. It is to 
men of his temperament that we in- 
stinctively look for aid, and from whom 
we expect success. 

There are one or two peculiarities 
in his experience which are interesting 
to the student of cause and effect, 
and which I hope he will allow me to 
mention, even though his dislike of 
any reference to them is well-known. 

A few miles from Farmington there 
is a family certain members of which, 
on receiving any slight cut, bleed pro- 
fusely and dangerously ; it is only sons 
of daughters of this race who are 
thus troubled, which fact of itself 

is a puzzle for the psychological mind; 
the hemorrhage always ceases as soon 
as the messenger sent reaches Dr. 
Parker with his intelligence. It is 
natural, in this state of affairs, that to 
the family in question his life is pre- 
cious. Another curiosity is that many 
a broken bone has forgotten to give 
pain to its unfortunate owner at the 
instant this out and out allopathic, 
humbug-hating old doctor has received 
news of the accident, and call for his 
aid. When questioned as to this 
strange power, he has very little to say 
farther than that he does not under- 
stand it, and that every time he does 
such a thing he thinks he will never do it 
again. Dr. Parker has contributed many 
additions to the Materia Medica, and 
has been sought from far and near as 
an expert in cases of small-pox, which 
horrible disease has never yet laid hold 
on him, but of which, by means of reme- 
dies prepared as a result of long experi- 
ence and of deep study, he has for the 
last ten years felt himself to be master, 
provided he sees the case in any sort 
of season. He is naturally inclined 
to keep the formula of this prepara- 
tion with jealous care. 

He has. been for many years a mem- 
ber of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and belongs to several other socie- 
ties. In i860 he was chosen Presi- 
dent of the Strafford District Medical 
Society, and in 1872 was made Presi- 
dent of the New Hampshire Medical 

He has been an Odd Fellow ever 
since the institution of that order, and 
has received the succeeding official 
positions in the gift of his Lodge. He 
became a Free Mason in 1850, and 
after officiating in numerous positions 
as he passed upward, he rests content 
in the Council, and Commandery of 
Knights Templar. In politics Dr. 
Parker is strictly Republican, and in 
1&64-65, was chosen to represent his 
town by forty votes over the general 
ticket, which was largely Democratic. 
While serving as representative he 
was appointed by Hon. William E. 
Chandler, then Speaker of the House, 



Chairman of the Committee on the 
Asylum for the Insane. In pursuance of 
thedutiesappertainingthereto he form- 
ed a strong friendship for Dr. Bancroft, 
the surgeon in charge of the hospital, 
and as a result of their consultation 
and labor there were brought about 
numerous improvements, one being 
the heating apparatus, by which the 
comfort of inmates was greatly in- 

Dr. Parker is a member of the First 
Congregational Church of Farmington, 
and being of a generous disposition, 
has probably given more, according 
to his means, than any other citizen 
toward the support of the religious 
society with which he is connected. 
His sensitiveness to suffering has pre- 
vented him from acquiring so large a 
golden umbrella for the rainy day of 
old age, as would be possessed by 
most men vf his long and successful 
practice ; but the needy have never 
been turned hungry from his door nor 
suffered for Lick of his care. Of 
faults, he has like other men his share ; 

but his generou: 

figure holds a gener- 

ous heart, and he is his own severest 

With regard to his domestic life, 
he married, in 1S33, Clara Cham- 
berlain, of Lebanon, Me. She was 
his devoted wife for more than forty- 
three years, and being endowed with 
the medical instinct to a remarkable 
degree, she so profited by her position, 
as the wife of a busy practitioner that 
she was, in the ripeness of her life, in 
only a less demand among the sick 
than was her husband, and the stout 
Morgan pony she always drove was 
recognized by every m;m, woman, and 
child, for miles around. Of a mien 
calm, controlled, and strong, her heart 
was thoroughly the maternal heart, 
and on her death, Nov. 7, 1876, she 
was mourned by a great concourse of 
people who had cause to hold her in 
much more than simple neighborly 
esteem. She was the mother of three 
children, — a daughter, who died in her 
first year, and two sons, both of whom 

arrived at the age of manhood, and 
chose the profession of their father. 
The elder son died of pneumonia at 
La Harpe, 111., where he had gone for 
his health, before beginning practice. 
He left a widow, formerly Miss Mary 
Rollins, of the well-known family of 
that name in Strafford county. 

The younger son, a man of unusual 
skill and success in the practice of his 
profession, died Dec. 31, 1S66, from 
disease contracted by sen-ice in the 
civil war. leaving only a widow. His 
father, left wholly alone save for 
brothers and sisters settled for the 
greater part at a distance (one brother, 
also a physician, residing in Lebanon, 
Me.), married a cousin of his late 
wife, Mrs. Lucy Wentworth Fernald, 
June 16, 1878. Mrs. Parker unites, 
as did her predecessor, with her hus- 
band in performing many acts of 
kindness, and a scanty larder is very 
often well stocked by their kindly 
hinds, while in seasons of good cheer 
they remember especially those who 
exist, but hardly live, and to whom the 
holidays would be fast-days were it not for 
the thought and consideration felt for 
their circumstances by these kindly 
hearts. From these who owe grati- 
tude for care of the body in hunger 
and cold as well as sickness, and for 
regard toward their sensitivenessto those 
less needy, but not less thankful for 
restored health and consequent courage, 
the wish of our foreign friends — " May 
your shadow never be less !" — is often 
breathed for the hearty "old Doctor," 
and that advancing years may softly 
crown his old age with rest and com- 
fort, and with the continued com- 
panionship of his excellent wife, is the 
earnest desire of his friends. 

'Hie "old school" country doctors 
are rapidly passing away, and it is well 
that memories of their hardships, 
their toils and their efforts to give us 
and ours life and health, should cluster 
about them as ivy gently shields the 
venerable abbeys of our mother country, 
and that the autumn of their lives 
should be a golden Indian summer. 





Among the men who have gone 
from New Hampshire to fill prominent, 
positions in other states was the late 
Harvey Jewell, whose death occurred 
in Boston, December S, 1SS1. 

Mr. Jewell came of good stock, and 
in his whole career of usefulness and 
prominence proved to be one of the 
Jewells of which the New Hampshire 
mother could well be proud. He was 
born at Winchester, May 26, 1820, and 
was the eldest of ten children. 

He was a descendant of Thomas 
Jewell, who was born in England, and 
of whom we have the first authentic 
account in the early part of 1 639, when 
he received a grant of land at Mount 
Wollaston. first settled in 1629, and in- 
corporated as Braintree in 1640, and 
from which Quincy was set off in 

Thomas Jewell's youngest son was 
Joseph, who died in Amesbury in 
1 783. 'I he father of Harvey was 
Pliny, of the sixth generation, and 
was a native of Winchester, and re- 
moved thence to Hartford, Conn., in 

Mr. Pliny Jewell, beside being an 
exceedingly able as well as successful 
business man, was an enthusiast in gen- 
ealogical matters, and devoted much 
time, labor and expenditure in the 
production of a careful collection, 
printed twenty years since, of the 
"Jewell Register," which contained a 
remarkably correct and well classified 
list of the descendants of Thomas 

The father of Harvey, though in 
affluent circumstances in after years, 
was one of the substantial men of 
New Hampshire, who began life with 
the elements of success, but not ac- 
companied, at the outset of his busi- 
ness career, with its results. He was, 
while a resident of Winchester, known 
as a leading man of the town ; was 
prominent in political, business and 

religious affairs, presided as moderator 
of the town meetings, and in 1839 and 
in other years, represented the town in 
the State legislature. 

While at Concord, as a representa- 
tive, he formed acquaintance with 
the late Ichabod Bartlett, Timothy 
Upham, and Ichabod Goodwin, who 
were at the time among the represent- 
atives from Portsmouth. Mr. Jewell's 
friendship for Ichabod Bartlett amount- 
ed to an admiration, and he never 
ceased, during Mr. Bartlett's life, to re- 
gard him as the ablest legislative de- 
bater of his day. Mr. Jewell, though 
successful at Winchester, and appreciat- 
ed in his county, felt the need of a 
wider field for his business calling. 
He was a Trustee of the Cheshire 
Provident Institution for Savings, and 
of the Keene Academy, and had the 
confidence of the entire community; 
but his business caused him frequently 
to make journeys down the Connecticut 
valley, and he concluded, after mature 
reflection, that he could enlarge his busi- 
ness by "seeking his fortune." as he ex- 
pressed it. at Hartford. Before this, 
he was able, though at the time he had 
a large family, to give his eldest son a 
good preparatory education for his 
entry to Dartmouth college. Harvey 
told his father that he would remain 
with him and render the customary 
service during his minority, but that 
he must have an education. The 
father wisely concluded that if this 
was his son's wish, it should be grati- 
fied, and the young man was sent to 
Keene academy to begin his prepara- 
tory studies. Here he was, as after- 
ward in college, a classmate with 
Hon. Horatio G. Parker, of Boston. 

The mother of Mr. Jewell was Emi'y 
Alexander, whose father was a promi- 
nent citizen of Cheshire county. She 
survives her son, and has ever been 
noted for her devotion to religious 
principles, her interest in reformatory 



and charitable work, and her many 
attractive traits of character. 

Harvey's thirst for knowledge began 
at the very earliest period of his boy- 
hood. When a small child he first 
saw the moon and stars, and was told 
by his mother that they were the 
work of a divine creator, and that 
they all obeyed his laws, he fairly 
danced with delight at the acquired 
knowledge. After his studies at 
Keene he entered Dartmouth college, 
and, as have others, whose desire for 
learning was not limited by the means 
at command, paid a portion of his 
college expenses from the proceeds of 
teaching school at Pembroke and 
other places. Here was seen the 
peculiar traits of his character, a con- 
stant labor in the acquisition of knowl- 
edge, a kind disposition, cordial to- 
ward his classmates and college ac- 
quaintances, social alike with his seniors 
and growing respected and beloved by 
all, with nothing in his collegiate career 
to regret, and as has been said by a 
classmate in academy and college 
"loved by all, beyond every other 
member of his class." 

Graduated in 1844, ne went to 
Boston, and by the friendly aid of the 
Hon. John D. Philbrick, then a teacher, 
and afterward Superintendent of 
Public Schools in that city, he obtained 
a situation as Usher in the Mayhew 
school. During hours not devoted to 
school duties, he studied law, and 
continued assiduously in the pursuit, 
studying with Lyman Mason, Esq., 
until he was prepared for admission 
to the Suffolk bar, October 1, 1847. 

During this time he manifested an 
interest in politics, and was chosen 
President of the Young Men's Whig 
Club, in Boston. He was a proficient in 
vocal music, — indeed while in New 
Hampshire he had taught, what were 
in vogue in the country towns in those 
day's, evening singing schools, and 
began to make large personal acquaint- 
ance. His agreeable manners, frank 
disposition and the easy adaptability 
to positions in which he was from time 
to time placed, won him hosts of friends. 

Admitted to the bar, he formed a 
business connection with the late 
David A. Simmons, whose office was 
then in Court street. After Mr. 
Simmons's death, there were associated 
with him ex-Governor Gaston, Hon. 
Walbridge A. Field, now Judge of the 
Supreme Court, and after Judge Field's 
appointment to the Supreme bench, 
with E. O. Shepard, Esq. 

He was a safe counselor, — one who 
combined unquestioned integrity and 
professional capacity with diligence in 
studies, and was noted for his skill in 
drafting legal papers. 

One of the early important cases in 
which he was engaged, required the 
preparation of a long and somewhat 
complicated bill in equity. Mr. Jewell 
drew the bill, and went to Cambridge, 
and submitted it to that able jurist, the 
ex-Chief Justice of New Hampshire, 
Joel Parker, then Royal Professor at 
the Cambridge Law School, for his 
opinion as to its sufficiency. ludge 
Parker, after a careful examination, 
returned the bill to Mr. Jewell without 
a suggestion of any modification, re- 
garding it to be as near perfect in the 
draft of the young lawyer as need be. 

In this branch of his profession, as 
counsel in the preparation ot import- 
ant cases and drafting contracts, char- 
ters of incorporations and office work 
of this nature, Mr. Jewell had few 
equals. He was a man who made no 
mistakes, and a lawyer who was guilty 
of no omissions. His career as a 
member of the bar. his retainers in 
important causes, the clientage of lead- 
ing corporations and large trusts, 
were of course the result of his ac- 
knowledged legal ability, and the 
tribute of respect shown by his breth- 
ren of the Boston bar in December 
last, show their high appreciation of 
his character, worth, and legal attain- 

Mr. Jewell married, December 26, 
1849, Susan Bradley, daughter 
of Hon. Richard Bradley, late of 
Concord, one of the leading men of 
that city, concerning whom an admira- 
bly written sketch was read before 



the Historical Society, not long since, 
by one of its most valued members. 
Mrs. Jewell and two daughters survive, 
residing in the home in Boston where the 
deceased husband and father enjoyed so 
many years in his domestic circle, and 
where his love of books had been 
gratified in the gathering of a large and 
well-selected library. 

Mr. Jewell inherited a natural taste 
and aptitude for politics, but he never 
was a politician at the expense of the 
sacrifice of any principle to the least 
degree. He was of the class of men 
who elevate politics, and he honored 
the positions to which he was chosen 
or appointed. 

As a member of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives, he was for 
several years chairman of the judiciary 
committee, and while in that important 
position every bill which passed through 
the hands of the committee received 
his careful attention. He had a pecu- 
liar aptitude for discovering at sight 
anything in a measure before the leg- 
islature which should not be permitted 
to pass the committee or the house. 
And afterward, during the four years 
in which he rendered such signal ser- 
vice as Speaker, this trait proved of 
great value to the Commonwealth. 

In 1875 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Grant one of the judges of the 
court of commissioners of Alabama 
claims. Thirty years' practice in a 
commercial seaboard city had given 
him large acquaintance with maritime 
laws, and his practical knowledge, dis- 
criminating good sense and legal train- 
ing, made him an excellent judge, and 
his appointment proved in every re- 
spect eminently creditable. 

From the results of his large prac- 
tice he accumulated a fortune which 
he had securely invested. Though 
always a busy man, he achieved as 
much real enjoyment in life as any 
man of his years. By this I mean 
he obtained the most from life, by 
proper and rational enjoyment, with- 
out indulgences which in any sense 

interfered with his habits of industry, 
and the devotion to his professional 
and other duties. He was extremely 
fond of fishing, and of late years was 
in the habit of taking no little enjoy- 
ment in his vacation in seasons devot- 
ed to the pleasures of angling. 

He wore his political honors grace- 
fully, ever preferring the success of the 
principles of the party with which he 
affiliated, to any personal advance- 
ment. Indeed, he was as unselfish in 
his political as he was unspotted in 
his private life. 

He was a gentleman in all his in- 
stincts, of fine manly bearing, com- 
manding presence and genial manners. 

His success, after his admission to 
the bar, was early assured, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in his pro- 
fession, and in social and business 
circles merited and received the con- 
fidence and esteem of his fellow citi- 

But what we of New ' Hampshire 
most delight to contemplate in Mr. 
Jewell's career, is that early determina- 
tion to acquire knowledge, that devo- 
tion to fixed principles which carried 
him along the pathway to success ; his 
early struggles, now teaching an even- 
ing sinking school at Pembroke or 
Concord, to gain the means of attain- 
ing a collegiate education, and then 
in Boston, as an instructor in the public 
schools, devoting every spare hour to 
the study of a profession of which he 
was afterward a shining ornament. 

It is of this material that our state 
has so liberally contributed to her sis- 
ter states, supplying that constant de- 
mand for our great staple — men. And 
while in nearly every state of the 
Union have been men who have gone 
from New Hampshire to fill high and 
honored positions in those states, few, 
if any, have been more worthy of the 
constant esteem in which they have 
been held, or more deserving of our 
state pride, than has been the subject 
of this paper. 

io 4 




He was a Mohawk Indian, born about 
1740, and who died at his residence, 
at the head of Lake Ontario, Canada 
West, Nov. 24, 1S07. Sir William 
Juhnson married, for Ins second wife, 
Molly, sister of Joseph, and he became 
a member of Johnson's family. In 
August, 1761, Sir William sent .Brandt 
to Dr. Eleazer Whtelock's Indian 
Charity School, then established at 
Lebanon, Conn. 

He remained there until Sept. 19, 
1763 — more than two years. The ex- 
l»- i^e of his education, as charged by 
Dr. Wheelock, during the time he was 
there, was nearly twenty five pounds. 
His board was five shillings per week, 
and his tuition two shillings. The 
balance of the expense for his educa- 
tion was principally expended for his 

A favorite coat for the Indian stu- 
dent, maue irom a bear-skin, and 
leather breeches, tanned from the 
deer, or moose-skins, were then much 

While at this school, it is said he 
translated the Gospel of St. Mark 
into the Mohawk language. 

Before he joired the school, he is 
reported to have taken an active part, 
under Sir William Johnson, in the Ni- 
agara campaign of 175S and 1759. 
After his return home, in 1763, he was 
engaged in the war against Pontiac. 

Sir William Johnson died in 1774, 
and his son-in-law, Guy Johnson, be- 
came superintendent of the Indian 
Department in Canada, and his influ- 
ence extended over the Mohawks in 
New York, or the Six Nations, as they 
were usually called. 

In 1775 Brandt was induced to visit 
England, and by the influence of Sir 
Guy Johnson he was induced to take 
up arms against the colonies, and was 
employed first in a predatory incur- 
sion against our settlements in connec- 
tion with the Tory refugee, Col. John 

Butler. Brandt also served under St. 
Leger. in 1777, in the investment of 
Col. Gansevort at Fort Stanwix. and 
was a leader in the severe battle of 
Oriskany. fought August 6, 1777. He 
was not engaged in the massacre at 
Wyoming, but was a participant in the 
destruction of the town of Cherry 
Valley in New York, a town named 
after Capt. Cherry, of Londonderry, 
one of its first settlers, and which had 
been largely filled by citizens from 
that town and Windham, both in this 
state. The centennial of that destruc- 
tion was recently celebrated, and the 
address on that ccrasion was delivered 
by Jud^e Campbell, a descendant from 
the family of that name which had 
emigrated from Windham, N. H., 
to that town. In July, 1779, ne 
had obtained the commission of 
colonel f:on the British government, 
and led the band that destroyed Mini- 
sink, and defeated Col. Tusten and his 
command. Under Johnson, in 1779, 
he was one of \h** most efificknt op- 
ponents of Gen. Sullivan in his expe- 
dition against the Indians. He com- 
manded the right wing of the enemy 
in the battle of Newton, and, being 
posted behind a strong intrenchment 
of logs, he was enabled to inflict con- 
siderable lo: s upon our New Hamp- 
shire in ops. It was here Capt. Cloves, 
of Fitzuilliam, and Lt. MeCauley, of 
Litchfield, were killed. Also Paymaster 
Kimball, of Plaistow, and Major Tit- 
comb, of Dover, and Ensign John 
Bean, of Salisbury, were severely 
wounded. After the war was over, 
Col. Brandt exerted his influence in 
behalf of the Americans, and induced 
the Mohawks to make a permanent 
peace with them. 

In 1786 Col. Brandt again visited 
England and was received with marked 
distinction. He then and there col- 
lected funds for the first church which 
was built in Upper Canada. He, upon 



his return, was frequently employed by 
Gov. Carleton in the public service, 
and discharged the duties of his trusts 
with skill and ability. 

He opposed the confederation of the 
Indians which led to the necessity of 
employing Gen. Wayne and his army 
in Ohio, and then exerted himself to 
preserve peace with the United States, 
and was successful in his efforts. He 
did much to improve the condition of 
his people by introducing among them 
the learned, arts, and the moral and 
industrious habits incident to a civil- 
ized life. 

We would here remark, as before 
suggested, Sir Guy Johnson was the 
son-in-law of William ; but Sir John 
Johnson was the son of Sir William, 
and was also one of his heirs, 
and succeeded as manager of his 
father's large estate, and held 
many of the high official stations 
in Canada, both civil and mili- 
tary. The memory of Col. Brandt is 
still held in great veneration, especially 
in Canada West. And the late Col. 
Stone, of the city of New York, has 
contributed much to perpetuate it by 
hij, biography. The Charity School 
of Pres. Wheelock was sustained by 
both private and public benefactions 
from individuals and churches, both in 

this country and England and Scotland 
prior to the Revolutionary war, but 
after the war of the Revolution com- 
menced, they ceased at once. In 1770 
Pres. Wheelock removed his Indian 
school to Dartmouth College and made 
provision for the education of the In- 
dian youth there. Before its re- 
moval, Pres. Wheelock allowed it to as- 
sume the name of Moor's Charity School 
in consequence of the large dona- 
tion of Joshua Moor, of Mansfield, 
Conn. Previous to the Revolutionary 
war Pres. Wheelock had educated 
nearly seventy Indians. Brandt and 
Sampson Occum were the two scholars 
that filled the tnunp of fame. No 
others arrived at much distinction. 
Pres. Wheelock, in a letter to a friend, 
says, he was often rebuked for having 
instructed Brandt at his school. "My 
uniform answer was that I did not 
teach a military school, and that Brandt 
must have taught his hands to war, 
and his fingers to fight at home. I do 
not hold myself responsible for his 
fighting ability." No doubt Brandt's 
hosti'ity to the American cause had 
much influence in turning the public 
mind against the education of the In- 
dians. At least such was the effect 
during the war of the Revolution. 



[An Incident *aid to have occurred in 1055. The Bord»>naee, or Lake of Constance, on the borders 
of Germany and Switzerland, U very rarely frozen over. J 

The rider sped through a valley fair; 
On snow-lh-lds shimmered the sunlight there; 
Fast flew his horse, with flanks all wet. 
To reach the hike ere the >un had set; 
For then the boatman, with flying speed. 
Should land him safe, and his tired steed. 

Where the way Is rough, over stone and thorn, 
The eager rider is swiftly borne; 
From the mountain-fide he sees the land 
Spread out with its snow, like a plain of sand; 


Behind him vanish the village and town, 

The way grows even, the path smooths down ; 

Xo hill o'er the plain, no house he sees. 

The rocks disappear, and he finds no trees. 

Still on for a mile he hurrying flies, 

While high in the air the snow-goose cries ; 

The water-hen starts, ilutteringrnear ; 

Xo other sounds greet his listening ear; 

Xo horseman beside him. no footprint before. 

To tell if his path leads on to the shore. 

Still hurrying over the snow, thinks he. 

When will the water rush, when gleam the sea' 

Then evening came; like a Vesper star, 
Shone a hamlet's twinkling light afar; 
From the mist uprises tree alter tree. 
And hills bound in the horizon free; 
Itoui>;h grows the way with stones, as before. 
And he gives the spur to his steed once more. 

At sound of his horse the village dogs bark; 
Warm hearths invite him out of the dark; 
At the window, welcome! " Little maid, say, 
To the Borden see how far is the way?" 

She turned on the rider wondering eyes ; 

" The sea. with its boatman, behind thee lies. 

If the icy rind did not hold it fast. 

I should say from the boat thou hadst just now passed, 

When he spake, the stranger shuddered with fear; 
"Over yon broad plain I have journeyed here." 

"Great God!** with arms upraised, shrieked she, 
" Then rod'st thou hither over the sea! 
Thy horse's hoofs echoed hard by the door 
Of the bottomless gulfs where the billows roar; 
Didst thou not hear the waves angrily dash. 
And the ice-floor rend with a sudden crash? 
In the chilling flood hast thou not been food 
For the hungry pike and his silent brood?" 

She calls the village to hear the tale; 

The boys gather round her, breathless and pale; 

The mother, the grandsire, together say, 

" Thou may'st bless thy fate, happy man, to-day! 

Come in. and share our evening dish, 

Break with us our bread, and eat of the fish!" 

Down sank the rider upon his steed; 

The first dread words were his only heed; 

His heart stopped beating: and clear in his mind 

Rose the deadly peril that lay behind. 

His eye saw ODly the terrible deep; 

Engulfed was his soul in its darksome keep ; 

It thundered like crashing ice in his ear; 

Like waves, dripped o'er him the sweat of fear. 

He sank from his steed, one death-groan gave, 

Safe over the sea he had come to his grave. 

Alma J. Herbert. 




Benjamin Franklin was appointed 
General Deputy Postmaster in 1753, 
and in the following year startled the 
people of the colonies by giving notice 
that the mails for New England, 
which theretofore had left Philadelphia 
once a fortnight in winter, would start 
once a week throughout the year. In 
1760 he proposed to run stage wagons 
between Philadelphia and Boston for 
the conveyance of the mail, one-start- 
ing from each city on Monday morn- 
ing, and reaching its destination by 
Saturday night. Franklin was removed 
from office by the British ministry in 
1774. The Continental Congress 
appointed a committee to devise a 
system of post-office communication, 
and on July 26, 1775, a report was 
submitted, and the plan proposed was 
adopted, whereupon Dr. Franklin was 
appointed Postmaster-General, at a 
salary of $1,000, which compensation 
was doubled April 16, 1779, and 
December 27, 1779, increased by con- 
gress to $5,000 per annum. Franklin 
was succeeded as Postmaster-General 
November 7, 1776, by his son-in-law, 
Richard Bache, who remained in office 
until January 28, 1782, when Ebenezer 
Hazard became the last Postmaster- 
General under the confederation. 
Stephen Osgood, of Massachusetts, 
with a salary of $1,500, was appointed 
the first Postmaster-General under the 
Federal government, serving from 
September 26, 1789, to August 12, 
1 791, when he was succeeded by 
Timothy Pickering (with a salary ad- 
vanced to $2,000), who remained until 
Joseph Habersham, of Georgia, the 
last Postmaster-General under Wash- 
ington, was commissioned, February 25, 
i795» at a yearly salary of $2,400. 

The office located in Philadelphia in 
1796 was established in Washington 
when the government was removed to 
the Federal city. In 1802 the United 
States ran their own stages between 
Philadelphia and New York, finding 
horses, coaches, and drivers, and trans- 
porting both mail and passengers. 

The following list of postmasters at 
Portsmouth, N. H., is compiled from 
the records of the Post-Office Depart- 
ment, which was organized September 
26, 1 789, when Stephen Osgood became 
the Postmaster General under the 
Federal Constitution, which, having 
been ratified by a sufficient number of 
States, became valid March 4, 1789. 
In the first congress which assembled 
in that year, John Langdon, of New 
Hampshire, was elected President of 
the Senate, April 6, for the purpose of 
opening and counting the votes for 
President and Vice-President of the 
United States. The official records of 
the government are dated subsequently 
to the inauguration of Washington, 
which occurred April 30, 1 789, when 
John Langdon, who had declared the 
vote electing Washington and Adams, 
administered to them the oath of office. 
There is, however, in the office of the 
Auditor of the Treasury for the Post- 
Office Department, an account book 
kept by Benjamin Franklin when he 
was Postmaster General, and in his 
own hand-writing, from which it appears 
that Jeremiah Libbey was postmaster 
at Portsmouth January 5, 1776, but 
we can not give the date of his original 
appointment. He continued in office 
until April 1, 1798, and died in 1824, 
aged 76. 

In 1790, the general post-office was 
located in New York city, at which 



time there were 1S75 miles of post 
roads established in the United States. 
Now the aggregate length of routes, 
including all classes of service, would 
probably reach 350,000 miles, as the 
length at the close of the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 18S1, was 344,006 
miles. In 1790 there were only 
seventy-five (75) post-offices. Now 
August 1, 1882, there are 46.405. 
The entire revenue from postages in 
1 790 was less than sixteen thousand 
dollars. Now it aggregates upward 
of forty-two million dollars. 

April 20, 1761, John Stavers, an 
Englishman by birth, and the proprie- 
tor of noted hostelries in his day. com- 
menced running a stage between Ports- 
mouth and Boston. A curricle, or 
large stage chair, drawn by two horses 
and sufficiently wide to comfortably 
accommodate three persons, was the 
vehicle used, and is represented to 
have been the fir>t regular stage line 
established in America. The journey 
was performed once a week. The 
conveyance started on Monday for 
Boston, and returning arrived at Ports- 
mouth on Friday. An advertisement 
announcing the enterprise reads : " It 
will be contrived to carry four persons 
beside the driver. In case only two 
persons go, they may be accommodated 
to carry things ol bulk or value to 
make a third or fourth person." After 
one month's successful service, public 
notice was given "that five passengers 
would be carried," leaving Portsmouth 
on Tuesday, " and arrive back Saturday 

In May, 1763, "The Portsmouth 
FI)ing Stage Coach" with four or six 
horses, according to the condition of 
the roads, started from the " Earl of 
Halifax" Inn, kept by John Stavers, on 
Queen, now State street, near the 
easterly end, toward the Piscataqua 
river. The new "Earl of Halifax" 
hotel was first occupied about 1770, 
and was a commodious three storied 
wooden structure, situated on the cor- 
ner of Pitt (changed to Court), and 
Atkinson streets, and is now occupied 
as a tenement house. The stable, a 

very large and spacious building which 
sheltered the horses belonging to the 
" Flying Stage Coach," as well as those 
of travelers, is on the corner of Atkin- 
son and Jefferson streets, and in the 
rear of the public house. The Inns 
had been respectively named, first 
" Earl of Halifax," and afterward 
"William Pitt," and had furnished 
comfortable quarters for Washington, 
Lafayette, Hancock, Gerry, Knox, 
Sullivan, Rutledge, Louis Phillippe, 
and many other illustrious personages. 
The driver attached to the "Flying 
Stage Coach," was Bartholomew Sta- 
vers, undoubtedly the first regular 
stage driver north of Boston, if not in 
the country. He was a brother of 
John, and the father of the late Capt. 
William Stavers, who at the time of 
his death was a retired shipmaster 
and a wealthy citizen of Portsmouth. 

One of the earliest mail pouches, 
if not the first in use on the route, 
and of not greater capacity than a 
common hand satchel, is preserved 
among the curiosities at the Ports- 
mouth Athenaeum. 

Eleazcr Russell, a great grandson 
of John Cutt, the first President of the 
Province, who died April 5, 168 r. at 
an advanced age, held several govern- 
ment positions. He died at Ports- 
mouth September 18. 1 798, aged 78. 
At one time he was Naval Officer of 
the Port, and also the sole postmaster 
of the Piovince of New Hampshire, 
and was distinguished as the first post- 
master in the state. AM letters address- 
ed to New Hampshire were deposited 
in his office, and remained there until 
sent for from other towns. Mr. 
Brewster, in his "Rambles" numbered 
forty-seven, gives quite an interesting 
account of this very precise and dig- 
nified public functionary, with "cock 
hat and wig, a light coat with full 
skirts, a long vest with pocket pads, 
light small clothes, with bright knee 
buckles, and more ponderous buckles 
on his shoes." For several years 
Portsmouth had the only post-office in 
the Province of New Hampshire, and 
Eleazer Russell filled most accepta- 



Wy the office of postmaster as well as 
naval officer. His residence, which 
was also the Custom House as well as 
the first post-office, was located near 
the old ferry ways, where the stone 
store now stands, opposite the inter- 
section of Russell with Market street. 
In the Committee of Safety, at 
Exeter, July 27, 1 781, pursuant to a 
vote of the General Assembly of June 
27, 1 78 1 , authorizing the establishment 
of a post to ride from Portsmouth to 
the western part of New Hampshire, 
John Balch, of Keene. was appointed 
post-rider for three months, at the 
compensation of seventy dollars in 
hard money for the entire service. 
The route was from Portsmouth \ia 
Concord and Plymouth to Haverhill ; 
thence down the Connecticut river 
through Charlestown and Keene to 
Portsmouth ; the trip to be performed. 
in each and every fourteen days, the 
committee reserving the right to alter 
the route if the public good or con- 
venience should require any change. 

Names of 1'os! masters. Date of Appointment. 

Eleazer Rus c ell. 
•Jeremiah Libbey, 

Mark Simes, 
Jonathan Payson, 
John F. Parrott, 
Abner Greenleaf, 
Samuel Cushman, 
Samuel Gookin, 
Nehemiah Moses. 

(See sketch.) 

Feb. 16, 1 790. 

April 1, 1 798. 

April 1, 181 2. 

Feb. 24, 1S26. 

April 22, 1829. 

July 2. 1840. 

May 19, 1841. 

March 22, 1845. 

Thomas L. Tullock, April 25, 1849 
Gideon H. Rundlett, April 4, 1853 
Joseph P. Morse, March 27, 1S61. 
Joseph B. Adams, April 11, 1S65. 

Elbridge G. Pierce, jr., April 21, 1869. 

Since writing the foregoing, we 
have prepared other tables, including 
collectors, naval officers ami surveyors 
of the port of Portsmouth, and navy 
agents and naval storekeepers con- 
nected with the United States Naval 
Station on the Piscataqua. The names 
enumerated and herewith transmitted 
are well-known to the sons of Ports- 
mouth as, generally, citizens of repu- 

*Jerrmiah Libbey was l'ootmaottr ad «arlr a» 
J«u. 5, 177G. (Ste sketch) 

tation, holding conspicuous places in 
our local and state history. A brief 
biographical sketch of each one would 
be interesting ; but the rtading ot 
their names will readily recall their 
prominence and characteristics. We 
have a personal knowledge of at least 
four filths of the officers whose appoint- 
ments date subsequently to the Federal 
Constitution, and almost feel prompted 
to characterize them. We shall, how- 
ever, only premise by mentioning 
those who held the offices prior to the 
date of the tables, so far as we can 
name them from the sources of infor- 
mation accessible at the present writ- 

About the year 1675 Sampson 
Sheafe, senior, was collector of the 
poit of Piscataqua, and continued in 
office a few years. During his admin- 
istration several vessels were seized, 
for a violation of the revenue laws, or 
the "laws of trade and navigation." 
He was successful as a merchant ; 
honored as one of His Majesty's 
Council, and also as Secretary of the 
Province. In 171 1 he was appointed 
commissary of the New England forces 
formed for an expedition against 
Quebec. Mr. Sheafe was a native of 
Bobton, and died there in 1726, aged 
76. His descendants became promi- 
nent and wealthy citizens of the 
Province. His great-grand-son, the 
Hon. James Sheafe, an opulent mer- 
chant of Portsmouth, was a member 
of the Sixth Congress, and a United 
States senator, serving from December 
7, 1S01, to June, 1802, when he re- 
signed. He was also the Federal 
candidate for governor of New Hamp- 
shire in 1816, but was defeated by 
William Plumer. Mr. Sheafe died 
December 5, 1829, aged 74. 

March 22, 1680, Edward Randolph, 
the collector of customs for New 
England, appointed by the King, 
seized a vessel belonging to Ports- 
mouth, commanded by Capt. Mark 
Hunking, who brought an 2crion against 
the collector before the president and 
council, and recovered judgment for 
^13 and cost. Walter Barefoote was 



deputy collector for the port of Ports- 
mouth under appointment from Ran- 
dolph, and for "attempting to execute 
an office not derived from the consti- 
tuted authorities of the Province," he 
was indicted on the 24th of March, 
1680, found guilty and fined ;£io. 
March 10, 1682, Barefoote, as deputy 
collector, seized another vessel and was 
again fined ^20, for acting without 
authority from the government of the 
Province. Being deputed by Ran- 
dolph, he claimed an appeal to the 
King, but did not prosecute it. In 
1683 Gov. Edward Canfield dismiss- 
ed Capt. Edward Stileman, as com- 
mander of the fort, for allowing a 
vessel, which had been seized, to pass 
out of the harbor, and appointed 
Barefoote to the command. 

Walter Barefoote was deputy gover- 
nor and president of the council in 
1685, and succeeded Gov. Canfield, 
when the latter left the Province. He 
administered the government a short 
time in 1685-6, being superseded by 
Joseph Dudley, who was appointed 
September 27, 1685, president of New 
England ; but did not officiate until 
May 25, 1686. 

In 1692 Phesant Estwick was the 
deputy collector of the port of " Ports- 
mouth in New England." It appears 
that under Gov. Edmund Andros, 
from 167S to 1689, Portsmouth was a 
port of entry, the only remaining 
ports of entry of record in New 
England, being Boston, Salem, Bristol, 
Newport, New London, Savbrook, 
New Haven, Milford, Fairfield, and 

About the year 1700, Samuel Pen- 
hallow was appointed collector. He 
was an eminent citizen, one of the 
governor's council, chief justice of the 
superior court of judicature in 171 7, 
recorder of deeds, treasurer of the 
Province, and held other responsible 
positions. Pie married a daughter of 
President John Cutt, and inherited in 
his wife's right a large estate. He 
died December 2, 1726, aged 62. 

Hon. Theodore Atkinson, senior, 
who died September 22, 1779, aged 

82, was for many years the secretary 
of the Province, and held other offices 
of reputation, such as president of 
council, and chief justice of the supe- 
rior court of judicature. He was 
the son of Hon. Theodore Atkinson, 
of Newcastle, and the father of Hon. 
Theodore Atkinson, junior, and pre- 
ceded and succeeded him in the office 
of secretary of the Province. He 
had also been collector of customs, 
naval officer of the port, and sheriff 
of the Province ; but Jonathan Belcher, 
of Boston, when appointed in 1730, 
governor of Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire, removed Mr. Atkinson 
from the office of collector, and ap- 
pointed Richard Wibird in his stead. 
He also displaced him as naval officer, 
and Capt. Ellis Huske succeeded to 
the office. Mr. Atkinson was however 
continued as sheriff; but Eleazer 
Russell, the father of Eleazer hereto- 
fore and hereafter named, was asso- 
ciated with him as joint occupant of 
the office. Mr. Atkinson married the 
daughter of Lieut. -Gov. John Went- 
worth, against whom Gov. Belcher 
was greatly prejudiced because he had 
written complimentary letters both to 
himself and Mr. Shute, his competitor, 
when the appointment of governor 
was pending. Hence the removal of 
Wentworth's son-in-law from the offices 

Lieut.-Gov. John Temple, who re- 
sided in Boston, was commissioned 
June 15, 1 761, and subscribed the 
oath of office January 19, 1762, as 
surveyor general of Mis Majesty's cus- 
toms in the northern part of America. 
He appointed Theodore Atkinson, jr., 
deputy collector of the customs at 
Piscataqua. James Nevin, a native 
of Scotland, a post captain in the 
British navy, and also one of His 
Majesty's council, was collector of the 
customs for the port of Portsmouth. 
He died February 6, 1769, aged 60, 
and was succeeded by John Hughes 
of Philadelphia, who removed to' 
Portsmouth, but subsequently returned 
to Philadelphia when Robert Hallo- 
well succeeded him, remaining in 



Portsmouth about one year, until 1772, 
when he was transferred to Boston. 

George Meserve, a native of Ports- 
mouth, son of Col. Nathaniel Meserve, 
who rendered highly meritorious ser- 
vices at the first and second seige of 
Louisburg. as well as at Crown Point 
and Fort Edward, and died at Louis- 
burg in 1758, was the agent for the 
distribution of stamps in New Hamp- 
shire. Pie was in England in 1765, 
when the Stamp Act passed. His 
commission reached Portsmouth in 
1 766 ; but the act was particularly 
obnoxious to the people of the Province, 
and the Sons of Liberty at Portsmouth 
were so active and positive in their 
opposition, that Mr. Meserve declined 
to qualify, not deeming it prudent to 
accept the trust. To compensate him 
for the disappointment and loss of the 
office, he was appointed comptroller of 
customs for the port of Boston ; but 
with the consent of the crown, Mr. 
Hallowell, the collector at Portsmouth 
exchanged offices with him, and he 
returned to Portsmouth, where he 
was collector of the port in 1772. 

Robert Trail, who married Mary 
Whipple, the sister of Joseph, the col- 
lector of customs, and William Whip- 
ple, one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, was at one 
time the comptroller of the port at 
Portsmouth — an office not coutinued 
under the present organization of the 

Eieazer Russell's connection with 
the customs department is mentioned 
in the introductory remarks relating to 
the postal service. He was naval 
officer, and virtually for a time the 
collector of the port. He was an un- 
married man, very precise and careful. 
It is related of him that "when a vessel 
arrived and the papers were carried to 
the custom house, Mr. Russell would 
receive them with the tongs and sub- 
mit them to a smoking before he ex- 
amined them," being "always in great 
fear of small-pox or foreign epidemics." 
He was connected with the customs 
September 9, 1776, for he wrote on 
that day a letter of considerable length 

to Hon. Meshech Wcare, President of 
the Committee of Safety in relation to 
maritime fees, charged and collected. 
May 23, 17S3, he was instructed by 
President Weare to allow British vessels 
to enter the port, as the reasons for 
excluding them had ceased. 

Col. Pierse Long was appointed by 
Washington collector in 17S9, but 
died suddenly April 3, 1789, before 
entering upon the duties of the office. 
Col. Long was a successful merchant, 
an influential member of the Provin- 
cial congress, and was particularly dis- 
tinguished for his military and civic 

Names of Collectors. 

Joseph Whipple, 
Thomas Martin, 
Joseph W r hipple, 
Timothy Upham, 
John P. Decatur, 
William Pickering, 
Daniel P. Drown, 
John N. Sherburne, 
George Dennett, 
Lory Odell, 
Augustus Jenkins, 
Lory Odell, 
Zenas Clement, 
Augustus Jenkins, 
Joseph B. Upham, 
John H. Bailey, 
Alfred F. Howard, 

Naval Officers. 

Eieazer Russell, 
Nathaniel Folsom, 
John F. Parrott, 
Elijah Hall, 
William Claggett, 
George Dennett, 
John McClintock, 
Daniel Vaughan, 
John McClintock, 
Sampson B. Lord, 
Jonathan Dearborn, 
John Knowlton, 

Date of Appointment. 

August 3, 

July 6, 

April 3, 

May 15, 

April 17, 

. f ^y 1, 

April 1, 

July 15, 

August ij- 

July 1, 

April 9, 

June 28, 

April 27, 

June 24, 

May 8, 

July 12, 

Jan. 1, 






Date of Appointment. 

August 3, 

May 5, 

Aug. 14, 

Feb. 11, 

October 14, 

Nov. 18, 

J«iy 9, 

March 22, 

May 24, 

Feb. 12, 

April 17, 

■ J u iy 25, 



The office was abolished December 
, 1866, bv act of Congress of July 
I, 1866. 



Earrtjors of the Fort. Date of Appointment. 

Thomas Martin, 

August 3, 


Samuel Adams, 

July 7, 


♦George Wentworth, 

Aug. 31, 


James Ladd, 

Feb. 12, 


Samuel Hall, 

Jan. 29, 


William D. Little, 

Jan. 9, 


Joseph L. Locke, 

July 27, 


Winthrop Pickering, 

March 14, 


John N. Frost, 

March 16, 


Kittridge Sheldon, 

March 18, 


Josiah G. Hadley, 

March 3t, 


AVilliam B )(\zq, 

March 13, 


John Knowlton, 

March 18, 


William R. Martin, 

April 8, 


Joseph D. Pillow, 

March 26, 


Office abolished March 16, 1S74. 

Kavy Agrnts. 

Date of Appointment 

f Jacob Sheafe. 

Woodbury Langdon, 

May 1 , 


J Henry S. Langdon, 

Jan. 23. 


Enoch G. Parrotr, 

April 2i, 


John N. Saerburne, 

June 25, 


John Liighton, 

April 27, 


Timothy Upham, 

April 29, 


Simuel Cushman, 

April i, 


Charles \V. Cutter, 

Oct. 1, 


Charles H. Ladd, 

Sept. 15, 

185 I, 

* Geo. Wentworth appjiuted vice Adams de- 

fUu ter app')iri'm*'i)tfrom the War riepartment, 
■when the act ut A;>i il 30, LTiH, creating the N.-ivy 
Department pi-s.d au 1 wad retained in otuce. 
En 1 »r servi •»• M tv 1, 1601. 

JHeiirr S. Langdon vice Woodbury Langdon, 
deceased. Died January 13, 18Jj. 

Nehemiah Moses, 
Henry F. Wendell, 
Thomas L. Tullock, 

April i, 1853. 

Sept. 1, 1S57. 

April 15, 1861. 

End ol service July 19, 1S65, when 
the office was abolished ; since which 
time the duties of navy agents at the 
several naval stations, have been dis- 
charged by the regular Paymasters of 
the United States Navy. 

Naval Storekeepers. 

Tunis Craven, 
John P. Decatur, 
Richard H. Ayer, 
Enoch B. Barnes, 
Charles \V. Cutter, 
Daniel Pierce, 
John Rice, 
lohn R. Reding, 
Virgil 1). Paris 
Mark F. Wentworth, 
John Wentworth, 
Mark F. Wentworth, 
Andrew J. Stimson, 

Date of Appointment. 

March 15, 1813. 

Oct. 21, 1823. 

May 1, iS;q. 

May 1, 1837. 
April 19, 1841. 

May 1. 1845. 
October 1, 1849. 

May 7, 1853. 

June 1, 185S. 
Mav 15, 1861. 

May 3, 1864. 
Nov. 17, 1864. 
April 11, iS65. 

End of service April 6, 1S67, when 
the office was abolished, the duties 
being since performed by regular 
officers in the navy in charge of the 
different departments at the yard ; t lie 
stores being placed in the custody of 
the respective division to which they 
belong, instead of having one general 



Unseen ideal powers 
Are beautiful, rich flowers 
That blossom in the he:irt 
And bear the fruits of Art 
In minds that think, and plan, 
And strive to reach life's van; 
Misfortune and ill luck 
Develop hope atui pluck. 
A purpose, plan, or prayer, 
Imagination tare. 
A faith that sees God near, — 

Woodsville, N. H., Dec. 20, '82. - 

Are worth a hemisphere. 
Ideal thought" pve birth 
To deeds of highest worth. 
The boy's ideal theme 
Becomes the man's pet scheme. 
And thought, and wish, and will, 
A-cend the steepest hill. 
But those who nev r rear 
On skyej- arch or pier 
A castle, bridge, or hall, 
Will never build at all. 





We were in the full enjoyment of a 
fortnight in boating, fishing, and 
"roughing it" among the islands and 
along the shores of a picturesque New 
England lake. Nothing disturbed or 
in any way inconvenienced us. We 
had an abundant supply of food, 
blankets, and miscellaneous reading 
matter ; and, being in no hurry about 
our movements, it was all the same 
where night overtook us. In fact, 
having freed ourselves from the cares, 
perplexities and anxieties of our even- 
day life, its vocations and social 
surroundings, we were careless in our 
wanderings and indifferent to all else 
but the pleasure we experienced in 
drifting idly about. 

Toward the close of the third day 
of our voyaging, our boat glided grace- 
fully into the shadow of a mountain- 
ous woodland, and drifted slowly under 
the overhanging branches of birches 
and maples. The scene was that of 
nature robed in her richest tints, im- 
pressive in grandeur and inspiring in 
contemplation. The sun looked down 
upon us from a clear sky ; scarcely a 
ripple disturbed the surface of the 
water ; our sail hung loose by the mast, 
and we were made to feel the force of 
the oft repeated quotation from the old 
dramatist, "Man made the town, but 
God made the country." 

Drifting ! The gently ebbing current 
chanted a sweet lullaby upon the 
pebbles on the shore, and the notes of 
the lark and robin seemed a musical 
symphony that floated past us on the 
balmy air and broke on the shore 
beyond. All about us was grandly 
harmonious : all above and beyond, 
wondrous beauty. It was such a 
place and such a picture of repose as 
the dreamer most fervidly desires, for 
it invites reverie and leads from con- 
templation of selfish things to sweet 
communion with things fanciful yet 


Drifting ! For nearly an hour our 
boat floated with the current, past 
rocky prominences, and in a continu- 
ous panorama of beauty which is a 
joy forever. On and on in the aroma 
of ferns and wild flowers, and constantly 
changing sea and landscape. On till 
midnight obscured the brilliant horizon, 
darkening and adding awe to the 
forest. On till an evening breeze 
quickened the expanse of water and 
filled our sail ; till night deepened our 
surroundings, absorbed the day. and 
gave more of prominence to the notes 
of the wood-land songster and the 
odor of fir and balsam. 

Drifting ! The moon arose above 
the forest and revealed a new beauty 
of lake and landscape ; blending the 
reach of our vision in harmony sweeter 
than a sonnet, and adding beauty for 
excelling the most inspired conception 
of the artist and imaginings of the 
devotee of art. 

Drifting ! Anon we came to a clear- 
ing in the wood-land, a peninsula in 
miniature, a lovely spot, a romantic 
place in all its surroundings. In its 
center, guarded by a group of giant 
elms, nestled a deserted farm-house — 
the oasis we had hoped to discover, 
and the place which was to afford us 
an abiding-place for the night. Ac- 
cordingly we lowered and made fast 
our sail, piloted our boat upon the 
sandy shore and transferred our crea- 
ture comforts and necessities to this 
once, doubtless, hospitable dwelling. 
John, my only companion, who took 
the lead in all matters appertaining to 
the larder, prospected the place, and 
meanwhile I dressed some fish and 
attended to other camp matters which, 
by common consent, were a part of 
my duties. Said John, returning to 
the boat after a few minutes' absence, 
"the beauty and convenience of this 
place are nearer my idea of a romantic 
habitation in which to spend the night, 



than any uninhabited habitation I have 
ever struck." 

"How so !" I inquired. 

"Why it has all the appurtenances 
of a well regulated Fifth Avenue. 
There is an old fashioned fire-place 
with cranes and hooks in it, and there 
are grand sleeping apartments in which 
there is an abundance of clean straw. 
I tell you what, William, there is a 
good natural man about here some- 
where." Having obtained the fish 
which I had prepared for the fry-pan, 
he made haste to retrace his steps. 

While the frugal meal was being 
cooked, I intuitively wandered about 
the premises with an idea of obtaining 
a clue to the latitude and longitude of 
the place and a knowledge of our 
neighbors. I learned nothing of either, 
and naturally enough, for strange fancies, 
not to say presentments, will come to 
the mind when softened by solitude, I 
began to wonder concerning the for- 
mer occupants of this deserted dwell- 
ing house, and to conjure strange fan- 
cies about their history. 

"Who shall tell me," this was the 
interrogatory of my mind, "of the 
man and woman who builded a home 

Here was food for thought : here 
was a wide field for romantic gleaning. 
They doubtless came to this sequester- 
ed spot when young in years and hope- 
ful of future prosperity and happiness. 
They probably had joys, sorrows, bless- 
ings, misfortunes, and a hard struggle 
with the world, like all men and women 
before and since their time. Children 
may have been born to them, and 
these paths, now almost obscure with 
bushes and weeds, have echoed the 
merry tread of their feet, and these 
woods the songs of their happy voices. 
The remorseless angel of death, too, 
may have discovered this Arcadia, and 
from yonder portals the last of a once 
happy home circle may have been 
borne to the grave by kind neighbors 
and friends. Who shall tell me? 

The picture that came to my rnind 
was sad in its grouping, and I was 
about to give myself ever to the most 

melancholy meditations, when I was 
aroused by John and notified that he 
was ready to serve refreshments. The 
inner man was quickly satisfied, and 
then, after a general clearing up and 
making ready for the night, in which 
it was my duty to assist, we strolled 
upon the beach, smoked our Havanas 
and chatted about the friends at home. 
A few minutes passed pleasantly, and 
we were about to turn in for the night, 
when there was a sudden and startling 
rustle in the path behind me, and a 
pleasant voice said : — 

"Hullo strangers !" 

"Hullo yourself!" I replied in 
trembling voice, for I freely admit I 
was a good deal frightened. 

The new comer was a man of seventy, 
or thereabouts, tall, muscular, and slow 
of speech and motion. Every thing 
about him assured us that he was a 
good man, and inspired our confidence. 
In fact a glance gave us as true an in- 
sight into his character as forty years 
of acquaintance. He was — for I am 
sure I can sketch his character and 
characteristics, — a man who had no ro-j 
mance in his composition. With him 
"life was real, life was earnest." He 
was sternly religious ; he was a tiller 
of the soil ; he was well-to-do ; he 
was social after a matter-of-fact fashion ; 
he was obliging ; he believed it a 
sacred duty to provide shelter and 
food for a stranger ; he was a man of 
probity, of more than ordinary educa- 
tion, and his face was set against all 
rascality, exorbitant demands and 
uncharitableness. He was, by the way, 
clothed in home-spun, coatless, bare- 
armed, and upon his head was a straw 
hat that had seen city service, by 
which we inferred that he had relatives 
in the " down country." 

"Do you belong around here I" he 

# I replied that we did not, and sug- 
gested that I presumed he did. 

"The house on the hill, just beyond 
the wood-lot, is mine," he remarked. 
" You see I discovered the smoke ris- 
ing from the chimney of the old house, 
and so as soon as I got my chores 



done I thought I would drop around 
and learn who had come. Is there 
anythingyou want, gentlemen, to make 
yourselves comfortable?" 

" Not to-night, thank you," replied 
John. " We shall, however, be glad 
of some produce in the morning." 

" It is all right, strangers. You can 
have any thing in reason that I have 
for the asking." 

The good man said "good night" 
and turned to leave us, when I pro- 
pounded a question that caused him 
to pause. 

"Who owns this place?" was the 

"Who? It belongs to my wife." 

" May we be allowed to occupy it 
for the night?" asked John. 

" Certainly, gentlemen, certainly. 
But you can have a good bed and 
other comforts at the house if you will 
accept them." 

We declined with thanks, offering 
as an excuse that we were camping 
out and preferred " roughing it." 

"This house and form appears to 
be deserted." I said with a determina- 
tion to draw him out in conversation 
on the subject which had been forced 
.upon my mind a short time before. 

"Yes," he replied, "but that is a 
long story and would not in the least 
degree interest you." 

It required but little urging to con- 
vince our visitor — perhaps it would be 
more polite under the circumstances 
to say our host or our landlord — that 
the story of the place would be of 
absorbing interest to us. 

" Do you think so? " 

I replied that I was in earnest, and 
John added an appeal which carried 
assurance of our good faith, and 
caused him to decide that he would 
gratify our curiosity, although he stated 
that " it was a story of sorrow and 
ought not to be repeated except in a 
proper spirit." 

Declining a proffered cigar, and 
apologizing because of a preference 
for chewing, he seated himself upon 
the limb of a fallen tree that overhung 
the beach, and the following is " the 

story of the deserted farm-house," 
which the farmer told with his gaze 
evidently fixed far out in the silvery 
trail of the moon, in measured sen- 
tences, and with a depth of pathos 
which made a lasting impression upon 
the minds of his hearers : — 

" Stephen Waldron — some called 
him Steve and others old Steve— was 
about the first settler in these parts. 
Where he came from I never knew, 
and who his relations were, if he had 
any, I never heard him say. My 
opinion is that he was of Scotch de- 
scent, although I sometimes inclined 
to think — mostly because of reticence 
— that there was Irish in his blood, 
and that he was brought up in the 
Catholic church. This is all specula- 
tion however. Well, the land, as I 
discovered after his death, was squatted 
on. He had no title to it. In those 
days there were no roads to the back 
country, and consequently lumber, 
provision and other farm necessities 
had to be boated. That is how, you 
see, he came to build in this out-of- 
the-way place. I Ve no dates to go 
by, but I reckon it was at about the 
close of the war of the Revolution, 
for the old man was in that war, and 
had a pension from the government 
from the time I first knew him till he 

" Well, ' old Steve ' was no common 
kind of a man. He was no body's 
fool, and no body tried to fool him. 
He had as many good qualities as 
people in general, and he had some 
of the failings of his day and genera- 
tion. He had, gentlemen, I am sorry 
to say, a fondness for intoxicating 
liquor, and was pretty likely to get 
tipsy when he went to the county 
seat on the glorious fourth and on state 
occasions. But he never abused any 
body, and Polly, his wife, never found 
any fault about it or flung it in his face. 
No she always said, Stephen was one 
man in a # thousand ; was good, and wil- 
ling to carry his end of the load, and 
was a darned sight better than some 
men who made a greater show of re- 
spectability. He was a soldier under 



Washington, and therefore would re- 
mark on such occasions that he had 
a clean right to liberty so long as he 
did not break any law. But Polly 
never lectured him on his short com- 
ings. In fact I once heard her tell 
my mother that she had n't any calling 
to preach repentance to him. More 
than all I acknowledge that it would 'nt 
have done any good if she had." 

"'Old Steve' — and I guess I have 
not told you that he has been dead 
nearly forty years — was a good-natured 
sort of a man who calculated to do 
about right by every body, failing in 
which it was a mishap of the head and 
not of the heart. He worked hard to 
get ahead in the world, and — the coun- 
try being settled around here by eight- 
een hundred — to give his two sons and 
his daughter a proper education. He 
had good furniture and house fixtures 
for them days. He had good sheds 
and a first rate barn — which I removed 
several years ago — and he had, by hard 
knocks and diligence, by working early 
and late and in all kinds of weather, 
cleared up more than twenty acres of 
land. Why in his day this peninsula 
was as pretty as any picture of paradise 
you ever saw. More than all he had 
a fine lot of live stock, and a horse and 
horse^boat. In fact he had a plenty 
of every thing that a man needs to 
make himself and his family comforta- 
ble and happy. In the winter he 
hauled wood on the ice and sold it in 
the village, going in the morning in 
time to take his children to school, 
and again in the afternoon in time to 
bring them home. In the spring and 
summer he hurried up his farming, 
and at odd times boated provisions 
and brick. Now you would naturally 
suppose, strangers, that a man of this 
energy would have the respect of the 
community, wouldn't you?" 

We agreed that we should. 

" Well he did not. Somehow — and 
I cannot for the life of me make it 
out — every body was sort of suspicious 
of him. You see he was no society 
man ; he would n't give a penny toward 
building a meeting-house — although 

Polly and the children contributed 
liberally — he would n't do his part to- 
ward supporting the preaching of the 
gospel, and he was 'nt a church-going 
Christian, whatever he was, which 
made more difference in the opinions 
of people in those days than it does 
in this year of grace. And beside 
all the rest he was not a well dressed 
man, and his education had been 
neglected, all of which was against 
him with conscientious folks. Yes, he 
had his faults. He was a little siack 
about somethings, he would 'nt refuse 
a glass of grog on training days, and 
he would do chores on Sunday, which 
most every bodv thought a great sin. 
You see he was only old Steve Waldron, 
and no body cared much about him, as 
it appeared on the surface. But for 
all that, if I do say it, he had a heart 
in him as big as that of an ox, and as 
tender as that of a nursing baby. It 
was n't in him to do a man a wrong or 
an injury. Add to this that he was 
some more than seventy years old at 
the time when the circumstances which 
I am about to relate occurred ; that 
he was a man who had never known 
affliction, and therefore was not equal 
to an emergency of awful trouble, 
and you have a pretty good likeness 
of the man. Now I will tell you what 
happened to him." 

"It was in the spring that I was one- 
and-twenty, which must have been ir> 
'30. One morning there came to Old 
Steve's house a village schoolmaster 
by the name of Thomas Mudgett. 
Old Steve knew him well. It was 
Saturday. There was no school that 
day and so he was out for some fishing 
sport on the ice. For reasons best 
known to himself he gave his watch 
and wallet, — containing several hun- 
dred dollars — to Polly for safe-keeping. 
Then, as it turned out, his lines were 
not long enough for deep water fishing, 
and so he borrowed from old Steve 
and left his behind him. He then made 
arrangements for supper and lodgings,, 
and went out upon the bay. I remem- 
ber seeing him there late in the after- 



** Night came on and he did not re- 
turn, and although the old man and 
his wife worried about him that night 
and all day Sunday, they were just 
stupid enough to keep the affair to 
themselves. Monday morning came 
and Mudgett did n't get round to his 
school, and as a natural result his 
friends were alarmed and parties were 
sent out from the village to search for 
bim. Early in the day I discovered 
what was going on, and in the most 
innocent manner possible told what I 
had seen. Then the situation was 
talked over by the authorities, and 
finally a demand was made on old 
Steve and he was frank in telling all he 
knew. The result of it all was they 
found the missing man's money, his 
watch and fishing rigging in the pos- 
session of the old folks, and, what was 
a good deal more, they discovered 
blood on the old man's frock. They 
did n't, however, find Mudgett 's body 
or get any satisfaction as to his mys- 
terious disappearance. It looked 
pretty suspicious for old Steve, and 
although he told a straight story nobody 
believed a word of what he said. He 
stoutly maintained that the valuables 
were left for safe-keeping, told what 
about the lines, and accounted for the 
blood on his garments by claiming 
that he killed a chicken so as to have 
proper food for Mudgett. He showed 
some of the cooked fowl and also the 
feathers ; but every body shook their 
head and said that was a cunning dodge 
which he had resorted to on Sunday 
just to cover his tracks. He could n't 
get out of it that easy." 

" No, gentlemen, they just stuck to 
it that it was as plain as the alphabet 
that old Steve had put the schoolmas- 
ter out of the way for his money, and 
no amount of explaining or reasoning 
could convince the most of the people 
to the contrary. They just gathered 
around in knots and talked the matter 
over, and the more they talked the 
more satisfied they became that some- 
thing had- happened that ought not to 
have happened. He showed guilt, they 
said, he was a guilty man and should 

be hanged for it. In fact they would 
have liked the job to hang the old man 
then and there without judge, jury or 
the benefit of the clergy." 

" It caused the neighbors to feel 
pretty bad I can assure you. They 
had known old Steve for nearly fifty 
years, they had n't particularly respected 
him, — though they could n't tell why — 
but when it came right down to speak- 
ing out like honest men, they could n't 
point their finger to one mean act he 
had ever done, nor call to mind a 
cruel or unprincipled transaction in 
which he had been engaged. And 
beside he had fought for the independ- 
ence of the country, and had claims 
on every body who had a spark of 
patriotism in their souls. No, strangers, 
he had been fair and above-board with 
the community ; he had been accom- 
modating as a neighbor and to 
strangers ; he had been kind, attentive 
and generous in cases of sickness ; 
he had been liberal in every thing but 
for the meeting-house and the gospel, 
and he had n't opposed them nor his 
folks from doing just as they liked 
about it. In short they could n't bring 
nothing against him except that he 
was old Steve Waldron,and celebrated 
the Fourth, and on other great occa- 
sions, by taking a drop too much, which 
was n't an uncommon thing fifty years 
ago amon^ those who imagined them- 
selves a good deal better than the old 
man. But the more they thought 
about it the more convinced they 
became that there was an awful mis- 
take some where. The village people, 
though, would not allow that a mistake 
was possible or an explanation valid, 
and so they had him arrested for 

" Now if I live to' be a hundred 
years old — and it is pretty certain that 
I shall not, for nature is occasionally 
reminding me that the time is getting 
short — I shall never forget the day 
when they carried old Steve off. It 
was raining great guns and was cold 
and raw ; the ice was breaking up in 
the lake, and every body and every thing 
bad on a gloomy look like a funeral. 



The old man was completely broken 
up. He trembled like a leaf in the 
wind, was as pale as a corpse, and all 
the time declaring his innocence before 
God and man. More than one of 
the neighbors shed bitter tears, and all 
were unmistakably indignant." 

" But the parting came with Polly, 
and then stout hearts broke down. 
Said old Steve ! 'I aint afered ter die, 
and now that disgrace has come I aint 
got no wish to live. These folks do n't 
know Stephen Waldron. They aint 
got no idea that a man of my pride 
an record would come ter do a dirty 
thing. I did n't fight at Trenton and 
Monmouth, at Brandywine and York- 
town, an in mor'n a dozen other battles 
\vi' Washington and Lafayette, an live 
all the rest of my life in pride because 
of it, ter murder a schoolmaster for a 
few hundred dollars. But its all right. 
Do as you please wi' me ! ' And then 
he broke down in tears and sobs, and 
Polly, who had been trying to cheer 
him up by telling him it would come 
out all right in the end, and to be brave, 
fainted away and was carried into the 
house in a helpless condition. Only 
one of his children — and she is my 
wife now — was about here then, and 
bless me if I did n't think she would go 
mad. It was terrible trouble and no 
mistake. The officers finally drove off. 
and then the sorrow was a great deal 
worse than before. But somehow we 
lived through it all." 

" At the shire town the old man had 
some sort of a hearing. The village 
men who claimed the honor of catch- 
ing the murderer, gave in their evidence 
against him, and the constable that 
arrested the wicked old wretch swelled 
around like a big man. He was mak- 
ing himself out' a hero. Well, we 
feed the oldest and most learned lawyer 
in the county, and gave him a first- 
rate character, but it did n't help his 
case any. Being a decent man, an 
old soldier and a good neighbor and 
citizen, was n't of the slightest conse- 
quence. No ; the blood of the mis- 
sing man was on his garments and the 
money and watch in his possession, 

and consequently it was a hopeless 
task to make any one believe in his 
innocence. The squire remarked that 
the case looked pretty dark against 
him, and ordered his commitment to 
await the pleasure of the high court. 
Then we all came home and sorrow- 
fully setfted- down to our spring work." 

" Those were very blue days for the 
people around here, I can assure you. 
Somehow we could n't keep old Steve 
out of mind nor forget what had hap- 
pened. We were nervous and excita- 
ble, we were down-hearted and misera- 
ble. But we were all the time hoping 
for the best. We made ourselves 
believe old Steve was a victim of cir- 
cumstances, and we resolved to stand 
by him like men. So we held a meet- 
ing at the school-house and raised 
money to defend him. It was n't no 
easy matter in those days to raise 
money for any purpose, but we got it 
all the same, and I may as well add 
that we looked pretty black and was 
mighty uncivil to the crowd of village 
and back country folks who continued 
to come around to see where the school- 
master was murdered and to ask ques- 
tions. They could n't get their horses 
bated for love nor money, and what 
had never happened before and has 
never happened since in this com- 
munity, they could n't get a mouthful 
of victuals to keep them from starving. 
You see we were honest in our indigna- 

" But I must tell you about poor 
Polly. The women folks did their best 
to cheer and comfort her, but it did n't 
seem to do any good. Nothing that 
any body could say mended her grief 
or consoled her. She* took sick ; took 
to her bed and moaned and cried day 
and night. In fact she had no desire 
to live, not even on account of her 
two sons who had gone West. I tell 
you what it is, friends, you haven't got 
any idea of how such trouble takes 
hold of old people who have journeyed 
together in sunshine and adversity, 
but always in peace, contentment and 
happiness for nearly half a century. 
You may as well kill such people out- 


right as to separate them under such 
cruel circumstances." 

" The excitement continued unabat- 
ed, and on the following Sunday — it 
was a custom they had in those days, 
and which holds good now-a-days in 
some places — Parson Wiggin, bless the 
dear old saint's memory, took for his 
text 'The way of the transgressor is 
hard,' and spoke his mind pretty freely 
as bearing on the case of old Steve. 
He did n't precisely say he believed 
him guilty of the awful crime charged — 
though he might just as well have done 
so as to say what he did — and he did n't 
lay no stress upon the possibility of his 
innocence. In truth he gracefully 
passed over what everybody was most 
anxious to have him say, and came di- 
rectly to conclusions, namely that old 
Steve was getting punished because of 
his heedlessness and lack of interest in 
the meeting-house and its mission. The 
most of the congregation said ' Amen ! ' 
without asking themselves whether or 
no they believed it. You must remem- 
ber, and I mean no disrespect, that fifty 
years ago the people looked at such 
things in about that light and was bound 
to believe it, particularly if the minis- 
ter said so, without asking any ques- 
tions. He was the law and gospel and 
he who doubted was lost. There are 
a good many good people who do n't 
believe that doctrine any more. But 
it is getting pretty late for me to be 
out ; the woman will be getting uneasy, 
and therefore I must hurry to the end 
of my story." 

" During the week that followed, 
the ice went ouc of the lake and the 
storm ceased. Then the village fulks 
came round in boats and overland, 
began a systematic search along the 
shore and in the woods in hope of 
finding the body of the missing man. 
They were not particularly civil to the 
farming community, and they did n't 
like it because we did n't turn out and 
help them. But you see we did n't 
believe the schoolmaster was dead, and 
moreover we more than half suspected 
that if the truth was known he had 
just run away from trouble and left 

things so that it would go down to 
posterity that he was murdered. But 
none of us was right about it as it 
turned out, for while they were most 
active and persistent in the search, a 
boat came over from the island yonder, 
and behold the first man to land was 
the missing man. The people could n't 
have been more surprised if it had 
been the general resurrection and the 
sea was giving up the dead. Some of 
them turned pale as ghosts, and were 
frightened half out of their wits ; some 
shouted and every body gathered around 
Mudgett and began asking all sorts of 
questions, and telling in the most ex- 
cited manner what had happened." 

" The schoolmaster, too, was a good 
deal perplexed and excited, and it was 
sometime before he could get his voice 
to tell what had happened to him. It 
appeared that he lingered on the ice 
on that Saturday afternoon till after 
dark, and when he got ready to go 
ashore he was turned around somehow 
so that he could n't make out east from 
west. Then, in his be wilder rn ent, he 
spied a light which he imagined old 
Steve had hung out for him on the 
shore. He traveled toward it. He 
reached it. It proved to be at the 
farm house on the island, — just about 
a in ue from here, over there where 
you see that light now — and as he was 
cold, tired and hungry, he accepted 
an invitation to stay all night. The 
next morning the ice was n't safe to 
travel on, and then the storm came on 
and he was made an unwilling prisoner. 
That is all there was to his mysterious 

" But how about the old man ? I 
will tell you. Special messengers were 
sent to the shire town to obtain his 
freedom and bring him home. He 
came, and oh friends, it was a touching 
scene when he met his neighbors who 
had been true to him, and heartrend- 
ing when he reached his home and 
discovered the sickness and despair 
of Polly. I would n't dare to make 
an effort to tell you about it, for there 
are sorrowful scenes which belong 
only to the family, and which the 



curious should never know about. He 
was, however, a broken down and 
disheartened man. Nothing cheered 
him, no kind words or assurance of 
friendship rallied him to his old self. 
The trouble could not be forgotten ; 
the disgrace could not be blotted out ! 
Argument had no effect. 'An soldier 
'cused crime ! ' he would exclaim. 
' A veteran who know'd Washington, an 
fought with Lafayette an Scammel, 
sent ter jail like a dog!' His grief 
was pitiable. ' I've allers tried ter do 
as I would be done by, an it has turn- 
ed out onexpectedly bad. I do n't 
owe the country nor no man any thing, 
an I aint got no more business ter 
transact in this world,' he said. ' I 've 
allers done as near my idee of the 
right thing as I could, an they can't 
be much harder on me where I'm goin' 
than they have been here.' When 
asked if he wanted to see Parson 
Wiggin, he replied, ' No, he kin jest 
keep his proper distance an talk 'bout 
me but not to me, as he 's allers done.' 
It was a terrible cut, gentlemen, at the 
good parson, and he never got over it. 
It haunted him to his last moments, 
for he was a good man and somehow 
realized that he had n't done his duty 
by old Steve." 

" It was plain all the time that the 
old man was going. He continued 
to moan and cry, and talk about his 
trouble from morning till night. Polly 
took just the same gloomy view. 
They did n't eat nor sleep. Nature 
could n't stand that sort ot treatment 

a great while in old folks like them' 
and so they failed and failed till one 
morning early in June both of them 
died. It was just as they wished it." 

" The good Parson Wiggin preached 
a funeral sermon, in which he blamed 
himself, the most of which has been 
handed down to this generation, and 
can be repeated almost word for word by 
some of the old folks in this neighbor- 
hood. It was a tearful occasion. We 
buried them both in one grave. I tell 
you what, the village people felt pretty 
bad, and when it came to grave-stones, 
nothing but a monument would do. 
It is a handsome affair. If you have 
time in the morning I will take you to 
see it." 

" That is the story, stranger, of the 
deserted farm-house, and I may as 
well add that out of respect to their 
memory, my wife insists that the old 
house shall stand during her lifetime. 
Moreover it is because of her wishes 
that I keep its latch-string out for 
decent people who come around here 
fishing and improving their health. 
You will find it all right and you are 
free to occupy it. Use it well. That 
is all I have to say. Good night." 

Our host disappeared as suddenly 
as he came, and by the same path, and 
John and I, being in deep thought, 
silently retraced our steps to the de- 
serted farm-house and turned in for 
the night. Several hours, however, 
we spent in conversation about the 
storv the farmer told. 



In royal Rockingham, in southeast- 
ern New Hampshire, lies the territory 
incorporated under the name of 
Northwood, a day's journey from the 
fair old town of Portsmouth. Set- 
tlement was begun on Northwood soil 
by emigrants from North Hampton, 

this state. Their names were John 
and Increase Batchelder, and Moses 
Godfrey. This was in the year 1 763. 
Then Northwood was a dependency of 
Nottingham. After them the Johnsons, 
the Hoyts, and the Knowltons came. 
These men felled the forests and sub- 


dued the rocky soil ; and these laid 
the foundation of the future township. 

In the year 1773, ten years later 
than the first settlement, it was erected 
into an independent borough, electing 
Samuel Johnson, Joseph Demeritt and 
benjamin Hill as selectmen. Jonathan 
Jenness was the first justice of the 
peace. The first postmaster was John 

Religiously, the early pioneers were 
Baptists. In the year 1772, a church 
was built, the third of that denomina- 
tion in the state. This edifice was re- 
built in 1 Si 6. A bell was added in 
1878. The present year has witnessed 
the completion, free from debt, of a 
commodious parsonage. Hence are 
signs of progress. The society has 
had twelve pastors, — Edmund Pillsbury 
having been the first. 

The Congregationalists erected a 
meeting-house here in 17S0. This was 
re-built in 1840. Call was extended to 
Rev. Josiah Prentice, of Alstead, this 
state, who sustained the charge forty- 
three years — one of the longest pastor- 
ates in the state. This society has had 
six pastors. 

The rise of the Free Baptist church 
in Northwood was due to the evangel- 
ical labors of Rev. D. P. Cilley, though 
David Marks had preached here a few 
times before him. Cilley labored here 
in 1S33. Then the society was or- 
ganized, which held its meetings at the 
mountain school-house. Not until six 
years later, or in 1838, was their house 
of worship completed. The society 
has settled seventeen pastors. Its 
membership numbers one hundred 
and seventy-five, — the largest in town. 

In the winter of 18 10 occurred a 
great revival in town. Elder Merrill 
was the leading spirit. One hundred 
souls were baptized. The historian 
Cogswell says : " There was a most 
singular preparatory step to conversion 
among many of the proselytes ; it was 
chiefly confined to the young of both 
sexes, but more especially to females. 
They were seized with what was termed 
" spells," which very much resembled 
fits of a nervous character, that came 

a frightful 

upon them, it was thought, at the time 
of com'iction. and generally continued 
to visit them, at intervals, until conver- 
sion was realized. They seemed in 
much agony during their continuance, 
striving and shrieking in 
manner until exhausted." 

Those were in the days when minis- 
ters got drunk, deacons swore, and the 
bottle was passed at the funeral. Mer- 
rill was such a man. Prentice was an 
exception. Fie never smiled — figura- 
tively, no ; nor even literally. Wear- 
ing a February face, he was the natural 
product of the belief he held — that 
nine tenths of the human family are 
foreordained to stew and fry in hell 
endlessly. Such men are dead. Their 
monstrous beliefs, with which they 
terrified contemporary populations, 
died with them. 

The yeomanry of Northwood have 
ever evinced a patriotic and martial 
spirit. Their blood was spilt at Bun- 
ker Hill, at Lake Champlain, and at 
Bull Run. The town furnished twen- 
ty-four men in the Revolution, fourteen'' 
in the war of 1812, one hundred and 
six, to suppress the Rebellion. 

In the municipal history there have 
been some long public services. Dr. 
William Smith served twenty-four years 
as town clerk ; and twelve years did 
Jonathan Clark, whom, in 1794, North- 
wood returned as its first member to the 
General Court, then sitting at Amherst. 
Twelve years Thomas Demeritt served 
as selectman ; David Clark, eight. The 
town returned Democratic majorities 
annually up to 1855, when the Repub- 
licans arose to power. Not till 18 71 
did the Democrats recover the polls. 
They lost it again in 1876, but were 
victorious at the last election by one 
vote. Money carries the elections in 
this place. It has for years. Seventy- 
five voters can be bought. 

The first school-house erected was 
at the east part o( the town. Now there 
are eight. The sum of thirteen hundred 
dollars is appropriated for their sup- 
port. Pioneer teachers were Thomas 
Demeritt, Chase Hill, and Hosea 
Knowlton, — men who were employed 



for their muscularity rather than their 
profound knowledge of books. 

Northwood is a town of shoemakers. 
Five hundred, or more than one-third 
of the inhabitants, win their bread by 
this industry. It was introduced here 
in the third decade of the present 
century. Nearly every farmer works 
on shoes during the winter season. 
Hence farming has become seconda- 
ry. Half of the shoemakers obtain 
their work in Lynn and Haverhill. 
For these two cities 400,000 pairs of 
shoes are made annually, earning the 
workmen $75,000. The remainder 
work for Pillsbury Brothers. This 
company built shops at East North- 
wood in 1865. They have made en- 
largements since. Their present di- 
mensions are 180 x 40, three stories, 
with basement. They manufacture 
200,000 pairs of shoes annually, dis- 
bursing to their laborers $60,000. 
Two hundred operatives are employed. 
The growth of East Northwood has 
been constant since the construction of 
this factory there. 

A small tribe of Indians anciently 
lived on the shores of North Pond. 
Their chief was Swansen. They were 
generally peaceable. In 1774, three 

persons were killed in a conflict with 
them. Their names were Robert 
Beard, John Folsom, and Elizabeth 

The first New Hampshire turnpike, 
leading from Concord to Portsmouth, 
was built through this town. Travel 
over it was large. It made business for 
country taverns, which were kept by 
John Furber, Esq., Hon. John Harvey, 
and Deacon Jonathan Piper. At the 
latter's place Daniel Webster used to 
stop in his journeys between the sea- 
port and the capital. Here President 
Monroe stopped in 1S17. LaFayette 
breakfasted here in 1S25. 

The population of Northwood, at the 
general enrollments, has been — 1775, 
3 1 3', I79°f 744; 1S00, 950; 1810, 
1,095; lS2 °> 1,260; 1830, 1,342; 
1840, 1,182; 1850, 1,30s ; i860, 
1,502; 1870,1,430: 1880,1,345. 

In 1840, 5,536 bushels of corn were 
raised; in 1870, 7,087; 26,842 bush- 
els of potatoes in 1S40, against 16,015 
in 1870. 

We refer the reader for further in- 
formation to Prof. Cogswell's bulky 
volume. It is with pleasure that we 
acknowledge our indebtedness to it. 



The long unci languid clays of buried years. 
Arise in spectral wise and haunt me every where; 

They flaunt their phantasies of smiles unci tears 
Across my weary eyes, and my defiance boldly dure: 

What can exorcise ghosts of those fair days 
I lightly tossed away, uncaring what might lie 

Within their pregnant hours? What dolorous ways 
Shall make atonement for the duties I passed by? 

Can I so softly shroud my wasted days. 
in garments which my patient steadfastness shall weave. 

That they will no more cast across my ways 
Their restless wraiths? With willing toil can I retrieve 

My youth of ease, wherein f would not know 
The passion of my kind; since I so lute have learned 

How hard it is to bear life's weight of woe, 
Will »vhut I yet cun do bring peuce I shall have earned? 





John Nichols, Esq., was a member 
of the British Parliament during the 
greater part of the reign of George 
III. His father had been physician 
to George II, who died in 1760. In 
1820, near the close of his life. Mr. 
Nichols wrote an interesting and valu- 
able book, embodying his recollections 
and reflections upon the public affairs, 
and the statesmen that distinguished 
the reign of George III. He devotes 
one chapter to the United States. 
After speaking favorably of our form 
of government, as contributing greatly 
to human happiness, and to our mili- 
tary and naval power, and to our 
growth and prosperity, he then makes 
the positive prediction "that we must 
be divided." He argues that the dif- 
ference of soil, climate, produce, and 
occupation, will create that opposition 
of interest which must lead to separa- 

Then he says, " whenever a division 
of the states takes place, most proba- 
bly it will not, in the first instance, be 
a separation of the northern from the 
southern states, though this separation 
Will, most probably, at one time or 
other take place, but of the western 
states from the eastern." He predicted 
"such separation would be attended 
with bloodshed." Nichols wrote his 
prophecy before the use of railroads 
which established close relations of 
intercourse and trade with the West, 
and for similar reasons may yet have a 
powerful influence in healing existing 
divisions between the South and the 

It will be seen that Mr. Nichols's 
positive prediction has not yet been 
verified, though seriously attempted. 

We next present an extract from Sen- 
ator Samuel Bell's letter to the writer, 

dated January 17, 1S33, showing his 
prophecy as to the effect of Gen. 
Jackson's proclamation upon the South 
Carolina nullification : 

"We had, yesterday, a long and 
able message from the president, on 
the difficulties with South Carolina. 
It is said to be from the pen of Gov. 
Cass, the ablest man in the cabinet, 
and a native of New Hampshire. The 
president asks further legislation to 
enable him to execute the revenue 
laws in South Carolina. The most 
important of these is a provision au- 
thorizing a change or discontinuance 
of ports of entry, when necessary to 
the execution of these laws. Also a 
power to the United States Courts to 
take cognizance of appeals from state 
courts, without the necessity of copies 
of record, &c. 

Our friends in Congress will give 
ever)- prudent and reasonable aid to 
the president for enforcing the rev- 
enue laws in South Carolina. Many 
different opinions are entertained here 
as to the probability that South Caro- 
lina will resort to force in defence of 
her hallucinated notions on the sub- 
ject of state rights and nullification. 

They will yield or resist as they 
may expect to be deserted or upheld 
by the other southern states. I am 
inclined to think that the other south- 
ern states will not make a common 
cause with her." 

W r e next present Gen. Jackson's 
view, or prophecy, as to nullification, 
&c, in his celebrated letter to his 
nephew, Rev. Andrew J. Crawford, 
dated May 1, 1833, Washington City: 

" I have had a laborious task here — 
but nullification is dead ; and its actors 
and excitors will only be remembered 
by the people to be execrated for their 



wicked designs to sever and destroy 
the only good government on the 
globe, and that prosperity and happi- 
ness we enjoy over every other portion 
of the world. Haman's < g r tf//<?Z£/.f ought 
to be the fate of all such ambitious 
men, who would involve their country 
in civil wars and all the evils in their 
train, that they might reign and ride 
on the whirlwind and direct the storm. 
Take care of your nullifiers ; you have 
them among you. Let them meet 
the indignant frown of every man who 
loves his country. The tariff is now 
well known to be a mere pretext, and 
disunion and a Southern confederacy 
the real object. The next pretext will 
be the negro or slavery question." 

President Jackson's prediction that 
nullification was dead, did not prove 
true. "The snake was scotched not 
killed." But his prophecy that dis- 
union and a Southern confederacy 
were the real objects then sought for, 
did prove correct ; and that negro 
slavery was made the new living issue 
for the express purpose of obtaining 
the desired object. 

We close this chapter by adverting 
to the interesting prophecy of Daniel 
Webster, made to me on my last in- 
terview with him, on the 15th day of 
July, A. D., 1852, about three months 
before his death. Our conversation 
on that occasion had led us into a re- 
view of his life. He alluded to 
his long public sen ices, and to the 
various duties, trials, aspirations, and 
disappointments incident to the official 
stations he had filled. His health was 
now precarious, and he remarked he 
was admonished by recent events to 
retire to private life, and to surrender 
to others the responsibilities of his 
office (he then being Secretary of State 
under President Fillmore). 

He then remarked that he looked at 
the future of our country with gloomy 
forebodings. In return, we said to 
him that we had recently mingled in 
the society of many of the southern peo- 
ple, and from the tenor of their conver- 
sation we trusted his fears for the dis- 
solution of the Union would not soon 

be realized, and that good counsels 
would yet prevail, and that harmonv 
of feeling would gradually be re- 
stored to the different sections of the 
Union, and that his alarm on this sub- 
ject was too great. "O no!" an- 
swered he, with much emphasis, 
" though I have often earnestly endeav- 
ored to rouse your attention to the 
dangers impending over us, yet you 
turn a deaf ear to my voice. I know 
the South are getting ready for disunion; 
I know they are getting ready their 
new state, constitutions ; holding their 
conventions, ostensibly to promote 
trade, or new commercial relations, 
but really to establish a new Southern 
Confederacy, and to destroy our pres- 
ent form of government. In the mean 
time the North will not yield an inch, ' 
but continue their agitation. I have 
tried, to some extent, to study the 
causes of this strife, and, so far as pos- 
sible, to conciliate their clashing inter- 
ests. I have often held up before the 
people the dangers of disunion. Still 
my voice has not been heeded ; my 
motives have been misrepresented ; 
the strife goes on, and is every day be- 
coming more bitter. I have honestly 
felt alarm, and have endeavored to 
diffuse or spread abroad this feeling 
so that the people might seasonably 
take warning and adopt a policy that 
might make for peace. Looking for- 
ward, I now feel discouraged. My 
efforts have proved fruitless." 

This discussion was had while sitting 
on the same sofa. Mr. Webster being 
now much excited, extending his right 
hand toward me with much energy, 
exclaimed, " / shall not live to see an 
open attempt to break up this Union, 
but I think you may." 

This language was uttered under 
the influence of a deep, serious, mel- 
ancholy feeling, making upon me at 
that time a powerful impression. And 
when, less than ten years afterward, 
internal war had actually come, its 
whole prophetic meaning was fully 
realized, and felt to be sorrowfully 





It is indeed a singular fact that, with 
perhaps one solitary exception, our 
chief executives have found a final 
resting-place on the soil of the state 
from which they were elected. 

Five of these majestic spirits, life's 
fitful spirit ended, await the resurrec- 
tion mom in the land of the queenly 
mother of presidents, namely : — 

George Washington, at his home, 
Mount Vernon, in Westmoreland 
county, within sound of the music of 
the Potomac. A marble coffin, in- 
closed within a chaste brick vault, in- 
cases the mortality of this imperial 
man and humble Christian. 

Thomas Jefferson, in a rural ceme- 
tery near his beautiful Monticello, Al- 
bemarle county. His monument is 
an unpretentious granite shaft, soon to 
be replaced by a handsome memorial, 
the gift of the government to this her 
greatest statesman. 

James Madison, on his estate at 
Montpelier, near Orange Court House, 
a beautiful location, marked by a sim- 
ple monument of inferior quality and 

James Monroe, after reposing twenty- 
seven years in New York soil, has srept 
a quarter of a century in Virginia's 
loveliest cemetery, Hollywood, near 
Richmond. A Gothic temple of unique 
design, commemorates the spot. 

John Tyler sleeps in Hollywood, 
near Monroe, soothed by the dirge-like 
chant of the classic James. No mon- 
umental column bespeaks the gran- 
deur of his earthly station. 

John Adams, and his son, John 
Quincy, lie side by side within a vault 
beneath the Unitarian church of 
Quincy, Mass. Tablets of clouded 
marble, inscribed with epitaphs and 
surmounted by busts of the deceased, 
are on each side of the pulpit. 

Tennessee entombs three of the 

Nation's executives within her soil. 

Andrew Jackson, within his garden at 
the Hermitage, eleven miles from the 
State Capital, the tomb eighteen feet 
in diameter, is environed by fluted 
columns and surmounted by an urn. 
Magnolia trees impart beauty and per- 
fume to the sacred spot. 

James K. Polk, in the family garden 
at Nashville. A monument with Dor- 
ic columns tells where the Methodist 
hero sleeps his last sleep. 

Andrew Johnson has an ornate mar- 
ble monument a half mile from Green- 

The Empire State enfolds her two 
worthy scions — Martin Van Buren and 
Millard Fillmore. The former sleeps 
near his beloved Kinderhonk A plain 
granite shaft, fifteen feet in height, 
marks his resting-place. The latter 
lies in Forest Lawn Cemetery at Buf- 
falo.. A lofty shaft of Scotch granite 
surmounts his grave. 

Zachary Taylor was interred at Cave 
Hill Cemetery, at Louisville, but we 
think his remains were afterward re- 
moved to Kentucky's legislative city, 
and distinguished by a fitting memo- 

Franklin Pierce is entombed at Con- 
cord, N. H. A marble monument 
keeps watch over his remains. 

James Buchanan has found rest in 
Woodward Hill Cemetery, at Lancas- 
ter, Pa., in a vault. A single block of 
pure Italian marble reveals the spot. 

Abraham Lincoln's remains are in- 
closed in a sarcophagus of snowy pu- 
rity in the Oak Ridge Cemetery- of 
Springfield, Illinois. His monument 
is ot granite, marble and bronze. 

James A. Garfield, the nation's hero, 
who so lately passed to his eternal rest, 
lies in a tomb in Cleveland, Ohio, and 
we think William Henry Harrison also 
found a grave in the same fair state. 





The following correspondence has 
never before, I think, been made pub- 
lic. It deserves, however, to be put 
upon record ; and may not improperly 
be printed in this magazine, .now that 
the two venerable citizens, who headed 
the numerous list of signers, have 
passed away. I refer to Messrs. Icha- 
bod Goodwin and William H. Y. Hack- 

The address speaks for itself. It 
may, however, be added, that a prime 
source of satisfaction to the citizens of 
Portsmouth was found in the conspic- 
uous ability with which Mr. Fish con- 
ducted the negotiations relative to the 
treaty of Washington, and especially 
those that so successfully disposed of 
the vexed question of "The Alabama 


To the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secre- 
tary* of State, Washington, D. C. : 

The undersigned citizens of Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, irrespective 
of party, can not allow you to termi- 
nate your connection with the Depart- 
ment of State without signifying to you 
our high appreciation of the able, dig- 
nified and effective manner in which, 
for so many years, and in the face of 
so many difficult and embarassing cir- 
cumstances, you have performed the 
duties of that department, in which 
you have maintained the peace, upheld 

the honor, and protected the rights of 
our country. 

To that retirement which you are 
impatient to reach you will be followed 
by the respect and gratitude of your 

March, 1877. 


Washington, March 13, 1877. 
IV. H Y. Hackett, Portsmouth, N. H. 

My dear sir: — I avail myself of the 
first day of release from official duties 
to acknowledge your letter, and the 
very Mattering address which it in- 
closed, signed by several business men 
of your city, irrespective of party. 

I beg to return to you, and through 
you to them, my most grateful ac- 
knowledgement of their expression of 
approval of my coaduct of the public 
affairs which was entrusted to me in 
the management, for the last eight 
years, of the Department of State. In 
the retirement, on which I am gladly 
entering, I shall cherish, among the 
most grateful rewards of a long and 
laborious public sen-ice, the assurance 
thus given me, that I have not, in the 
opinion of some good men, striven 
wholly in vain to render some service 
to my country. 

With great respect, I am 

Very Truly Yours, 


(SUMMER OF 1331.) 


The mountains shake the goldlocks from their brow. 
Misty from dews of heaven, from earth-damps moist, 
And comb them by the shining burs of gold 
Escaping thro* successive-slanted boughs, 


While breezes fan the tresses from the face 
Of one unrivaled, with the wondrous eyes, — 
Those searching eyes deep in his rocky face. 
Those eyes unmelting yet 'mid storm and sun 
Of centuries, participant in peace. 
The all-beholder of triumphant war. 
The cool recesses 'neath thy clasping trees 
Have sheltered many a red-man. and thy rocks 
Were crumbled by the feet of harmful beast. 
Ere yet the mightier tread of slow-paced Time 
Left imprint, answering our searching eyes. 
Xow all the cloistered silence yields in burst 
Of childish voices vocal in the air. 
And infant fingers toy with crumbling towers 
Prone to the earth crushed in a million gems. 

* * * * In sweet uncertainty we climb the steeps, 

Our pathway unimpressed by frequent feet, 

Tinging the way with romance of a doubt 

If at the end we reach the mocking height. 

Xor clustering branch, nor rocks environing 

Vouchsafe a shadow of the rare unseen. 

Never did ancient seer for promised land. 

Yearn with such sad. regretful eyes, as we 

Who sigh for such a paradise withheld. 

But soon the favoring breezes grant our grief 

A respite, in the rarer gust that breaks 

The long defile of green, and straightway thro 1 

Shimmers the sunlight hem of vista-dells. 

And fragmentary lakes and river-gleams. 

These momentary heavens (as it were) 

Make earth less hard and stubborn in our haste 

To conquer it. and gain the goal aloft 

Which we aspire. The music of a fount 

Falls in delicious coolness o'er the way; 

Our hope renewed in draught miraculous. 

We follow on, each step one nearer heaven. 

Clear-picturing, meseems, the way of life 
To time-worn mortals, and the blest reward, 
Surely if aught on earth illustrates heaven. 
l>ehold it. while from either side — the skies. 
The earth, the wearv way we trod, are new, — 

Re-glorified to our unbounded sight — 
Our sight so long regretful — satisfied! 

Sanbornton, N. H. 



In the Granite Monthly for No- An introductory paragraph closes 
vember appears an article from the thus: "Of these (newspapers) seven- 
pen of Mar)- R. P. Hatch, with the ty-one were published in New Hamp- 
above heading. shire, and all are the outgrowth of the 

It is an interesting article upon an New Hampshire Gazette, published by 

interesting subject, but therein crept Daniel Fowle, of Portsmouth, in the 

some errors, which the writer thereof year 1756, and which was the first 

should be thankful to have corrected. America?i newspaper" Also, in clos- 



ing the article, she makes Daniel Fowle 
the institutor of the " first newspaper 
upon American soil." 

Many are the just claims of the old 
Granite State for credit in the pioneer 
enterprises of those days, when the 
winds from the Atlantic swept over the 
heads of the white population of the 
land : but she hardly lays claim to the 
publishing of the first cis-Atlantic news- 
paper. The little sheet of Daniel 
Fowle, the first printed within the limits 
of the then province of New Hamp- 
shire, was really the ninth in date of 
publication in the American colonies 
of the king ; two of these were sup- 
pressed by the authorities after one or 
two issues. 

The first was printed in a little seven- 
by-nine office in Boston, on the 25th 
of September, 1690, by one Richard 
Pierce. It was designed to be pub- 
lished monthly, but its life was sudden- 
ly cut short by mandate of the power 
in rule, and but one copy is known to 
be in existence, and that in the Lon- 
don state paper office. 

The Boston News Letter was the 
second newspaper title in America, but 
has the credit generally of being the 
first. It appeared April 24th, 1704, 
published by John Campbell, and con- 
tinued its weekly visitations until the 
eventful days of 1776, when its light 
went out. A copy from this " 1 704" 

enterprise now lies before us, ancient 
and musty as the days of Cotton Mather. 
John Campbell, its publisher, was then 
postmaster of Boston, and the paper 
was said to f be sold by " Nicholas 
Boone, at his shop near the old meet- 

In 1 72 1, the Franklins established 
the New England Courant, a weekly 
paper, published in Boston. Its pub- 
lication was forbidden by the then 
" powers that be," on account of its 
freedom of expression upon the public 
affairs of the day, and upon certain re- 
ligious controversies then interesting 
the churches. It was here and at this 
time that Benjamin Franklin com- 
menced his literary career as an ap- 
prentice in the office of the Courant, 
then owned by his brother James. 

Benjamin afterward, in 172S, estab- 
lished the second newspaper in Phila- 
delphia, calling it the Pennsylvania 

But it was not a history of the Amer- 
ican newspaper that we set out to 
write, only to correct an evident error 
in the above published article, and 
will only add that before the enterpris- 
ing venture of Daniel Fowle, at Ports- 
mouth, in 1756, there were four news- 
papers published in Boston, two in New- 
York, two in Philadelphia, and one at 
Williamsburg, Va. 


The Hon. David Hanson BufTum 
died Friday, Dec. 29, 1882, at his res- 
idence in Great Falls, aged 62 years. 
The immediate cause of his death was 
softening of the brain, although he has 
been in poor health for some time. 
Mr. Buffum's wile and three sons sur- 
vive him. Of the sons, Edgar S. Buf- 
fum, is agent of the Great Falls Wool- 
len Company ; Harry A. BufTum, is 
manager of the felt mills at Milton ; 
and David H. BufTum, is a student in 
Yale College. 

Rev. Royal Parkinson died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, very suddenly, Decem- 
ber 21, 1882, aged 67 years. He was 
born in Columbia, Coos county, in 
18 1 5, his parents moving to New Bos- 
ton soon after. He prepared for col- 
lege at the school of the late David 
Crosby of Nashua, and graduated from 
Dartmouth in the year 1842. During 
the last years of the late war, he was 
chaplain in the army, and for the 
last ten years has held a clerkship in 



P /I ^^ 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

\ t ol. YL 


I\o. 5, 


Agriculture is the most important 
ndustry in every country — it is the very 
bundation of national wealth. Nature 
ias kindly ordered that this, the chief 
vork of man, should be the best for 
mproving his physical powers. The 
.-arth affords a bounteous harvest to 
:he industrious farmer : but the climate 
}f the temperate zone chx-s not admit 
)f idleness of mind or body. With a 
*obust frame the tiller of our New 
England soil has inherited from former 
generation.-, a vigorous intellect which 
liis occupation does not impair. Com- 
mon sense, sound judgment, and good 
norals, qualities carefully cultivated 
through two centuries and a half in the 
atmosphere of New England freedom, 
ire the gifts inherited from stalwart 
yeoman ancestry of the greatest value 
to the present generation. This com- 
bination of mind and body has not 
only produced from our hillside farms 
>uch men as Cass, Pierce, Chase, 
Woodbury, Webster, but has sent over 
the whole country an aggressive army 
of men who are rapidly bringing every 
state in the union into the New England 
fold, assimilating the immense throng 
of foreigners annually seeking a haven 
on our shores and boundless prairies, 
and giving its distinctive character to 
the United States. 

New Hampshire, one of the original 
thirteen, cramped for space between 
the ocean and the Connecticut, has 
not maintained the relative rank, held 
among her sister states during the last 

century, by increase of wealth and 
population at home : but her influence 
upon the wnole land, exerted by tiie 
migration of her children, is far-reaching 
and powerful. In the sense that her 
sons are good men and true, New 
Hampshire well deserves the compli- 
ment of being "a good state to emi- 
grate from." 

Among the little republics which 
make up our commonwealth, the town 
of Epping takes high rank, from its 
natural advantages and the character 
of its people. Originally a part of 
Exeter, which was settled by religious 
enthusiasts, who sought in the wilder- 
ness freedom of conscience and speech 
denied them elsewhere, it was occupi- 
ed by liberty-loving and God-fearing 
inhabitants. Incorporated in 1741 
(Feb. 12), the township contains about 
twenty square miles of well watered 
and generally fertile soil. Among its 
sons who achieved distinction in the 
past, were William Plumer, William 
Plumer, jr., Henry Dearborn, and John 
Chandler, in the early part of this 
century ; and many others in more re- 
cent times. 

Many men have left the ancestral 
home and sought and obtained dis- 
tinguished success in other pursuits 
and distant states, and many have clung 
to the scenes of their childhood and 
youth, and by their innate force of 
character have wrested success from 
the most unpromising of material, have 
coined money from our deserted farms 



and barren, rocky pastures, and won 
high repute among their fellow-citizens 
near and for. Among this last class 
must be included Joseph Cilley Burley, 
Esquire, of Epping, a gentleman who 
needs no introduction to the most of 
our readers. To correctly understand 
a man and appreciate his character, it 
is of the highest importance to become 
familiar with his genealogy, and here- 
with is submitted a sketch of his 


I. Giles Burley,* the common 
ancestor of the New England family, 
was an inhabitant of Ipswich, Mass., 
as early as 1648. He came o( an 
English family, of Saxon descent, 
which in its various branches has held 
high rank for many generations in 
the mother country. His wife's name 
was Elizabeth. He was a commoner 
in 1664, and died before 1669. 

II. James Burley, son of Giles and 
Elizabeth Burley, w. s born February 
10. 1659. He married first, May 25, 
16S5, Rebecca, daughter of Thomas 
and Susannah (Worcester) Stacy, 
grand-daughter of Rev. Witham Wor- 
cester, of Salisbury. She died October 
2i, 16S6. His second wife. Elizabeth, 
he married before 1693. Pie moved 
to Exeter near the close of the seven- 
teenth century, and died there about 

III. Thomas Burley, sun of James 
and Elizabeth Burley, was born April 
5, 1697. 

I\ . Thomas Burley, son ot '1 nomas 
Barley, was born July 2, 1 723 ; married 
Sarah, daughter of Thomas and Sarah 
(Gordon) Haley, grand-daughter of 
Sergeant Haley, who was killed by the 
Indians near Saco Fort in 1695 ; died 
at Epping June 1, 1805. His wife 
was born August 10, 1725; died 
December 2. 1809. 

V. Thomas Burley, son of Thomas 
and Sarah (Haley) Burley, was born 
August 14, 1766: married first, July 

•We are indebted for the above researches to 
"The Genf-alogy of the Burk-y or Burleigh 
Family of America," by Charles Burleigh, of 
Portland, Maine, published in 1880, bv B.Thurston 

21, 1798, Nancy, daughter of Capt. 
Benjamin Hoit, who died in November, 
1S14 ; married second, May iS, 181 8, 
Mary, daughter of Gordon and Mary 
(Prescott) Lawrence, and widow of 
Ezekiel Brown. He was a wealthy 
and influential farmer of Epping. and 
died May 15, 1S47. 

VI. Capt. Benjamin Burley, son of 
Thomas and Nancy (Hoit) Burley, was 
born April 10, 1S03 ; married Novem- 
ber 7, 1826, Elizabeth Ann, daughter 
of Greenleaf and Jane (Nealley) Cilley, 
of Nottingham. She was born July 
11, 1S04 ; was a sister of Hon. Joseph 
Cilley, United States Senator from New 
Hampshire, and of Hon. Jonathan 
Cilley, a member of Congress from 
Maine : died October 3. 1876. Capt. 
Benjamin Burley " was a farmer at 
Epping, and held many offices of trust 
in town and state. He was of medium 
size, light complexion, fine curly brown 
hair, a mild clear blue eye that met 
yours fair and square, and believed in 
your goodness until yon .proved your 
own unworthiness, and even then his 
great heart threw out love to welcome 
back the erring. A friend once, a 
friend forever, a man sought for as 
guardian to orphans, the widow's friend. 
He could not see grief without sympa- 
thizing and consoling it ; he was a 
noble, pure-hearted man and a great 
worker." He died June 26, 1S61. 

VII. Joseph Cilley Burley, son of 
Capt. Benjamin and Elizabeth Ann 
(Cilley) Burley, was born in Epping 
January 13, 1830; succeeded to the 
homestead which was first occupied 
by his great grand-father : married 
December 17, 1855, Sarah P^lizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Haley, of Ep- 
ping ; resides in Epping and is the 
subject of this sketch. 

VIII. Children of Joseph Cilley and 
Sarah Elizabeth (Haley) Burley, born 
in Epping : 

1. Nannie Burley, born October 
5, 1857, married Harry Walter, son of 
Wallace and Kate B. (George) Burleigh, 
of Franklin, and resides with her hus- 
band near the Webster farm in that 



2. Harry Benjamin Burley, born 
Slav 26. 1S67, has been admitted 
f 1882) to the Chandler Scientific 
School of Dartmouth College. 

}. Alice Burley, born September 

4. Jennie Cili.ey Burley. born 
September 10, 1S72. 

5. Benjamin Thomas Burley, born 
November 26. 1S74. 

the farm. 

Before the year 1700, James Burley 
(II) settled in Exeter; his grandson. 
Thomas Burley (IV), during the last 
century, settled on the homestead farm 
now in possession of his great grand- 
son. The farm embraces about two 
hundred and sixty-five acres, ten of 
which are under cultivation, fifty de- 
voted to grass, one hundred and forty 
to pasturage, the balance to a wood- 
lot. The soil is exceptionally rich 
and yields fine crops. * Mr. Burley cuts 
from sixty to seventy tons of hay. keeps 
three horses, forty sheep, four cows, 
and fourteen oxen — the latter used 
for the most part in his lumber ope- 
rations. He also owns some four hun- 
dred acres of outlying woodland in 
Epping and adjoining towns, beside a 
joint intereNt in extensive tracts held 
with his partner, Mr. Dow. 


occupied by his father and grandfather, 
is a square, two-story structure, so 
frequently seen throughout New Eng- 
land, still standing a few rods north 
of his present residence, and facing to 
the south. A massive chimney rises 
from the middle. At present the house 
is unoccupied. Behind it are two large 
barns, well filled from last season's 


occupied by Mr. Burley and his family, 
is an attractive building of more mod- 
em architecture than the old house. 
Its living room is lightened and bright- 
ened by two bay-windows, where the 
mistress of the home cultivates choice 
plants on which beautiful flowers bloom 

throughout the winter. This room is 
wanned by an open fire-place from 
which a generous back-log sends forth 
a genial warmth through the apart- 
ment : but the heat for the whole house 
is really generated in a boiler in the 
basement. Off from this room is the 
small office where Mr. Burley attends 
to the demands of business, and where 
he stores his books, the companions 
of his very few leisure hours. 

The fields which surround the house 
are undulating, and to the south ex- 
tend like a lawn. In summer the view 
must be very sylvan ; in winter it is 
not tempting except in its promise of 
the spring. 


Joseph C. Burley was an only son. 
He received the best education that 
the common schools of his native town 
afforded, and early in life became used 
to hard labor. He was chosen super- 
intending school committee when he 
came of age, showing thus early in 
life those qualities which recommend 
him to his townsmen. His first ven- 
ture away from home was to take 
charge of the station of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad, at Newmarket, in 
T854. The death of his father, and 
the failing health of his mother, de- 
manded his return home to care for 
the form and sustain her in her de- 
clining years. 


He entered heartily into his work, 
and for the last quarter of a century 
he has been identified with all the 
leading enterprises and industries of 
his section of the state. For several 
years he was a director of the New- 
market Bank, organized under the laws 
of New Hampshire, and has continued 
a director ever since it accepted the 
charter of a national bank. Since 
1878, he has been its president. Since 
its organization he has been president 
of the Epping Savings Bank. Early 
appreciating the advantages of railroad 
facilities he was an ardent advocate 
and promoter of the Nashua and Roch- 

1 3 2 


ester Railroad, assisted in its organiza- 
tion, and ever since has been one of 
its directors. 

In 187 1, Mr. Burley entered into 
partnership with Hon. Samuel Plum- 
er Dow and carried on extensive 
lumber operations, until the death of 
Mr. Dow, in 1874. His present part- 
ner is Col. Winthrop N. Dow. of Ex- 
eter. During the winter of 1882-3, 
the firm operate five steam saw-mills. 
and are contracting to deliver five 
million feet of lumber during the year. 
The general supervision of this work 
devolves upon each partner. Aside 
from his multifarious business cares, 
such is Mr. Burley's reputation for 
sagacity and inflexible honor that he 
is called upon as trustee and guardian 
to protect the rights of widows and 
minor children, to advise his more or 
less intimate friends in the thousand 
and one perplexing questions contin- 
ually arising in every day life, to settle 
disputes as a referee, and as justice of 
the peace, to act as 'squire for all the 
country 'round. Acting upon ma- 
ture deliberation, rather than upon im- 
pulse, Mr. Burley has been a safe ad- 
viser, and a successful business man. 
Still in the prime of life, great possi- 
bilities are before him. 


His last vote with the Democratic 
party was cast in the presidential elec- 
tion of 1856. Since then he has acted 
with the Republican party, and in its 
councils has had great local influence. 
He has frequently been the standard 
bearer of his party in the town elec- 
tions, and has gracefully borne defeat 
on many occasions, biding his time and 
hoping for better results. In 1879 he 
was elected county commissioner for 
Rockingham county, is chairman of 
the board, and is about entering upon 

his third term. At present he i- 
one of the selectmen of Epping, and 
was chosen at the last election to rep- 
resent his town in the state 'legislature. 


Mr. Burley is a member of the Uni- 
versalist church of Nottingham, but is 
liberal toward all Christian denomina- 
tions. He " believes in' showing his 
faith by his works : and in all the va- 
rious departments of his extended 
business he has shown rare executive 
ability and far-reaching sagacity. His 
great success has been the natural re- 
sult of his quick comprehension of a 
subject, his careful deliberation and con- 
servative examination, and the steady 
tenacity with which he adheres to his 
course, when he has marked it out. 
He has health to enjoy life, and a 
winning magnetism that, in a quiet 
way, makes him many friends. 

" In private life he is characterized 
by modest and unassuming ways, and 
great attachment to home and the 
home circle."* 

" He stands five feet eight and one 
half inches in height, and weighs about 
one hundred and sixty pounds : is 
compactly built, and has a strong and 
enduring frame, a vigorous and healthy 
constitution, a large and well-developed 
head covered with sandy hair mingled 
with gray, red beard, florid complex- 
ion, and blue eyes. He is deliberate 
of speech, and abounding in humor 
and good nature."! 

" Mrs. Burley has been a congenial 
companion to her husband. Her 
willing hands, wise counsels, and ready 
and warm sympathy have largely aided 
in erecting the structure of prosper- 


♦History of Rockingham and Strafford Coun- 

f Burley Genealogy. 


x 33 



BY F. \fr. 


On the way to Florence or Pisa from 
Lucca, your carriage will pass some 
fortifications, in good condition, at 
whose gates you will see soldiers in the 
Tuscan uniform. This is Pistoja. one 
of the ancient capitals which divide Italy 
into states smaller than our French dis- 
tricts. Pistoja, which formerly had its 
tyrants, its civil wars, its factions and its 
revolts, which have made it famous 
since Dante's time. 

It has preserved, unlike all its neigh- 
bors, a characteristic appearance. 
While Florence has lost, one by one, 
its ancient customs, and while Pisa has 
become almost a cemetery, Pistoja 
still looks like a capital, with its solid 
walls, its historic monuments, its streets 
lined with palaces, its rich churches, 
its libraries and its aristocratic popula- 

Pistoja serves as an asylum for the 
poor nobility of Tuscany. The ancient 
families whose income will not allow 
them a palace and a carriage at Flor- 
ence, and who are tired of Pisa, have 
established themselves here, as in an 
intrenched camp, where neither exces- 
sive luxury nor foreign manners can 
penetrate. The walls which surround 
the town serve at the same time as 
fortifications and as a means of taking 
toll of all travelers. These walls have 
kept out the peasants and even the 
middle classes, who, rather than pay for 
the right to enter, have settled in the sub- 
urbs. The town is occupied by the 
aristocracy, who fill the avenues and 
enjoy themselves in their own peculiar 
way. At evening, as night comes on, 
the gates and doors are closed, and 
watchmen patrol the streets. 

What does peaceful Pistoja fear? 
No one knows. But here is the gate, 

and the guard cries out ferociously 
"Passaporto !" 

Upon a dark night one would take 
these sentinels for the soldiers of 
Cartruccio Cartracani, as they patrol 
the solitary streets alone and in parties. 
The palaces, within somber walls, their 
rough facades, their lower stories de- 
fended by strong iron bars, seem ready 
to sustain an assault. Here and there, 
between the timbers, at the height of 
a man's head, hang iron rings to which 
horses may be tied, and at each cor- 
ner lamps burn before images of the 
Madonna. Nothing disturbs the soli- 
tude and the silence of the street. In 
spite of the shadows which the steep 
roofs cast, one can see, by ..the light of 
the beautiful Italian moon, the strange 
escutcheon and coats-of-arms of the 
old families, and one can imagine the 
procession of saints and bishops pass- 
ing around the walls of the old mon- 

In the morning, when the streets are 
full of men and women, when carriages 
and gentlemen on horseback whirl up 
and down the Place d' Armes, the 
ideas of the preceding night are dis- 
pelled, but the air of provincialism 
still remains. 

It is hard to imagine what excite- 
ment these people have who know 
neither the scandal of our small towns, 
or the thirst for conquest and riches of 
our large cities. Inltaly, foreign rule has 
extinguished ambition, and there is no 
commerce. They never talk politics, 
or so little and so quietly that it is not 
known. However, they must live for 
something ! 

Love plays a part in Italy which 
would be impossible with us. It is the 
pivot around which all interests turn. 
But love is not for all a^es, and there 



are the arts, and. above all, music. 
Music, however, is of less importance 
in a little town than in a large city. 
After love and music there is still one 
more subject to occupy Italia's society, 
and that is study. 

There is in Italy, and particularly in 
these old towns, a class of benedicts 
who consecrate their lives to studying 
the history of their country, or poring 
over old manuscripts and writing new 
ones, in order to explain the passages 
of the " Divine Comedy." These 
works occupy all their lives, and never 
see the light of day ; but they serve 
as a subject for controversy for the 
entire reading population of the town. 

When you read upon the walls of a 
palace, in the principal street of Pis-toja, 
"Club de la Noblesse," you will ask 
what they do at a club which does not 
race horses, entertain actresses, nor 
gamble? Well, they discuss Homer's 
verses, or tell stories of the rivalries of 
the two branches of some powerful 

Among these men, these benedicts, 
was the canon Forteguerri, who died 
at the fall of the empire in 1S15. and 
a short time after Tuscany had ceased 
to be a French department to become 
a state attached to the House of 
Austria. The canon had become, 
about a dozen years before, by the 
death of his two nephews, the tutor 
and guardian of his niece, Lucrecia 
Forteguerri. Lucrecia was but seven 
years old when her father died, leaving 
her a home at Florence, a palace at 
Pistoja, a vineyard in the country, and 
in fact a magnificent fortune. The 
canon had charge of this property, and 
Lucrecia established herself at his 
house with an old attendant. 

Agnoli Forteguerri paid but little 
attention to the little girl, and only 
kept her near him because of necessity. 

The home of the canon, filled from 
cellar to garret with books, pictures, 
parchments, and old tablets, was con- 
nected by a passage way with the 
public library of the town. He lived 
there, without luxury, passing inces- 
santly from his study to the library. 

In the evening he usually received the 
learned men of Pistoja ; and the Bishop, 
Monsieur Rospigliosi, his pupil and 
friend, often honored these gatherings 
by his presence. 

These scholars, reared in the study 
of antiquity, in love with science, pass- 
ed in review the intellectual movement 
of Europe ; communicated their dis- 
coveries, and talked of their work ; 
but none of them paid any attention 
to a little dark creature, poorly dressed, 
and half wild, who, seated in a corner 
upon a pile of books, watched the 
speakers with great deep eyes, and 
learned to read in Plutarch. When 
she was ten years old her uncle gave 
her a French master and a music 
teacher, because a girl of noble family 
ought not to be deficient in these 
branches ; but he took no pains to in- 
form himself as to her progress, and 
did not interfere with her reading, 
which she carried on at random. On 
the contrary, he congratulated himself 
that she was not a noisy child, and did 
not require much attention. • 

One day, as he was conducting the 
the Bishop along the passage which 
led to the library, he saw Lucrecia 
alone in an alcove filled with statuary 
and relics of antiquity. She was evi- 
dently in deep thought, as she stood 
contemplating a Roman head, which, 
several days before, he had shown to 
the Bishop as a bust of Brutus. For 
the first time he noticed the serious 
expression on Lucrecia's face. "What 
can she be doing there?" he said, in 
a low voice. Monseiur Rospigliosi 
also looked at the little girl, and both 
remained a moment at the door. 
Lucrecia stood for several minutes in 
the same place ; finally she turned 
toward the hall, looking at each head 
and statue, but she returned to the 
bust of Brutus, and stopped again as 
if fascinated. 

"You will make a pagan of that 
little girl," said the Bishop. " She ought 
to be enrolled at once among the 
members of the church." 

They passed on ; but from that day 
the Bishop noticed the continual read- 



ing and studious habits of Lucrecia. 
He tried to make her talk, but she was 
so taciturn that he gave it up. When 
the Bishop and her uncle questioned 
her, she fixed her great black eyes 
upon them without replying. Was it 
timidity, or was it defiance? 

One evening, however, as Monsieur 
Rospigliosi was speaking of God, of 
paradise, and the hereafter, and prom- 
ising himself that he should find there 
his father and brother, she interrupted 
him abruptly, — 

"Monsieur," she cried with a depth 
of passion which confounded her lis- 
tener, " shall I also find Cornelia and 
Brutus there?" 

This explosion revealed at once the 
child's unexpected education, and her 
uncle no longer disregarded and 
neglected her ; but on the contrary he 
took pride in teaching her and making 
her one of those votaries of the Muses, 
which are not rare in Italy. She learn- 
ed Latin, Greek, Music, Painting ; she 
knew how to speak in public, to write 
verse and to declaim. At fifteen years 
of age she was admitted into the 
learned society of Pistoja as a young 
marvel. They loved her, they admired 
and applauded her. The old marquise 
Malespini, a friend of the Bishop's, 
took her to Florence and to Court ; 
but all this magnificence only made 
her long for Pistoja. Every day life 
did not interest her ; but when she 
heard them speak of Napoleon's vic- 
tories, her heart beat as at the recital of 
the combats of Themistocles and 
thePeloponnesians. Thisyounggirldid 
not belong to the world of her own 
day. She was lost in a solitude which 
her imagination had peopled with all 
the heroes of antiquity. By constantly 
hearing of the famous Romans who 
have left their traces upon the soil of 
Italy, or the terrible struggles of the 
middle ages, she became absorbed in 
them. She read the Iliad with avidity, 
and searched in the ancient chronicles 
for the stories of the rivalries and 
struggles of earlier days ; taking the 
part of one side or the other. 

She often strolled in the mountains 
of Pistoja, full of heroic souvenirs of 
battles, and loved the old arms of her 
family which adorned the walls of her 
palace. In the streets or in the muse- 
ums she stood, mute with admiration, 
before the monuments of the ancient 
grandeur of her country. She was 
oblivious to those around her. These 
degenerate Italians seemed to her like 
phantoms who peopled a solitude in 
the country of giants. She had not 
yet formed an opinion upon the govern- 
ment of her time, nor a hatred for 
the established powers, but she admir- 
ed grandeur and despised mediocrity 
and feebleness. Her aspirations were. 
vague and ardent, and when among 
those of her uncle's guests who wore 
the French uniform, she heard, like a 
far off echo, the reports of the great 
army, her eyes would glisten and her 
heart beat with strong pulsations. 

Meanwhile she dreamed of modern 
heroes, and regretted that she had not 
been born in France, so as to enjoy 
their triumphs. "But Bonaparte is an 
Italian," she said to herself. 

Of all the great ends and objects of 
life one alone remained for her a seal- 
ed book — the beauty of Christianity — 
because religion taught humiliation and 
resignation. On seeing the young 
nobility follow the priests and bow to 
the Madonnas, she smiled pityingly. 
"These are the present soldiers of 
Italy," she thought. "They dress in 
white, cover their faces and carry 
candles ; but how many of them would 
march upon the enemy with sword 
in hand? What are these Christian 
virtues compared to those of the Roman 
Republic ? " When her uncle required 
her to read a chapter in the lives of 
the Saints, and she fell upon the history 
of a martyr, she became absorbed 
in it. She comprehended these heroic 
acts, these inflexible virtues, vengeance 
without remorse, and expiation without 
end. Her heart had no pity, and her 
mind never took the part of the weak. 
Her instincts were inconsistent and 
perverse, like the trace of the original 
sin in the human soul. 



Her's was a pure and sublime mind, 
and her beauty, even, showed the re- 
flection of her character. She had 
the straight figure and powerful head 
of the Etruscans. 

The richest cavaliers of Florence 
and Pistoja disputed for her hand ; but 
her heart soared too high in the para- 
dise of the Ideal to resign itself to 
choose a husband from these young 
men who had never done an heroic 

The death of the canon left her 
alone, and her only protector was 
Monsieur Rospigkosi. who kept a sort 
of tutorship over her. She returned 
to her father's palace, an old and 
massive mansion built like a fortress. 
The friends of the canon followed her 
here, together with her suitors, and the 
marquise Malespini brought there the 
most aristocratic ladies of Pistoja ; 
and soon, in spite of herself, Lucrecia 
became a sort of queen, and held the 
most popular levees in Tuscany. 


About this time the Italians were be- 
coming deeply excited. French insti- 
tutions had sown everywhere the germs 
of liberty, which grew silently and rap- 
idly, and menaced Austria's rule. Com- 
panies of insurgents were recruited in 
every town, and Lucrecia, without 
counting the cost, joined in the enthu- 
siasm around her, She was not much 
interested in modem revolutionary 
ideas, but for the freedom of Italy she 
would undertake anything. She dream- 
ed of the century of Dante, and of the 
glories of the Medicis, and if, to give 
Italy its ancient splendor, it had been 
necessary to sacrifice her life, she would 
have done it without regret, as did Iphi- 
genia of old. 

Among the most ardent patriots of 
her society were Alexandro Tozinghi, 
a rich and noble Florentine, and Paolo 
Palandra, a son of one of the most 
noted families of Pistoja. Eoth of 
them had been deeply in love with her 
for years, and she knew them to be 
ready to do any thing to win her 

One evening when her friends, more 
numerous and more animated than 
ever, had been speaking of the news 
from Naples, and of the Austrian pro- 
jects, she allowed her enthusiasm to 
break forth. 

"Italy is not dead yet !" cried she. 
"There are still men who feel in their 
veins the valiant blood of their ances- 
tors ! Will the aristocracy of Italy be 
its avenger?" 

She could not lower her eyes quickly 
enough to hide" the look of doubt 
which came into them. 

"Why not?" cried two voices at 
her side almost simultaneously. She 
raised her head quickly and saw the 
two young men, just spoken ot, looking 
at her in a questioning manner. 

" Is this true !" cried she in a vibrat- 
ing voice. "Can there be near me a 
liberator of his country !" 

The love of Alexandro and Paolo 
was no secret, and at their exclama- 
tion every one turned quickly and 
understood the solemn compact which 
a look exchanged between these three 
had just signed. Lucrecia lowered her 
eyes and trembled. A sinister presenti- 
ment seized her, but she got up, pale 
and dignified, and extended a hand 
to each of them. But she could not 
overcome her fear. "'It is fate," she 
murmured, as if she had just signed 
her death warrant. 

Paolo and Alexandro were the last 
to leave. Lucrecia watched them dis- 
appear in the darkness, but first they 
bowed low before the Madonna, and 
threw a parting glance at her. Then 
she went back into her palace and 
threw herself wearily upon a chair. 

"So, whatever happens, I shall be 
married !" 

The movement begun at Naples 
spread rapidly. The insurgents gained 
ground every day. Kings joined the 
movement and all was enthusiasm, and 
the cry of freedom was raised every 
where. But suddenly the Austrian 
army crossed the Po. Here and there 
they met and defeated the Italians. 
The towns were occupied by soldiers, 
and the heroic youth of Piedmont and 



Tuscany saw their ranks thinned by 
death or exile, confiscation and im- 

The noise of the struggle sent its 
deep echoes even to Pistoja. Lucrecia 
missed several old and warm friends 
from her side, while the Austrian police 
confiscated several estates, and the 
garrison was doubled. 

" It is all over ! " said Lucrecia to 
Monsieur Rospigliosi. "'The Italians 
are conquered ! Twenty million cow- 
ards and a handful of heroes !" 

"Tosraghi is dead and Palandra 
ruined," replied the priest, with . a sad 
tone of reproach. 

" I know," she replied, " I will marry 
Palandra." Lucrecia had passed the 
first years of youth. Her ardent 
enthusiasm had little by little been ex- 
tinguished, and there remained of her 
love for the demi-gods of antiquity 
only a disgust for the reality. She had 
lost all hope. Then duty, rigid and 
strict, stood before her like a statue of 
destiny. When Palandra returned, 
wounded and penniless, she married 
him as one pays a debt. 

Her husband loved her passionately, 
but she returned it with coolness and 
haughtiness. The years, in passing, 
had marked more proudly the lines of 
her face, and fixed with an inflexible 
contour those of her character. 

Austria had crushed the revolt, but 
the scattered insurgents got together 
here and there and conspired anew. 
We know the fate of these poor fellows. 
Palandra was one of the leaders, and 
one night he was arrested with some 
comrades in a deep wood. He was 
taken to Milan, and with a mere 
formal trial, sent to the fortress of San 
Michele de Murano, near Venice. 
Lucrecia went with him until the 
swords of the guard prevented her 
going further. The parting was heart- 
rending. Palandra, passionately in 
love with his wife, tried in vain to re- 
press his feelings and his rage. 
Lucrecia, who knew it was useless to 
intercede for pardon, foresaw his long 
and severe captivity, and she reproach- 
ed herself with having caused it. " If 

he had not loved me," she thought, 
"he would be at this minute in Flor- 
ence, with the young nobles who 
applaud the prima donnas of Pergola, 
or who promenade in the Cascine or 
upon the Lugn'arno. And was not that 
his true destiny I I wished to make 
heroes out of my lovers, and I have 
taken their lives, and have not even 
paid them with my love !" 

At this moment she wished with all 
her heart that she might be imprisoned 
in Palandra's place ; but she could not 
share his punishment. While remorse 
filled her heart, her husband knelt at 
her feet. He would have given his 
life for one loving word from her cold 

"Will you love me?" he cried, sti- 
fling a sob. "Oh ! say that you will when 
I am imprisoned in this living tomb, 
Lucrecia?. Italy will be delivered 
some day, but when? I shall be an 
old man perhaps. Shall I find you 
waiting for me?" "Calm yourself," 
she replied looking in his eves and 
holding both his hands, and then they 
tore him away from her. 

Thus they separated, the one to go 
to an Austrian prison, the other to re- 
turn to Pistoja to her deserted palace. 
Her friends had been suddenly scat- 
tered by terror or defiance. Each 
feared for himself or his own. The walls 
had ears, and no one dared to men- 
tion politics for fear of letting fall a 
word which would be wrongly inter- 

Lucrecia was twenty-eight years old, 
and her last illusion had been broken. 
The insurgents no longer talked with 
enthusiasm, and she knew that new 
efforts would only furnish fresh vic- 
tims to Austrian prisons. Her's was 
a profound despair, in the midst of 
which was a strange uneasiness, a dis- 
taste for all human things, and an un- 
quenchable desire for excitement. 
Monsieur Rospigliosi tried in vain to 
reason her out of this unhappy state, 
and teach her Christian resignation, 
without which life must become un- 
endurable, after the years of youth are 
passed ; but Lucrecia could not sub- 



mit to her fate. Sometimes she tried 
to grasp this religion which heals 
wounded hearts, but suddenly there 
would come a revolt,, and she would 
reject with fury the evangelists, and 
turn again to her old heroes. Alas ! 
these old friends even, had become 
vague souvenirs, phantoms which she 
vainly pursued. 

The months and years sped by. In 
spite of her trouble, the nun, as they 
called her, acquired a sort of dignified 
character which changed admiration 
into respect, for since Palandra's arrest 
she had lived a more severe life than 
before. Ever)' word, every look, 
showed her to be so true to Palandra 
that no one dared to speak of love to 
her. Tosinghi, whom they had sup- 
posed killed, returned to Pistoja about 
three years after the arrest of his rival. 
He had also been in an Austrian prison. 
He had gone away a young, handsome 
man, and he returned old before his 
time, and with whitened hair. Still 
he valued neither his long suffering 
nor his imprisonment in his struggle 
for her love, and he came to see her, 
to offer his devotion and to console 


About this time Lucrecia made a 
trip to Florence in regard to certain 
interests of her husband. She re- 
mained about a month, and frequented 
the house of the Count D., where she 
met the elite of Florentine society, 
and where all the celebrated travelers 
assembled. Here she met Marcel 

Marcel Capellani, first an officer of 
ordnance under Napoleon ; theu at 
the head of one of the most turbulent 
departments of central Italy ; then one 
of Marie Louise's ministers, when the 
treaty of P'ontainebleau made her 
duchess of Parma, Plaisance, and 
Guastalla. He was considered an able 
and powerful man ; but no one seemed 
to know just where his power came 
from, or • what his secret resources 
were. Some talked of his antecedents, 

believing that he was secretly in favor 
of Italian liberalism ; others, on the 
contrary, thought him one of Austria's 
most trusted agents, because he knew 
all the resources of the parties in Italy. 
and could at will direct their move- 
ments. Meanwhile his conduct kepi 
his judges in suspense, and they could 
neither accuse him of fanaticism or 
treason. He was a sort of living 
enigma, who inspired, at the same 
time, defiance and respect. This 
singular person attracted Lucrecia 
from the first. She saw a man of 
forty years, with an extremely intelli- 
gent face. He had fine teeth, a high 
forehead, black hair, but here and there 
were silver threads ; his eyes, sur- 
mounted by heavy brows, had a deep, 
calm expression ; beside this he was 
tall, strongly built, and had an almost 
haughty bearing. 

Her first sentiment was one of as- 
tonishment. ''Here," she said, "'is a 
man who resembles as nearly as a 
modern hero can, one of Caesar's 
ancient captains. And this man fills 
the office of chamberlain to an arch- 
duchess of Austria ! It is true this 
archduchess is Napoleon's widow, and 
the motherof the Duke of Reichstadt." 
Her next feeling was a lively curiosity. 
•'What is he doing here?" she asked 

While questioning herself thus Lu- 
crecia looked at Capellani as though 
she would read his soul in his face. 
Their eyes met for an instant. She 
lowered her own quickly, and blushed 
as if she had been surprised in a fla- 
grant indiscretion. 

"Has Capellani been one of Napo- 
leon's aids a long time?" she asked, 
during the evening, of one of her 

"Four or five years. He is a Cor- 
sican, and was attached to his compat- 
riot. He took part in the second 
campaign in Italy, and in that of 
Austerlitz. You see he is decorated, 
and they say that he received his cross 
from Napoleon himself." 

She could not help looking at 
Capellani with a glance of admiration : 



but again she turned quickly away for 
she found his eyes fixed upon her. 

"What is he doing here?" replied 
she brusquely, after a moment's silence, 
during which twenty contradictory 
ideas flew through her brain. 

"Thar is what they do not know; 
but he is respected by all the leading 
men. If you were a woman who 
would ever have a favor to ask, you 
would perhaps rather ask it of him 
than of any one else. They say he is 
all powerful." 

Lucrecia answered only by a haughty 
glance, but she began to reason with 
herself. "He can not be a spy," she 
murmured in a low voice, and involun- 
tarily her eyes turned toward him with 
an interrogative expression. For the 
third time they dropped before his 
clear, frank gaze. She arose embar- 
rassed and almost angry, crossed the 
room and seated herself between two 
old dowagers as though seeking pro- 
tectors. It happened that the minis- 
ter knew the dowagers, and he soon 
came over to where they were sitting. 
Lucrecia was presented to him. 

She left very late that night, and as 
she was about to get into her carriage 
she found herself face to face with 
Capellani, who opened her carriage 
door and bowed profoundly. How 
did it happen that the beautiful countess 
Palandra. so accustomed to the homage 
and respect of cavaliers, felt such a 
thrill of emotion? She was astonish- 
ed at herself, and a singular preoccupa- 
tion seized her. "This man has 
strange eyes" she said. "Why did he 
look at me so ? He was at Austeriitz ! 
How could he come to this little court 
after having been through twenty 
battles? What courage, or what in- 
sipidity ! Doubtless he has an object." 
Then she asked herself, "is this object 
an honorable one?" and her proud 
conscience replied "no !" "He sought 
to be presented to me ; was it because 
he thought I desired it? Did I look 
at him first? Why 'this marked atten- 
tion when I got into my carriage ? 
Perhaps he merely wished to be gallant 
to a woman whom he had evidently 

admired? But I will let him know at 
our next meeting that he has paid his 
attention in the wrong quarter. What 
folly ! This Marcel Capellani, minis- 
ter to Napoleon's widow, and so sought 
for by politicians, to dream of being 
attentive to women 1 But what if this 
man plays the role of an Austrian ally, 
in order to be near the son of his 
emperor ! What kindness ! What 
patience I" 

Lucrecia had never felt such an 
overflow of imagination ; never had 
her usually well-balanced mind oscil- 
lated between so many different ex- 
tremes. For the first time since her 
childhood, when she had dreamed so 
passionately of glory and of heroism, 
she was deeply excited and interested. 
The slow torture which she had endur- 
ed was for a moment suspended ; the 
hours flew rapidly ; ideas rushed 
through her brain in swift succession. 

Evening came, and she returned to 
the house of her friend. On entering 
the parlor her heart be.^an to beat 
rapidly. Marcel stood near the door, 
and was the first to greet her. As 
before, she often found him intently 
gazing at her. This attention and 
the effort she had to make to keep 
herself from returning his look quickly 
raised her to a high pitch of excite- 
ment. She did not wish to leave the 
room, where a singular interest retained 
her, and she could not appear calm. 

She was requested to sing. Ordi- 
narily she always refused, especially 
since her husband's imprisonment ; 
but this evening she hurried toward 
the piano, and sang with a feeling and 
passion which deeply affected her 
audience and left her confounded and 
bewildered. When the piece was done 
she wished to sing on ; some irresisti- 
ble power seemed to urge her, and 
while the audience, inspired by a true 
enthusiasm, filled the room with its 
bravos, she began again and sang with 
a sweetness and pathos that touched 
all hearts. 

Marcel approached to thank her in 
his turn. She was sitting, and he 
standing, and in order to reply she 



was obliged to raise her head. But 

she suffered a kind of embarrassment, 
daring neither to raise her eyes nor to 
open them to receive the deep gaze of 
this man, whose voice trembled as he 
spoke. She wished to speak to- him 
but the words would not come. v The 
inspiration which had so easily capti- 
vated her whole audience, fled before 
Capellani alone. Meanwhile he re- 
mained at her side, and continued to 
talk about music, mingling his observa- 
tions with delicate compliments and 
vague phrases in a low voice. Soon 
there was a silence, for Capellani him- 
self could find nothing further to say, 
and still he did not want to leave her. 

"I know that you live at Pistoja, 
madame," said he in order .to start the 
conversation again. "Perhaps you 
come to Florence to solicit your hus- 
band's pardon?" 

" I do not solicit a pardon, monsieur," 
cried Lucrecia proudly, finding her 
energy and her voice. 

"You are right, madame, they ought 
to a>k yours," replied the minister, 

"I ask nothing of them, monsieur," 
she replied in a freezing tone. 

Capellani comprehended the mean- 
ing which she had attached to his 
words. He lowered his eyes, and then 
pointing to his button hole, he said : 

"lam not a Frenchman; beside, 
who can open an Austrian prison ! " 

Lucrecia was surprised at this reply. 
Was she mistaken in his intention? or 
could he, an able diplomat, change his 
tactics on seeing that his first attack 
was not successful. 

"They say, monsieur, that you are 
powerful here and elsewhere," she re- 
plied with a half mocking smile. 
" Perhaps you are powerful in France ? " 

"Why not, madame?" 

Then, after a short silence, he added. 
"If I were powerful any where, I 
should wish it to be in a place where 
I could put my power at your service. 
Such a wish surely will not displease 
you." Saying this he turned away, 
leaving Lucrecia in deep thought. 

Each evening she saw this man, 
whose aim and object, and whose 
ideas occupied all her thoughts. The 
mental fever which had seized her at 
first grew upon her every day, but she 
resented it with doubt arid astonish- 

" He is not a great man or he would 
not have left Napoleon when he was 
in distress. He is a coward !" Then 
she looked again at his proud face and 
noble bearing, and exclaimed, " No ! 
this man has no fear !" 

[continued next month.] 




Within the folding of my mighty arm 
The wearied Mary rests her slender limbs: 
No breath of cloud the vast horizon dims. 
And Joseph sleeps secure from all alarm : 
What though the haughty Herod dream of harm 
And fill with tears and blood. unto their brims 
The streets of Bethlehem! Heaven's evening hymns 

Rang echoes even through old Egypt's calm. 
And stirred her stagnant nations with the strong 
Majestic chorus of the pregnant song 

"This day the Christ is born !" Safe on my breast 
The Saviour sleeps, a little child at rest; 
While I in dumb compassion gaze afar 
And see the shameful cross — the Eternal Star. 





Rev. John Houston, the first pastor . 
of the Presbyterian Church in Bed- 
ford, N. H., was born in Londonderry, 
N. H.,in 1723. His parents were emi- 
grants from the noith of Ireland, and 
known as Scotch-Irish. 

He was educated at Princeton, N. 
J., graduating in 1753. He studied 
divinity in his native town with Rev. 
David McGregor, pastor of the church 
in the east parish of that town. 

Mr. Houston received his call to 
Bedford in August, 1756, and was or- 
dained in September, 1757. His "sti- 
pend," as it was called, was to be 
equal to forty pounds sterling, but 
there was a provision by which the 
town, at its annual meeting, might vote 
to dispense with any number of Sab- 
baths which they chose, and the pay- 
ment for those Sabbaths might be 
taken from the salary. 

By virtue of being the first settled 
minister in town, Mr. Houston was en- 
titled to certain lands reserved for that 
purpose in the settlement of the town. 
These he received and they added 
much to his small salary. He was also 
well-reputed for classical and theolog- 
ical learning, and his settlement gave 
promise of usefulness and happiness. 

From all we can learn he was thus 
useful and happy for a number of years. 
Then commenced the dark and stormy 
period in the history of our country. 
Bedford was especially patriotic. 
Every man in town, over twenty-one 
years of age, except the minister, 
signed the following paper, "we do 
hereby solemnly engage and promise 
that we will, to the utmost of our 
power, at the risk of our lives and for- 
tunes, with arms oppose the hostile 
proceedings of the British fleets and 
armies against the united American 
colonies." Mr. Houston gave the fol- 
lowing reasons for refusing to sign this 
declaration : 

Firstly, because he did not appre- 
hend that the honorable committee 
meant that ministers should take up 
arms as being inconsistent with their 
ministerial charge. Secondly, because 
he was already confined to the county 
of Hillsborough ; therefore he thinks 
he ought to be set at liberty before he 
should sign the said obligation. 
Thirdly, because there are three men 
belonging to his family already enlist- 
ed in the Continental Army. 

These reasons were not regarded as 
sufficient, so, May 16, 1775, the follow- 
ing article is found in a warrant for 
town meeting : "To see what method 
the town will take relating to Rev'd 
John Houston in these troublesome 
times, as we apprehend his praying and 
preaching to be calculated to, intimi- 
date the minds of his hearers, and to 
weaken their hands in defense of their 
just rights and liberties, as there seems 
a plan to be laid by Parliament to de- 
stroy both." 

We hear of no action on this article 
until June 15, 1775, when a vote was 
unanimously passed in which it was 
stated : "Therefore, we think it not 
our duty, as men or Christians, to have 
him preach any longer for us as our 

Thus closed the ministry of Rev. 
John Houston to the people of Bed- 
ford. From all the light which reaches 
us through the dimness of an hundred 
years, we have no doubt that both par- 
ties were truly sincere. Judged, how- 
ever, by subsequent events, it is evident 
that the people were right and the 
minister wrong. That is, they were 
right in their patriotism, and he w'as 
wrong in his loyalty to the king. Still 
it is worthy of notice that the removal 
of Mr. Houston from his pastoral office 
in Bedford was followed by a long 
period of religious declension. 

I 4 2 


Mr. HoustOD continued to reside in 
town, and. so far as the record shows, 
he was an industrious, peaceable citi- 
zen. There is no evidence that his 
views on the great question of the .day 
everchanged.* Indeed, it is evident they 
did not. On one occasion a brother 
minister called to pass the night 
with him, but, finding tea on Mr. Hous- 
ton's table, his patriotic soul was so of- 
fended that he would neither sit at the 
table nor unite in asking a blessing., 
and a table was spread for the guest 
in another room. 

The pastoral connection between 
Mr. Houston and the people of Bed- 
ford was not dissolved until 1778, and 
he retained his standing with the Pres- 
bytery till the time of his death, Feb. 
3, 1798, at the age of 75. He and 
his wife, who died five months later, 
were both buried in the old grave-yard, 

where suitable stones mark the place 
of their interment. 

After the summary dismissal of Mr. 
Houston the town was destitute of a 
settled minister for nearly thirty years. 
They were supplied with preaching 
much of the time, but of a character 
and under circumstances which seem 
to have done them but little good. 
Says a native of the town: "The 
cause of religion ran very low, the 
church was diminished and scattered. 
As for spirituality it was scarcely to be 
found. I hope some souls were born 
of God, yet they were few and far be- 

In September, 1804, Rev. Daniel 
McGregor was ordained as pastor of 
the Presbyterian church in Bedford, 
and a change greatly for the better fol- 



Philip Carrigain, a well-known pub- 
lic official, once Secretary of State in 
New Hampshire, and maker of its 
most elaborate map, used to relate the 
following anecdote — showing, to some 
extent, the estimate put upon the char- 
acter of one of our hardy pioneers of 
the White Mountain region, by one of 
a race not lacking in native shrewd- 
ness ; and also an adroitness in evading 
an admission, forced upon him by the 
obvious fact of superior sagacity and 
ability on the part of a skillful trapper 
and hunter of another race. 

Col. Carrigain said that on one of 
his explorations and surveys in the 
northern section of New Hampshire 
he was belated, and night overtook 
him in the woods, where he discovered, 
not far apart, two apparently deserted 
tents. He entered and took posses- 
Hearing voices 

sion of one of them. 

not long after in the other, he listened, 
and found the sounds proceeded from 
two persons, evidently a white man 
and an Indian, arguing very warmly 
the question as to the relative superi- 
ority of the Indians or the whites, in 
the matter of hunting, fishing and trap- 
ping- \ 

The Indian adduced, in support of 
his position, many admitted instances 
of adroitness and skill. The white 
man, in his argument, referred mainly 
to one individual — the well-known 
Thomas Eames, of the upper Coos re- 
gion. He thought this would be a 
poser for the Indian. It was, so far 
as any argument was concerned ; but 
he at once got over his trouble by the 
prompt reply, — " Tom Eame, Tom 
Eame, why he Indian and more too!" 
— evidently meaning that, to the native 
sagacity of an Indian, and, perhaps. 



also, in some degree to Indian instruc- 
tion and guidance, he had added the 
skill which superior opportunities of 
training on his part, as a white man, 
had afforded him. 

The above incident, which I heard 
related by Col. Carrigain many years 
ago, I have reduced to writing at 
the suggestion of the Rev. Dr. Rankin, 
of Washington city, — both of us, at 
the time of our street meeting, being 
in too great haste — the one either to 
hear, or the other to relate, the story. 
The subjoined hasty note, which I 
wrote to the doctor the next day, will 
explain, somewhat, his interest in the 
matter, — his Christian name of " Jere- 
miah Eames" having been given to 
him in baptism, in respect to a well- 
remembered and honored resident of 
Coos county, New Hampshire. The 
records of the county, and of the New 
Hampshire legislature, will bear wit- 
ness to the respectability and worth of 
the name of Eames. 

"I did not stop you yesterday, my 
dear Sir, with a view to giving any news- 
paper notoriety to the story I might 
tell ; but merely to relate what had 
long been in my mind, and was brought 
to the surface by the casual concur- 
rence of your middle name with the 
surname of one of the reported sub- 
jects of the story." 

I am not aware that Col. Carrigain's 
anecdote has ever been published, but 
have thought it worth occupying a 
spare page in your valuable periodical. 
Such was once his official standing in 
New Hampshire, his extensive ac- 
quaintance, and his well-known genial 
companionship, that a re-publication 
of the following tribute, to the m:m- 
ory of one who is said to have first 
given to New Hampshire the name of 
the "Granite State," may not be inap- 
propriate. It once had, as written by 
me, without my name, alimited circula- 
tion about the time of his decease. 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 18, 1882. 

[x Memouy of Philip Carrigain. 

A native and lori£ a resident of Concord, X. H. 
bom in 1772; died in lSi„\— aged 70. 


A requium for the dead! 

A dirge of passing woe — 
The solemn measured tread 

Of mourners as they go : 
The shroud that wraps the clay. 

In silence of the tomb. 
The bS dust to dust "' all say 

Earth ! give the sleeper room. 

Room ! for the wasted form. 

The spirit's sunken eye — 
Room for a heart once warm 

With tendcrest sympathy. 
Room for the brother worm 

His revels dark to hold — 
Room for corruption's grasp 

The body to enfold. 

But not — oh no!— no room 

The spirit freed would claim — 
Earth has no power to doom 

To dust the immortal frame. 
Soaring to worlds above. 

She scorns the things of earth. 
Dying to time, to prove 

The bliss of Heaveuly birth. 

.Sure. then, that noble part. 

• ; Touch'd to fine issues." lives — 
That spirit, and that heart. 

Joy still receives and gives. 
Brother! thy memory green 

Shall in our souls abide. 
Despite Time's scythe so keen, 

Or his effacing tide. 

What though no kindred near 

Watch'd o'er thy parting sleep- 
Though few by nature dear 

Are call'd to wake and weep ; — ■ 
Thy country was the world, 

Thy countrymen, mankind — 
Thy fame, so wide unfuiTd, 

Like thy heart, uncontiu'd. 

A chord responsive wakes 

In many a throbbing breast — 
On our rapt vision breaks 

That song, "Our Nation's Guest.' 
Xor .-hall it be his fate 

To pass unsung away, 
Who gave our " Granite State " 

A name to live for aye ! 




When the welcome morning sun's soft, rosy beams of light 
Had chased the gloomy shadows of cold and darkling night; 
On thy shining, snowy slopes. Oh! ghastly, grim Mount Ayr, 
"Was exposed a touching sight, most pitiably "fair : 
Two little children, lost! pain, hunger, and fear oppressed, 
Had sunk to sleep forever, on thy cruel freezing breast. 

A fair and beauteous girl, a brave and dauntless boy, 

— Some stricken mother's darlings — bereaved household's joy. 

Stripped of his own warm coat, was the "little hero" l}~ing — 

His naked breast exposed, to God. for pity crying; 

Within his sheltering arms the tiny maiden lay. 

Wrapped closely in th 3 coat — vain hope — her ileeting life to stay. 

Fixed were the fro/en feature- in calm repose of death. 

Firm clasped the clinging ringers, and chilled the once warm breath; 

Hushed were the seekers" voices— softened each hasty tread — 

Fast fell the pitying tear-drops upon each golden head. 

Many have been thy victims— Oh! reaper, grim and white — 

"But ne'er before had mortal eyes beheld so sad a sight. 

T was not in heat of battle this pale young hero fell. 
There were no kindly comrades of his brave deeds to tell; 
There was no rattling drum-beat ro stir his thick "ning blood. 
But bravely, and face to face, with ghastly death he stood. 
He did not shirk his duty, he heard his Captain's call. 
And with banner tightly grasped did this young hero fall. 



The sanctities of home were oft his theme, 
And children's mirth sweet music to his ear; 

Loved as the murmur of his native stream 
Their laughter ringing clear. 

His birds of pas-age, singing as they go. 
Their tenderest strains reserve for little souls; 

So in young hearts, his silvered head laid low, 
The wave of sorrow rolls. 

They see the vacant chair of chestnut wood. 

Cut from the spreading tree by blacksmith's door. 
He prized and sang of in such genial mood 

They loved him more and more. 

And at the children's hour with blinding tears 
Dear mothers think of him who fondly said, 

His pets, within the walls affection rears, 
Were safe till he was dead. 

Ah. precious truth ! at threescore-years and ten 
He thought the children " living poems" still; 

Serene and patient, and so loved of men, 
O, who hia place can fill! 



[From the Statesman Supplement, Christmas, InW.] 




In the political canvass in our state 
which closed with the March election, 
1858, it was publicly stated by some 
of the speakers that Judge Webster, 
the father of Hon. Daniel Webster, 
could neither read nor write. Now, in 
the course of the last summer, we 
spent some time in investigating the 
history of Judge Webster. We have 
sufficient evidence in Franklin and 
Salisbury to satisfy the most skeptical 
that he could not only read and write, 
spell and cipher, but he knew how to 
lend the means to found a state. 
Daniel Webster, in his autobiography, 
and in his letter to Mr. Blatchford, cf 
New York, gives us a brief but too 
modest an outline of the life of his 
father. At the risk of being tedious, 
we propose to show some of the acts, 
or works, that gave him his deserved 
influence and fame in this region. 

Ebenezer Webster was born in 
Kingston, in 1739. He resided many 
years with Major Ebenezer Stevens, an 
influential citizen of that town, and 
one of the first proprietors of Salisbury. 
Salisbury was granted in 1 749, and 
first named Stevenstown, in honor of 
Major Stevens. It was incorporated 
as Salisbury, 1767. Judge Webster 
settled in Stevenstown as early as 1761.* 
Previous to this time he had served as 
a soldier in the French war, and once 
afterward. He was married to Mehita- 
ble Smith, his first wife, January 8, 
1 76 1. His first two children, Olle, a 
daughter, and Ebenezer, his son, died 
while young. His third child was 
Susannah, born October, 1766 ; marri- 
ed John Colby, who recently died in 
Franklin. He had also, by his first 

* When Judge Webster first Bettled In Stevens- 
town, he was called Ebenezer Webster, jr. In 
1G94, Kingston was granted to Jam<\« Prescott 
and Ebenezer Web*ter and others, of Hampton. 
He descended lrojn this ancestry. 

wife, two sons — David, who died some 
years since at Stanstead ; also Joseph, 
who died in Salisbury. His first wife 
died March 2S, 1774. Judge Webster 
again married — Abigail Eastman, Octo- 
ber 12, 1774. By his last wife he had 
five children ; viz., Mehitable, Abigail 
(who married Wm. Hadduck) ; Eze- 
kiel, born March 11, 17S0; Daniel, 
born January 18, 17S2. and Sarah, 
born May 13, 1704. Judge Webster 
died in April, 1806, in the house now 
occupied by R. L. Tay, Esq., and, 
with his last wife and many of his chil- 
dren, now lies buried in the grave- 
yard originally taken from the Elms 
farm. For the first seven years of his 
life, after he settled on the farm now- 
occupied by John Taylor, in Franklin, 
he lived in a log cabin, located in the 
orchard west of the highway, and 
near Punch Brook. Then he was able 
to erect a house of one story, of about 
the same figure and size as that now 
occupied by William Cross, near said 
premises. It was in this house that 
Daniel Webster was born. In 1784, 
Judge Webster removed to the tavern 
house, near his interval farm, and 
occupied that until 1800, when he ex- 
changed his tavern house with William 
Hadduck for that where he died. 

In 1761, Capt. John Webster, Eliph- 
alet Gale and Judge Webster erected 
the first saw- mill in Stevenstown, on 
Punch Brook, on his homestead, near 
his cabin. 

In June, 1764, Matthew Pettengill, 
Stephen Call and Ebenezer Webster, 
were the sole highway surveyors of 
Stevenstown. In 1765, the proprietors 
voted to give Ebenezer Webster and 
Benjamin Sanborn two hundred acres 
of common land, in consideration that 
they furnish a privilege for a grist-mill, 
erect a mill and keep it in repair for 



fifteen years, for the purpose of grind- 
ing the town's corn. 

In 176S Judge Webster was first 
chosen moderator of a town-meeting 
in Salisbury, and he was elected forty- 
three times afterward, at different town- 
meetings in Salisbury, serving in March, 
1803, for the last time. 

In 1769 he was first elected select- 
man, and held that office for the years 
1770, '72, '74, '76, 'So, 'S5, 'S6 and 
1788: resigned it, however, in Septem- . 
ber, 1776. and performed a six months' 
service in the army. 

In 1771,1772 and 1773, he was* 
elected and served in the office of 
town-clerk. In 177S and 'So, he was 
elected representative of the classed 
towns of Salisbury and Boscawen ; 
also, for Salisbury, 1790 and '91. He 
was elected senator for the years 17S5, 
'86, '83, and '90 : Hillsborough county 
electing two senators at this time, and 
Matthew Thornton, nnd Robert Wal- 
lace, of Henniker, sen ed as colleagues, 
each for two of said years. He was 
in the senate in 1 7S6, at Exeter, when 
the insurgents surrounded the house. 
His proclamation to them was "I 
command you to disperse." 

In March, 177S. the town, chose 
Capt. Ebenezer Webster and Capt. 
Matthew Pettengill as delegates to a 
^convention to be held at Concord, 
Wednesday, June 10, "for the sole 
purpose of forming a permanent plan 
of government for the future well being 
of the good people of this state.'' 

In 1 7S8, January 16, Col. Webster 
was elected delegate to the convention 
at Exeter, for the purpose of consider- 
ing the proposed United States Con- 
stitution. A committee was also chosen 
by the town to examine said constitu- 
tion and advise with said delegate. 
This committee was composed of 
Joseph Bean, Esq., Jonathan Fifield, 
Esq., Jonathan Cram, Capt. Wilder, 
Dea. John Collins, Edward Eastman, 
John C. Gale, Capt. Robert Smith, 
Leonard Judkins, Dea. Jacob True, 
Lieut. Bean, Lieut. Severance, and 
John Smith. At the first meeting of 
the convention in February, Col. 

Websteropposed the constitution under 
instructions from his town. 

A majority of the convention was 
found to be opposed to the adoption 
of the constitution. The convention 
adjourned to Concord, to meet in the 
succeeding month of June. In the 
meantime Col. Webster conferred with 
his constituents, advised with the com- 
mittee on the subject, asked the privi- 
lege of supporting the constitution, 
and he was instructed to vote as he 
might think proper. His speech, made 
on this occasion, has been printed. 
It did great credit to the head and 
heart of the author : 

" Jfr. President : I have listened to 
the arguments for and against the 
constitution. I am convinced such a 
government as that constitution will 
establish, if adopted — a government 
acting directly on the people of the 
states, — is necessary for the common 
defence and the general welfare. It 
is the only government which will 
enable us to pay off the national debt. 
The debt which we owe for the Revolu- 
tion, and which we are bound in honor 
fully and fairly to discharge. Beside, 
I have followed the lead of Washing- 
ton through seven years of war, and I 
have never been misled. His name 
is subscribed to this constitution. He 
will not mislead us now. I shall vote 
for its adoption." 

The constitution was finally adopted 
in the convention by a vote of 57 
yeas, 47 nays. 

Col. Webster gave his support to 
the constitution. He was one of the 
electors for president when Washing- 
ton was first chosen to that office. 

In the spring of 1791, Col. Webster 
was appointed Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the county of 
Hillsborough. This office he held at 
the time of his decease in 1806. He 
was one of the magistrates, or justices 
of the peace, for Hillsborough county, 
for more than thirty-five years prior to 
his decease. 

In church affairs, Judge Webster 
exercised great influence. As early 
as 1768 he was chosen by the town 



to procure a minister. He often com- 
posed one of the committee in subse- 
quent years to provide preaching ; 
also, to build the first meeting-house. 
The proprietors of the town at Kings- 
ton voted to assist to build a meeting- 
house like the one in East Kingston, 
with a pulpit like that in Hawke. 
Ebenezer Webster, Joseph Bean and 
Capt. John Calfe must see that the 
work on the meeting-house be done 
in a workmanlike manner. 

This meeting-house was erected on 
Searle's Hill, so-called, the highest 
land in Salisbury except Kearsarge 
mountain. While there, it was truly 
the Visible Church. He was one ot 
the committee in making the arrange- 
ments to ordain Rev. Jonathan Searle, 
in October, 1773. He was a ^ s0 one 
of the committee, on the part of the 
church, as well as town, in settling the 
terms of the dismission of Rev. Mr. 
Searle, in 1790. 

In 1 79 1 Col. Webster, Capt. Benja- 
min Pettengill and Elder B. Huntoon, 
were appointed a committee to hire 
Rev. Thomas Worcester. The same 
year the town voted to settle Mr. 
Worcester, on the second Wednes- 
day of November, 1791. On this day 
the council assembled preparatory to 
the ordination ; a dispute originated 
between the council of ministers and 
Mr. Worcester upon a doctrinal point. 
Much time was spent in the discussion. 
The people without became impatient, 
and demanded that the ordination 
should come off. Judge Webster was 
appointed a committee to wait on the 
council and inquire into the causes of 
the delay. He appeared before them, 
and heard their statement. "Gentle- 
men," says he, "the ordaination must 
come on now, and if you can not assist, 
we must try to get along without you. 
The point under discussion must be 
postponed to some other day." The 
council acquiesced, and the ordination 
ceremonies proceeded without more 
delay. Col. Webster was one of the 
elders of the church for many years 
prior to his death. 

We never heard of but one instance 

when he was subjected to church dis- 

On a certain occasion he wished to 
see his nephew, Stephen Bohonon, 
who resided at the South Road village 
in Salisbury. He went to his house 
and iound him absent, engaged in 
instructing the young people of the 
village in the art of dancing. He re- 
paired to the hall, where his nephew 
was engaged, and, after waiting a few 
minutes transacted his business with 
him and returned home. Soon the 
rumor was circulated that Judge 
Webster had been seen in a dancing 
hall. A member of his church enter- 
ed a complaint, requiring satisfaction 
for the reproach done. Parson Wor- 
cester suggested to him that a written 
acknowledgment would be appro- 
priate. Judge Webster answered he 
would put nothing on file, but would 
make his confession orally and publicly, 
in presence of the congregation. 
Whereupon, on the succeeding Sabbath, 
after the forenoon exercises had closed, 
he rose in his place and addressed the 
congregation : 

"A few days since I had some busi- 
ness with my nephew, Stephen Bohonon, 
went up to his house ; found him in 
the hall of the tavern instructing the 
youth in dancing. They were in the 
midst of a dance when I entered the 
hall. I took a seat and waited until 
the dance was closed ; took the earliest 
opportunity to do my errand with 
Stephen ; found the young people civil 
and orderly ; saw nothing improper. 
Now, if in all this, I have offended any 
of my weaker brethren, I am sorry 
for it." 

But the secret of Judge Webster's 
power and great influence in this 
vicinity was to be found in his military 
services. The Revolutionary war found 
him captain of the company of militia 
in Salisbury. Capt. John Webster and 
Capt. Matthew Pettengill had each 
served their term of service. Capt. 
Ebenezer Webster, Lieut. Robert 
Smith and Ensign Moses Garland, 
were the officers of the company in 
1775. He commanded this company 



during the whole war, and was pro- 
moted to the rank of colonel in 17 84. 
This station gave him authority and 
control over ail able-bodied citizens 
between the ages of sixteen and fifty, 
as the law then was. Capt. Webster 
had thus the command of about 
seventy-five men. As an officer, he 
was beloved by his soldiers, and 
always had their entire confidence. 
He was born to command. He was 
in stature about six feet ; of a massy 
frame, a voice of great compass, eyes 
black and piercing ; a countenance 
open and ingenuous, and a complexion 
that could not be soiled by powder. 
He was the very man to head the proud 
columns of the Sons of Liberty. 
Hence, soon after the Lexington fight, 
we find him at Cambridge, at the head 
of most of his company. He armed 
more than half of his men, and re- 
mained on duty at Winter Hill for six 
months of that year. In 1776, re- 
signing the office of selectman, he en- 
listed a company and repaired to New 
York in season to take part in the 
battle of White Plains. Before he 
went into the army in this year, with 
the aid of his colleagues, he procured 
the signatures of eighty-four of his 
townsmen (being all except two) to 
the pledge offered to the people 
agreeably to the resolution of congress, 
as follows : 

"We do hereby solemnly engage 
and promise that we will, to the utmost 
of our power, at the risk of our lives 
and fortunes, with arms, oppose the 
hostile proceedings of the British fleets 
and armies against the United Ameri- 
can Colonies." 

His son, Hon. Daniel Webster, the 
last year of his life, thus eloquently 
referred to the signers of this pledge 
in Salisbury : " In looking to this re- 
cord thus connected with the men of 
my birth-place, I confess I was gratified 
to find who were the signers and who 
were the dissentients. Among the 
former was he from who I am imme- 
diately descended, with all his broth- 
ers, and his whole kith and kin. This 
is sufficient emblazonry for my arms ; 

enough of heraldry for me." In the 
spring of 1777 he enlisted a company 
for the relief of the northern army. 
After a short service he returned for 
the purpose of assisting in the organiza- 
tion of a still larger force to oppose 
the progress of Burgoyne. Before 
the first day of July he reported to 
Col. Thomas Stickney, of Concord, 
that his company was mustered and 
ready for active service, all save Benja- 
min Huntoon and Jacob Tucker, 
"who each wanted a firearm." None 
could be procured in Salisbury for 
them, and Col. Stickney was request- 
ed to furnish arms for these men. 

We once had in our possession two 
original letters from Capt. Webster to 
Col. Stickney on this subject. In 
this company that was engaged in the 
battle of Bennington on the 16th of 
August, were enrolled forty-five of the 
good men of Salisbury, two thirds of 
whom had wives and families, embrac- 
ing the Pettengills, the Fifields, the 
Bohonons, the Huntoons, the Sanborns, 
the Eastmans, the Smiths and Scrib- 
ners,the Greelys and Websters. They 
all returned safe excepting Lieut. 
Andrew Pettengill. who died, soon after 
his return, from injuries received in 
this campaign. He was an excellent 
officer, and father of Lieut. Benjamin 
Pettengill. About seventeen of the 
company were from New Britain, now 
Andover, and ten others from the town 
of Hillsborough. Among them were 
McNeil and Andrews, Symonds and 
Booth, who had before fought on other 
fields. McNeil and Andrews had car- 
ried upon their shoulders their Capt. 
Baldwin, when mortally wounded in 
the battle of Bunker Hill. 

His company occupied a position in 
front of the breast-work of the Hes- 
sians in the battle of Bennington. 
The bodies of the Hessians were par- 
tially concealed. Webster felt the 
disadvantage and addressed his men : 
" Fellow-soldiers , we must get nearer 
the Hessians. Storm their breast- 
work." The action was suited to the 
word. The enemy were soon dis- 



At this period of the war Salisbury 
had also twelve of her men enlisted 
for three years in Capt. Gray's com- 
pany, Col. ScammeFs regiment, name- 
ly, Moses Fellows, Eph. Heath, Benj. 
Howard, D. Fitch, Matthew Greely, 
Philip Lufkin, Joshua Snow, Wm. 
Bailey, John Ash, Josiah Smith, Reu- 
ben Greely and Joseph Webster. It 
was the darkest hour of the Revolu- 
tion, but her citizens put forth energies 
equal to the emergency. 

In August, 177S, Capt. Webster, in 
obedience to a request of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, with a company en- 
listed in his neighborhood, repaired to 
Rhode Island, and participated in the 
events that then occurred there. 
Again, in 1780, Capt. Webster enlisted 
and marched another company for the 
relief of the army stationed at West 
Point. This was a short time before 
the treason of Arnold. We heard one 
of his soldiers remark that the evening 
after the treason of Arnold was dis- 
covered by Washington, Capt. Webster 
was called to his tent by Washington, 
and commanded to guard his tent that 
night, remarking, "I believe I can 
trust you." Capt. Webster with a por- 
tion of his company performed sentry 
duty during that eventful night. His 
nephew, Stephen Bohonon, one of his 
soldiers, used to relate the incident 
that Washington did not sleep that 
night, but spent his time either in 
writing or walking his tent. Capt. 
Webster performed six months' service 
at West Point, and in subsequent pe- 
riods of the war two other short cam- 
paigns in defense of our northern 

Thus we see that when congress or 
the state called for aid, Capt. Webster 
met the demand by the good example 
of leading his men rather than by 
pointing the way. 

The principle of equality was estab- 
lished by Salisbury in raising and pay- 
ing her men for the war, as will be 
seen by the adoption of the following 
vote in 1 7 7 S : 

" Voted, That Capt. Ebenezer Web- 
ster and Capt. John Webster be chosen 

a committee to aid the selectmen to 
make an inventory of each man's 
estate, and estimate what each man 
has done in this present war, and 
estimate the currency upon the pro- 
duce of the country, and that those 
men who have not done according to 
their interest, be called upon by Lax 
or draught, till they have done equal 
to them that have already done service 
in the war." 

The selectmen of that year, who 
had for a chairman Dr. Joseph Bart- 
lett, an able and efficient patriot and 
father of Ichabod Bartlett, and a family 
all highly respectable, united with the 
other members of the committee, and 
they assessed the people according to 
the spirit of the foregoing resolution. 
All acquiesced except the richest man 
of the town, who had performed no 
military service, and he demurred to 
the tax as being too large and illegal, 
and declined to pay. The committee 
waited upon him, and Judge Webster 
addressed him : "Sir: Our authorities 
require us to fight and pay. Now, 
you must pay or fight." He paid up. 

By act of congress of February 25, 
1 780, New Hampshire was required 
to furnish one million, one thousand 
and two hundred pounds of beef, as 
her quota for the support of the army. 
The legislature of New Hampshire, 
June 17, 1780, owing to the depressed 
state of the currency, passed an act 
authorizing each town to furnish, in 
five equal supplies, their proportion of 
this beef. The state assessment on 
the town of Salisbury was nine thou- 
sand two hundred and forty pounds of 
beef. Capt. Eliphalet Giddings, of 
Exeter, was appointed Collector Gen- 
eral of beef for this state. 

All the beef was to be returned to 
Capt. Giddings, estimated and accept- 
ed by him, and then to be forwarded 
to the American army. 

The selectmen of Salisbury, in 1 780, 
were Capt. Ebenezer Webster, Dr. 
Joseph Bartlett, and Edward Eastman, 
grand father of Joel Eastman, of Con- 
way. They assessed this tax in money, 
but gave notice in the warrant to the 



collector, that beef would be received 
as legal tender for each man's tax. 
Much labor was required to collect 
this tax, and it was found necessary 
in February, 1781, to call a town- 
meeting and appoint a committee to 
aid in collecting the tax and beef. 
Capt. Webster was chairman of this 

The Continental money was so far 
reduced in value as to be estimated 
less than five dollars on a hundred. 
From the orders and papers now be- 
fore us, we are able to state the cur- 
rency of the time — beef being the 
standard of value. It appears, too, 
that this tax had no uniform title or 

His colleagues in office allowed 
Capt. Webster three pounds, lawful 
money, for a heifer toward his war 
tax. Capt. Pettengill was allowed 
four pounds toward his eo:u tax for 
the army. Jonathan Young was allow- 
ed ten shillings and eight pence, out 
of his heifer tax. Ensign John Web- 
ster paid his tax with 1,890 continental 
dollars, being for 420 pounds of beef 
for the army. John Collins Gale was 
allowed for 400 pounds of beef 1800 
continental dollars, being the amount 
of his "war beef tax." Allowed 
Joseph Meloon 1500 continental dol- 
lars, it being in part toward a cow fur- 
nished by him to the town for the 

Dr. Joseph Bartlett was paid one 
thousand dollars in full for his services 
as selectman March 12, 1781. 

Capt. Ebenezer Webster was paid 
$500 in full for his services and 100 
feet of boards. Edward Eastman was 
allowed $566, it being for shingles, 
nails, making shoes, and service as a 
selectman of the town. 

In 1 781 Salisbury voted to raise 
twelve thousand continental dollars, 
to be worked out on the highways at 
$24 per day to each man. 

In 17S3 the town voted to raise 
£200 in specie, to be worked out at 
fifty cents per diem for each man. 

Such was the state of the currency 
in the days of the Revolution. Great 

were the consequent difficulties to be 
overcome. But the patriotism of the 
times equaled every emergency. 

The insurgents of 1786 claimed, as 
a measure of reform, that the legisla- 
ture should issue a large amount of 
bills of credit, pledging the faith of 
the state for their redemption, and 
that these bills should constitute a 
legal tender for all taxes and debts. 
These propositions were placed before 
many of the towns in this state for 
their consideration. 

On the 15th day of August, A. D. 
1 786, the subject of a larger emission 
of paper money came up for discussion 
in public town-meeting in Salisbury. 
Judge Webster presided as moderator, 
and gave his views to the meeting. — 
The town voted, "Not to have any 
paper money on any plan whatever at 

The town then appointed Dr. Joseph 
Bartlett, Capt. Wilder, Col. Webster, 
L. Judkins and John Sweatt, a com- 
mittee to instruct the representatives 
on this subiect. Such was the sym- 
pathy the insurgents obtained against 
government from Salisbury. 

The situation of the body politic, 
and the remedy of the insurgents, re- 
minds us of the case of Charles V. 
He spent the latter part of his days in 
the cells of a religious cloister, en- 
deavoring to obtain absolution from 
his earthly sins by doing worthy pen- 
ance. He inflicted stripes upon his 
mortal body, until the blood started 
from his skin. Charles then inquired 
of his spiritual confessor, what more 
he would prescribe. He received for 
answer, "nothing but a little more 

In March, 1787, Col. Webster and 
Capt. David Pettengill were chosen 
delegates to meet other delegates at 
Warner, to consider the propriety of 
the removal of the courts from Amherst 
to some more central part of the 
county of Hillsborough, or to estab- 
lish a new county from the northern 
part of said county. The proceedings 
of this convention brought about in 
the year 1788 the establishment of 



Hopkinton as a half shire for the 
courts of Hillsborough. It remained 
the half shire until the year 1S23, 
when the county of Merrimack was 
organized, and the courts were conse- 
quently removed to Concord. No one 
man contributed so much in time and 
active exertions, to bring about this 
result, as Hon. Ezekiel Webster. He 
represented the town of Boscawen 
in the legislature, and against a 
strenuous opposition, successfully carri- 
ed this measure. 

In the year 1800, the town voted to 
accept Col. Webster as collector of 
taxes, in the room of Ephraim Colby. 
An aged citizen informed us that he 
met Judge Webster after he had spent 
the day, with ill success, in getting 
taxes ; when Judge Webster repeated 
for his comfort that old rhyme, which 
contains more truth than poetry : — 

"Thi-; i< ;i pood world we live in, 

To lend, to spend, and to give in ; 

But, to beg, to borrow, and to get one's own, 

'T is the hardest world that ere was known." 

Among the numerous offices which 
Judge Webster often well filled was 
that of grand juror. Ability, integrity, 
and experience, were formerly con- 
sidered qualifications of this station. 
Our statute cuts off many who should 
serve in this office, and dishonest ex- 
ecutors of the law sometimes place in 
the jury-box such as are entirely dis- 
qualified to discharge its duties. — 
Formerly the most able and influential 
citizens were selected to this post of 
honor and responsibility. John Ran- 
dolph, of Roanoake, was foreman of 
the grand jury of Virginia that inves- 
tigated the charges against Aaron Burr 
for high treason. 

September 14, 1773, Ebenezer 
Webster was chosen grand juror to go 
to Amherst to attend His Majesty's 

superior court of judicature. This 
was his first service. After he was 
appointed judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas, in 1791, he served as grand 
juror, generally in the capacity of fore- 
man, at the superior court of judica- 
ture in Hillsborough county, in 1792, 
'94, '97, '98, 1801, 1802, 1S03 and 

We could, if time and space would 
allow, give you many other facts and 
incidents which would interest the 
reader. Suffice it to say Judge Web- 
ster was upon all the important com- 
mittees raised by the town to obtain 
money and men to carry on the war, 
and to form and maintain the govern- 
ment. He was also the arbitrator se- 
lected more often than any other per- 
son to settle or adjust matters of a 
public or private character. 

We send you two of his reports to 
show his comprehensive and concise 
form of doing business. His honesty 
and sound judgment were relied upon, 
and led to safe results. As a magis- 
trate and judge, he heard, deliberated 
and decided ; and from his decisions 
there was generally no desire to appeal. 
Judge Webster was too liberal to the 
public. He underestimated the value 
of his services. We find him charg- 
ing four shillings, and sometimes three 
shillings for a day's work, when em- 
ployed on public business ; while his 
associates generally charged one dollar 
or more. 

From a slight examination of the 
Journal of the House and Senate of 
this state, while Judge Webster was a 
member, we ascertain he was placed 
upon the most important committees. 
He seldom spoke in deliberative bodies, 
but commanded attention when he 




Sweet is the sound of the rippling brook, 
Or the wild bird's song of glee; 

Or the tinkling music of herd bells, 
When wafted over the lea. 

But sweetest of all songs nature sings. 
Is my baby's laugh to me. 

A glorious sunset thrills w\y soul; 

I delight iu a grand sunrise; 
J enraptured stand and watch the sea, 

As its great heart throbs and sighs. 
More wondrous by far than all of these. 

Is the .smile in my baby's eyes. 

What flower wi' the lily can compare, 

Of Flora's radiant band? 
The rose is proud as she is fair. 

None prouder in all the land; 
Yet. prouder I. than lily or rose. 

Of my baby's waxen hand. 

Nor rippling brook, nor the song of bird. 
Nor thp herd bell sounds so sweet; 

Nor sunrise gold, nor the sunset's glow, 
>»Oi - the sea I lova to greet. 

Hold evtr so great a charm for me, 
As my baby's rosy feet. 

Her budding charms are many and rare. 

For aye my pen could extol. 
Far grander recruits than her wee form, 

The«Army of Life doth enroll- 
But what moro pure, on earth, or in heaven. 

Than my baby's spotless soul? 



'. The National Hall of Statuary in the above Washington), 28 feet high, in 
south wing of the capitol, the former three sections ; 8 feet 4 inches in cir- 
hall of the House of Representatives, cumference, resting on bases of sand- 
is said to have been modeled after the stone, capitals of Carrara marble, cut 
theater at Athens. It is a fine semi- in Italy, making the height 32 feet, 
circle of 95 or 96 feet chord, and 60 Kight of these noble columns form a 
feet height, with floor of blue and white loggia under the south gallery, with 
marbles, in octagons. It is surround- two windows on each side the corridor ; 
ed by a line of 26 columns of the high up on the north are small square 
beautiful variegated breccia, or pud- and circular windows that lighted the 
ding-stone, called Potomac marble gallery which it is proposed soon to re- 
(from the now exhausted quarry at the move ; but the hall is lighted from 
great falls of that river, some 20 miles above, by the south dome, or rather, 


J 53 

the cupola above the fine dome paint- 
ed in caissons, or panels, with long, 
leaf patterns between in imitation of 
the Pantheon at Rome. Above the 
south corridor, where once was the 
Speaker's chair, in the tympanum of 
an arch sweeping from east to west is 
a colossal plaster of the Goddess of 
Liberty modeled to be executed in 
marble by Causici, a pupil of Canova, 
in 1S29, an eagle at her right hand 
and the frustrum of a column on the 
left, and entwined about it several 
times, the head toward the west, is 
the serpent — emblem of wisdom. 
Below on the entablature is an eagle 
with outspread wings. 

Over the north entrance is an exquis- 
ite marble design and work by Cha's 
Franzoni, in 1S30, at a cost of 5 16,000. 

The lovely Muse of History, a slight 
graceful figure, stands in the winged 
car of Time [his skeleton form with 
extended wings and scythe, at the prow 
in relief — the lamina of seven yards long 
feathers visible in front] that rests in 
its course over the globe, on which are 
carved the signs of the Zodiac, the 
wheel of the car forar'ng the face of 
the clock. Her head is held one side 
in listening attitude as she looks on 
the proceedings beneath, one foot is 
on the deck to raise the knee to sup- 
port the large volume, the right hand 
yet in suspense what record to make on 
the waiting page. The fair face was 
dusty from travel, the hair in puffs of 
curls on each side braided, and the 
back hair in the Grecian coil, the drap- 
ery blown by the wind floating behind 
from the fair arms, the robe looped on 
top of the shoulder and girdled in at 
the waist. 

The House of Representatives occu- 
pied this beautiful hall 32 years. 

In the early days of the Rebellion 
soldiers were quartered here, and the 
readers of the Atlantic Monthly will 
remember Theodore Winthrop's narra- 
tive of its occupancy by the 7th New 
York Regiment. Then it was baptized 
and forever consecrated by use as a 
hospital for the wounded and sick sol- 

At the suggestion of Hon. Justin S. 
Morrill, of Vermont, then in the House, a 
paragraph in an appropriation bill — a 
"rider," but an honest, honorable "rid- 
er" — no political sneak — culminated 
July 2, 1S64, in the appropriation of 
the Hall to its present use, each state 
being invited to send two statues, eith- 
er in marble or bronze. Rhode Island 
was first to act, New York ' and 
Massachusetts closely followed, and 
other states have taken prelim- 
inary action. In this year of grace, 
1880, May, the Hall contains fourteen 
statues, three of bronze, the others in 
marble ; and the plaster copy of Vir- 
ginia's Washington. There are six or 
eight oil portraits on the walls, that of 
Lincoln in gold mosaic sent from Ven- 
ice. On the west side of the south 
corridor is Mrs. Ames' bust of Lincoln, 
on the east that of Pulaski, the- Polish 
patriot, and of Crawford, the sculptor. 

There are several curious echoes to 
which the attention of visitors is often 
called, that the lover of art could wish 

Massachusetts occupies the first place 
on each side of the entrance from the 
rotunda. On the right is the beautiful 
statue familiar to Visitors at Mt. Auburn, 
of her first Governor John Winthrop 
"landing with the charter 1630" as in- 
serted on the east side, the name of 
the state on the west, and " John Win- 
throp " on the panel of the swelled front 
of the highly polished base. The well- 
poised, youthful figure — Hope look- 
ing afar — the right foot on shore, the 
left yet on the landing plank, the 
ship's c^ble coiled around a tree-trunk 
on the right, seems caught in the very- 
act of walking exactly rendered. 

The left hand [the arm covered by 
an outer round thick collared cloak 
falling behind] clasps a Bible to his 
heart, the right falls carelessly to the 
side holding a long thin roll and a r.^und 
engraved and rather embossed disk, 
the charter and seal of the Colony. 

The face is beautiful, serene, illum- 
inated, the brow broad, the lower face 
narrow, the eyes full and remarkably 
expressive, Roman nose, lips clean, but 



encircled with close-clipped beard, that 
covers the chin and throat to the ears. 
The hair drawn back on top, parted on 
each side, falls in curls behind, over 
the immense double ruff, three inches 
wide and as thick, fluted in double 

The costume — for the outer cloak 
shows in front only over the arm — is a 
short, close frock scarcely coming to 
the knees, belted in by a wide bdt 
fastened by a triangular buckle, the 
point down ; the sleeves have narrow 
caps at the shoulders, wide cuffs at the 
wrists, which seem of some corded or 
finely tucked material, turned back and 
trimmed with an inch wide edsrins: laid 
in folds. The full bag-breeches garter 
the long hose below the knees with wide 
ribbons tied in bow-knots with long 
ends on the outside ; high-heeled, nar- 
row-toed shoes with large puffed ro- 
settes, a puff in the center, on top of 
the foot. 

''Richard S. Greenough, Sculpsit, 
1875." The execution to the minutest 
detail is very fine, the block snowy 
white, the pedestal softly veined. 


Near the center of the Hall, on the 
west side, is Vinnie Ream's (now Mrs. 
Hoxie) statue of Lincoln. Very much 
criticism has been lavished upon it. 
The subject was statuesque only in 
soul and in idiosyncrasies. Some 
western men who knew him, and such 
should decide rather than the artistic, 
say it is as good as the average ; and 
a few praise it, aside even from the fact 
that it is the work of a woman. The 
head droops forward, the hair thrown 
up on top parted each side, clipped 
beard on chin and throat to the ears, 
the face with deep care-lines on the 
forehead — is sadder and rougher than 
Mrs. Ames' fine bust, and has a dream- 
iness about it — as if not out of his 
brown study though risen to propose the 
Act of Emancipation, — that must often 
have been his mood. The right hand 
holds the wide, flat roll — held rather 
low as if not yet presented ; the left 
gathers up the outer cloak half fallen 

off, a mass of it tucked under the arm 
is held by the elbow, covering also the 
right arm to the wrist though showing the 
coat sleeve without cuff and the inside 
linen. The cravat is close with a low 
collar turning over it, plain linen front, 
vest and frock-coat with buttons down 
each side ; the pantaloons much wrin- 
kled over the instep of the boots. The 
pedestal of veined marble polished, 
bears the name in front — the honored 
and revered name, Abraham Lincoln, 

Next on the west stand the New York 
bronzes, life size — that last winter ex- 
changed cambric-covered boxes for 
fine bases of the rich, dark chocolate 
Tennessee marble that adorns the 
Capitol — the faces of the pedestals 
bearing the inscription "From the 
State of New York." 

Robert R. Livingston, first Chan- 
cellor of the state, who as such had the 
honor to administer the oath of office 
to Washington, a resident minister to 
France and negotiator for the trans- 
fer of Louisiana to the United States, 
stands in an attitude of calm repose, and 
in the rich, dark bronze, looks the med- 
itative sage. The right arm in the coat 
sleeve with narrow line of embroidery 
along the edge, falls naturally at the 
side, with the Act on a roller with or- 
namented tip or knob, the end unrolled 
to show the inscription " Cession of 
La. 1803," in the hand. The hair 
crowning the wide, but not very high, 
lined forehead, is parted in the middle, 
thrown up at each side and tied 
behind in a " club." The deep cav- 
erned eyes, very friendly, long, thin 
nostrils, closecompressed lips with lines 
at the angles — except Trumbull's — the 
oldest face there, is one that grows 
upon you. The necktie is close with 
pendent artistic laces, and the closed 
vest shows half-a-dozen buttons ; below 
the left hand, like the other with deep, 
full laces at wrist, draws together the 
surplice or chancellor's robe of office 
that drapes all the figure to the narrow 
buckles of the shoes in a most effect- 
ive manner. The name is on the 
bronze plinth, " Robert R. Livingston, 



.- 4 4_i8ii." Cast at Paris, 1874. E. 

George Clinton, of New York, died in 
Washington in 1S10, while Vice Pres- 
cient of the United States. A native of 

Ister county, and Member of Con- 
gress in '76, he voted for the Declara- 
tion of Independence, but his duties 
*s Brigadier-General called him away 
ere its signature ; for eighteen consecu- 
tive years governor of his native state. 
Those forming years of its history are 
the story of his life. After retiring to pri- 
vate life he was again reelected to the 
same office. 

In color the bronze effigy is light and 
brassy, but bronze improves with age. 
The pose is an easy military rest, the 
right hand on the hilt of the narrow, 
bheathed sword, from which cord and 
tassels are pendent ; the left drops to 
the side holding the gloves. The face, 
turned slightly toward the right shoul- 
der, as all its features, is well rounded 
rather than full ; the hair puffed over 
and cut to cover the ears, drawn back 
on top and tied with a small string at 
the tip of the cue, and a wide ribbon 
bow at the nape of the neck. There 
are epaulets on the shoulders, a wide 
cravat, double ruffles at the breast as 
at the wrists where the rounded sleeve 
cuff has three buttons. The high-col- 
lared military coat to the knees, is 
closed over the chest by two buttons, 
falls back to show the long vest with 
S'rall, figured buttons, one on the pock- 
et-welt, the skirt cut away at the sides ; 
seal and watch-key pendent against a 
wide short ribbon below the vest on 
the right side, tight breeches to the 
knees, with five buttons on the outer 
sides above the oval buckle of the gar- 
ter ; low shoes with short buckles. The 
plinth bears the name : H. R. Brown. 
Rolt, Wood & Co., Philadelphia. 

We may call the next Toleration — 
representing Roger Williams as a well- 
formed, youthful figure, the left foot 
advanced, a small heap of stones the 
relief. A book, the cover inscribed 
''Soul Liberty, 1630," is pressed to the 
heart by the left hand ; the extended 
r 'ght hand falls with open palm as if in 

the act of speaking. The somewhat 
narrow, beardless face, sad though 
determined, has a suggestion of im- 
maturity, though seen from the loggia 
there is a well-befitting dreaminess 
about it. The nose is large and 
prominent, abundant hair, parted in 
the middle, brushed upward, curling 
on the shoulders, crowns the retreat- 
ing brow. About the neck the linen 
collar, pointed at the comers and some 
three inches wide, lies fiat, tied with a 
cord and small tassels. The waistcoat 
is closed by small buttons set on a bar 
down the front and is extended by a 
flounce slightly pulled on, as if a care- 
ful mother or wife had hidden the worn 
front edges and eked out the length. 

The outer garment is loose, with a 
rounded flat collar, a sort of cap at the 
top of the sleeves, and turn-over cuffs 
with pointed corners at the wrists, and 
falls to the ribbon garters tying the full 

ba^-breeches. with 

*s at the sides. 

The shoes are low-heeled, square-toed, 
laced through two holes in each lap, 
with — you are sure — a leather cord, 
tied in a long loop on top of the high 
instep. The name is on the entabla- 
ture, that of Rhode Island on the fine 
pedestal of red granite — Franklin Sim- 
mons, Sculpt. 1870. 


Rhode Island's Quaker-born Greene, 
the man who, next to Washington, did 
most to secure the independence of the 
Nation, stands last on the right or west 
side of the Hall, — life size — not so tall 
as Roger Williams — the shortest of all 
save Baker — a very beau among the 
grave marbles — the pose of the fine 
plump figure being considered the most 
graceful of all. The head turns toward 
the right side, the left arm bearing a 
cloak [as shown by the line of embroid- 
ery on the bend of the neck] that falls 
to the feet, the forefinger in the tas- 
seled hilt of the sword held nearly to 
the shoulder, and slanting back ; the 
right arm " akimbo," the hand resting 
on the hip. The clean full face with 
rather prominent eyes and large nose, 
is intelligent and pleasing, the clipped 



hair is parted on each side, puffed over 
but not entirely concealing the ears and 
braided in a cue and tied in the back. 
The epaulets are large, collar high, 
cravat close and wide, large buttons 
on the sleeve, cuffs with full frills as at 
the bosom, the coat closed across the 
chest by two buttons falling back from 
the lower one, turned, showing elegant 
silk facings carried behind and attached 
to the skirt swallow-tail wise — short 
vest with very narrow laps though provid- 
ed with a safety button, seals and keys 
pendent from a wide chain, ''tights " 
with four buttons, small as in those on 
the vest, the buckle of the narrow gar- 
ter showing on the right limb above the 
square-tced, turn-over top-boots, with 
tassels on the outer sides. Both mar- 
bles are slightly veined and the bases 
are of a Rhode Island red granite, tak- 
ing good polish though rather lighter in 
color than the Scotch. Simmons. 

East of the south corridor stands 
Vermont's colossal Ethan Allen, the 
artist being another of her sons, Larkin 
G. Mead. The well-knit figure, instinct 
with life, is that of a hardy mountain- 
eer in the proud strength of young man- 
hood, the sword in the right hand drawn 
from the scabbard, yet for the moment 
trailing its point on the ground, the left 
fist clenched emphatically against the 
chest demanding the surrender of Ti- 
conderoga, " In the name of Jehovah 
and the Continental Congress." It is 
the only covered head in the sacred 
presence. The high flaps of the 
three-cornered military cocked hat, 
with cockade on the right side and 
without plume, as the official head-gear 
of revolutionary times, is well worth 
preservation, but the forehead would be 
sacrificed to it. It comes in here with- 
out loss, as no portrait existed, and the 
deep eyes flashing under the short 
thick curls and the firm lips are ideal. 
The epaulets, leathern straps crossed 
on the back, silken sash tied at the 
left side with immense knobbed tassels, 
laces, long vest, oblong seal and wide 
watch-chain, the silk-faced coat-skirt 
turned back and buttoned behind, the 

buttons highly polished, the short 
clothes and high, wide-topped square- 
toed boots much wrinkled at the instep, 
are the costume of the day. We have 
questioned whether it were in accord- 
ance with the principles of correct 
taste to lower the pedestal in order 
that the colossal figure might corre- 
spond in height with the others ! 

Continuing around the hall, at the 
south-east corner Connecticut has eu- 
scribed her name on pedestals of black 
and white finely mottled Vermont mar- 
ble, presenting in semi-heroic two of 
her sons, grand men of substance — 
sculptured by '*'C. B. Ives, Romce." 
Trumbull, in 1S69, and Sherman, 1S70. 
Jonathan Trumbull, father of the paint- 
er, friend and secretary of Washington. 
who called him "Brother Jonathan," 
in Congress as delegate and Speaker 
of the House, and Senator and Gov- 
ernor of his state, a majestic, tall, but 
not over-portly frame, stands reading 
a bill on foolscap, many sheets joined 
by a band, on the back of which is 
inscribed in red — k ' To the Honorable 
Council and House of Representatives, 
in General Court convened, 1783," the 
paper held at length, nor yet folded or 
rolled, by both hands, the right below. 
The forehead of the serene face is very 
high, a long head and cheeks, sunken 
lips and double chin ; hair full over the 
ears and clubbed. The coat to the 
knees has a very low collar, cravat close, 
full rutiles at neck, narrower at wrists : 
the long waistcoat has very wide pock- 
et-covers close buttoned at the ends 
and middle buttons on the sleeve-cutT, 
the breeches have four large buttons, 
garter buckle square, those on the shoes 
long and flat. A neat, square-collared 
cloak with cape nearly to the elbows, 
from which the lower left arm is free, 
and tacked up under the other arm, 
covers most of the person to the feet. 

Roger Sherman, shoemaker, lawyer, 
judge, one of the committee of five 
to draft the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and a signer of the document, 
stands in stately dignity with right arm 
extended before the person, the fore- 
finger and thumb advanced, the other 



fingers closed, gracefully declaiming. 
fUc head and face, with noble domed 
row, is beautiful ; the expression se- 
1 : v -, almost radiant, and the hair, 
though clubbed behind, does not cover 
the ears. The costume seems more 
modern, though the coat appears to 
have no collar at all, only the seam 
guarding the edge carried around, yet 
re buttons button back the sleeve- 
cuffs, cravat close, with a neat knot in 
front and pendent ends folded and 
but no bosom-frills, 
with square collar, covering 
that holds it up to the 

figure to the ankles, 
statues belong to 

edged or fringed 
A cloak 
the left arm 
fingers, drapes the 

The next three 
the United States. 

The semi-heroic statue of Alexander 
Hamilton was modeled by Dr. Hora- 
tio Stone, of the city of Washington, 
and executed in Rome in 1S6S. It 
represents him in earnest debate, with 
a short closed roll in or under the 
right hand, the fingers of the left just 
touching an oblong case of rolls or 
lictor's fasces. The head is large and 
square, crowned with curling hair not 
wholly covering the ears and tied be- 
hind ; forehead high, eyes deep-set, 
nose sharp, lips full. There is a slight 
variation from the oft described cos- 
tume — upright collar to the frock coat 
reaching to the knees, buttons on the 
cuffs and big lappets over the vest 
pockets, frills perhaps narrower at the 
wrists, the breeches much wrinkled 
over the limbs, long hose, and low 
heels to the buckled shoes. The front 
face of the pedestal is covered with a 
large crowded intaglio, in black lines, of 
Washington taking the oath of office. 

Hamilton, 1757-1804, was the peer- 
less intellect — the bright particular 
star — in the early dawn of our nation ; 
a man in the estimation of many iar 
superior to the august Father, or any 
other of the heroes of " the great days " 
of that formative period. A rare 
genius, with level head, the foreign 
orphan-boy of fifteen acquired large 
store of knowledge, and excelled first 
in sound, practical common sense and 
executive ability ; then as versatile as 

the needs of the time, in conversation ; 
in oratory ; in military tactics, suc- 
ceeding Washington as commander- 
in-chief; in statesmanship in its highest 
form, with insight into principles that 
Talleyrand called a divination ; in law, 
molding the constitution, that but for 
his greatness had been other than the 
power it is — to the people and the 
people to the constitution — writing 
sixty-three of the eighty-five wonder- 
ful papers of The Federalist ; in 
finance, as first Treasurer, from an ut- 
terly empty chest providing for the 
payment of a national debt of about 
^60,000,000 ; the only clay in the 
gold, the manner of his death, since 
he had lost his eldest son in a duel, 
and disapproved of the code, but ac- 
cepted the challenge as a public man. 
The one failure to act up to his con- 
victions and scorn the evil fashion 
cost the nation his invaluable life at 
the age of 47. In November last 
New York unveiled a memorial statue 
of Hamilton, presented to the city by 
the last of his six sons, now nearly 90 
years of age, a man richly dowered 
with great talents and of rare attain- 
ments, who in his address on the oc- 
casion modestly hoped that : " Time 
having developed the utility of his 
public services and of the reasons of 
his polity, this memorial may aid in 
their being recalled and usefully ap- 

The bronze Jefferson holds in his 
left hand, at the side, a sheet of bronze 
as large as the original parchment, 
bearing in legible printed letters the 
Declaration of Independence, which 
coming to the base serves as relief. 
The right arm is held across the per- 
son with fingers raised. The long 
thin face is almost sharp. The hair 
covers the ears and ties behind. The 
upper lappel of the long coat-collar 
seems drawn up as if to shield from 
cold. The skirts are cut away at the 
sides. The long waistcoat, breeches and 
long buckles. No heels to the shoes. 
Behind lie a couple of old volumes 
with a civic wreath on top, " Presented 
by Uriah Phillips Levy, of the U. S. 



Navy, to his Fellow-citizens." The 
pedestal is the richest in the hall, being 
a combination of four varieties of 
very rich colored marbles, by Struther, 
of Philadelphia. The design was by 
P. J. David, d'Angers, a French sculp- 
tor,* and was cast in Paris, ''Par 
Honore Gouon, et ses deux fils." 
Though presented to the United States 
in 1S33, it was not accepted in form 
till 1 8 74, and after a move from the 
Rotunda to the grounds in front of 
the White House, found place here 
through a suggestion of Charles Sum- 

The Father of his Country as yet is 
presented in our Valhalla only in stain- 
ed and marred plaster, a copy of 
Houdon's life-size statue at Richmond, 
Va., made by Hubbard, and does not im- 
press us as a great work, though the 
original should be, since Houdon, who 
came to America in 1 785 with Franklin, 
spent some weeks at Mt. Vernon in 
study. Visitors think the head small 
[we want him to look the most God- 
like], and it is rather thrown upward, 
nose in the air, and too old. The 
right hand leans on the cane with cord 
and tassels, though held rather slant- 
ing ; the left rests on a bundle of 
lictor'srods, on which are thrown cloak 
and sword. The guide books say 
"in civic attire," which differs little, 
as these are flat epaulets and top-boots 
with spurs. The left limb is advanced, 
and the handles of a small rude plow- 
are seen, that extend back. The high 
base bears the well-known inscription 
in black lettering. 

Next, like a young son from a state 
the Father never dreamed of, is the 
statue of Col. E. D. Baker, senator 
from Illinois and Oregon, whose clarion 
voice that was inspiration to the Califor- 
niaregiment he commanded, was forever 
hushed beneath the pine tree on Ball's 
Bluff, October 22, 186 1. It is the 
pose of the orator ; the closed roll in 
the left hand sloping down ; as do the 

*Piere Jean David, of Angers, often called 
" The Republican Sculptor or .France,"' who had 
designed furty->ix lur^e, and munv ir.ore small, 
uTatues, was honored by a memorial *taVje unveil- 
ed in hid birth place October -'i, 1*80. 

fingers of the right arm held some- 
what advanced in graceful gesture in 
front of the chest ; the left foot ad- 
vanced, the other resting on the toes. 
It is a pleasing genial face, full high 
forehead, double chin, hair over the 
ears, but the round head is slightly bald 
on top. The costume is modern, the 
corners of the collar turn a little over 
the knotted neck-tie ; linen bosom in 
folds ; coat buttoned, pantaloons and 
boots. A cloak, one had said Roman 
toga, but for a scrap of collar visible 
behind the right shoulder, a portion 
drawn up and pendent over the left 
arm, is hoisted below the right elbow- 
across the form so closely as to lose 
grace, to the heel of the left boot. 
The soft felt hat with wide brim, tassels 
and cord, and rich ostrich feather fall- 
ing behind, lies on a large book, and 
the sword on the pedestal — the face 
bearing the name "Baker." This was 
the last work of Dr.- Horatio Stone, 
who died in Italy in 1S75. Col. 
Edward D. Baker was of English 
origin, brought to America when a 
boy, and working with his father at 
weaving, secured an honorable self 
education ; was an effective orator and 
greatly beloved. 

Two years ago Maine unveiled her 
statue of King. Franklin Simmons. 
fecit, 1877. A large frame, the left arm 
with hand poised on the hip, wholly 
concealed under the vast cloak, draw- 
ing it somewhat aside, the other show- 
ing part of the coat-cuff, and the inch 
wide full frills at wrists (as also on 
bosom) draws it together, the hand 
clasping to the breast a scroll slightly 
unrolled. The high retreating fore- 
head beetles over the full eyes deep set. 
The large nose is the prominent feature 
of the grave face. The hair is uppiled 
in a point on top, and clipped close 
about the ears and back of the well- 
formed head. The first thought was 
that the subject lived too late for wear 
of breeches ; but they still obtain, and 
high boots cut down in a point in 
front, with a tassel pendent and much 
bewrinkled at the instep. The cloak, 
with square collar, buttons and loops 


l S9 

oiicach side, drapes nearly to the 


We have passed around the hall 
and come to the last by the entrance. 
Massachusetts' Samuel Adams, who 
has been called "The Father of the 
Revolution. " Standing with folded 
arms, the right hand under the left 
elbow clinching a short roll so closely 
that the ends are tunnel shaped, in the 
act of protesting against the soldiery 
in Boston, March 6, 1770. "Night is 
approaching, an immediate answer is 
expected. Both regimenrs or none," 
is inscribed on the east face of the 
base. Both figure and face are instinct 
with intense but repressed emotion 
and sublime resolution. The calm 
eyes are caverned under the upright 
high dome of forehead ; the protuber- 
ent nose ; the lower lip thrown out. 
How grandly a woman — for the artist 
is Anne Whitney — has caught and fix- 
ed the spirit of the hour ! The hair a 
little thrown up on top is parted each 
side, covers the ears, rolls under and 
ties behind with a very nice bow. The 
costume, that of the times, a wide 
collar turns over the cravat tied in a 
bow-knot j long close-buttoned vest 
with wide covers to the pockets, and 
cut off corners, the left wrist shows the 
full undersleeve gathered into a ruffled 
band ; the long strait coat with wide — 
three inch — button holes ori each side ; 
breeches with five buttons ; square 
buckle on the garter, and high instep- 
ped, low-heeled buckled shoes. In relief 
on the left the claw foot of a low stand 
is seen, over which falls the mantle. 
The face of the base bears the name, 
the west side, "Presented by Massa- 
chusetts, 1876," and on the back the 
artist's name. Samuel Adams, a cousin 
of the second president of the Repub- 
bc, was born in Boston September 22, 
1722 ; died October 2, 1S03. 

New Hampshire is the only New 
Lngland state without representation 
in the National Hall of Statuary, and 
as yet she has taken no action tend- 
ing toward such honor. She has 

enough sons worthy of the tribute, 
and the difficulty of selection may be 
the reason of the neglect ; but so many 
of them found recognition elsewhere, 
that their names are inseparably entwin- 
ed with the fame of their adopted 
states. Win. Pitt Fessenden, Henry 
Wilson, Horace Greeley, Lewis Cass, 
Salmon P. Chase, James Grimes, 
Zach. Chandler, and John A. Dix ; who 
thinks of either as a New Hampshire 
man. They were upbuilders of states 
other than that of their birth; yet 
giving all these away she has sons of 
fame. Who shall she select? In 
asking the question of some scores of 
people — natives of our state, — scarce- 
ly one has failed to offer the name of 
Daniel Webster — for the other no two 
agree — the range extending from Martin 
Pring, the discoverer in 1 603, and Capt. 
John Smith, 16 14, to Dudley Leavitt, 
almanac maker, John P. Hale and 
Nathaniel White. It may be said 
Massachusetts could claim Webster, 
but his service to the nation as the 
great expounder of the Constitution 
far outweighs any such claim, and he 
retained his ancestral patrimony and 
yearly visited his native hills. Frank- 
lin Pierce filled the highest office in 
the nation ; but there is no need to 
select him, as probably ere long the 
new White House of the future, or 
some better place, will gather the 
statues of all the presidents in one 
group. Who? a son of the soil we 
say, though neither Winthrop, Roger 
Williams, Roger Sherman, or Ethan 
Allen, were born in the states that 
honor them. 

We have Meshech Weare, first presi- 
dent of the state under the constitu- 
tion of 1784; Josiah Bartlett, first 
governor under that of 1 792 ; Matthew 
Thornton, president of the convention 
formed on the withdrawal of the royal 
governor Wentworth, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, whose 
life's history is given in his epitaph 
"the honest man"; or farther back, 
Cutt,the first provincial governor, 1680. 
Were it a picture, it might be the re- 
moval of the powder from Fort Inde- 



pendence by night, by Sullivan and 
Langdon, the hundred barrels that 
did service on Bunker's Hill, or the last 
detail of the Revolution, Gen. Poor 
with his New Hampshire raen directed 
by Washington to remain and rake up 
the coals and quench the embers of 
the camp-fires of war at Yorktown, or 
either hero in marble. 

Stark has been mentioned, with the 
supposition added that were he select- 
ed, probably his grand-daughter, Miss 
Charlotte, would willingly present such 
statue to the state or nation. 

What would we honor? There 
were giants later in law and on the 
bench, Mason, Smith, George Sullivan. 
The voices of those best conversant 
with the history of the state, in this 
informal vote, were for John Langdon, 
one of the framers of the constitution, 
United States senator, and four several 
times elected governor of New Hamp- 
shire. The offer of all his wealth, 

three thousand dollars in gold and as 
much in plate, with other goods, in the 
darkest hour of the Revolutionary 
struggle, is a gem of patriotism on the 
crown of New Hampshire that will 
never fade. 

Our voice is for Langdon and Web- 
ster. It were creditable to the state 
to take action in this matter at once, 
and now that the legislature meets but 
once in two years, to ignore the sub- 
ject next session is to wait long. It is 
a matter for much reflection, for most 
deliberate consideration, nor less im- 
portant is it that the commission be 
given to a true as well as competent 
artist, and fit material secured, than 
that the right person be selected for 
the honor. 

We present the subject to the citi- 
zens of New Hampshire, and leave it 
for their candid enlightened thought 
and calm decision. 



There is one incident in Daniel 
Webster's life that I have never seen 
published or heard mentioned since it 
happened. In i S 1 9, 1 think it was that 
year, the U. S. Supreme Court gave 
its decision in the famous Dartmouth 
College case. At the Commencement 
in 1820, Mr. Webster was present and 
addressed the students. At a meeting 
of the Trustees and Faculty a draft of 
five hundred dollars was drawn in favor 
of Mr. Webster. Our President, Dr. 
Francis Erown, was very much out of 
health, and Mr. Webster urged him 
strongly to go south. Dr. Brown re- 
plied that perhaps it would be better to 

do so, but that he was poor and unable 
to bear the expense. Mr. Webster, 
without saying a word in reply, stepped 
to a desk in the room, took from his 
pocket the draft of S500 that had been 
given, indorsed it over to Mr. Brown, 
saying "that will help you, sir." On 
Mr. Brown's attempting to reply, <; not 
a word, my dear sir, not a word, but go 
south and thank God for the means," 
said the, certainly then, " God-like 
Daniel." Mr. Brown did go south, but 
died the same year, in the autumn of 
1820. This one act will balance all 
that the Ghouls are trying to dig up of 
faults in his character. 





\ ■ 

\ / 









Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

MARCH, 18& 


■No. -6. 



John and Nancy (Franklin) Briggs, 
the parents of the subject ot this 
sketch, were of that class of sturdy 
and ambitious working people, who, 
finding themselves unable to overcome 
the difficulties that surrounded them 
in their homes in the old world, have 
had the courage to seek among stran- 
gers in this country a chance to im- 
prove their condition. They were 
factory operatives at Bury, Lancashire 
county, England, where their son, 
James F., was born, October 23, 1827. 
They were intelligent, fairly educated, 
and able to command there such com- 
forts and privileges as are within the 
reach of the best class of skilled work- 
ing men of the British Isles, but the 
reports of broader opportunities and 
better returns for industry and skill in 
America, induced them, in January, 
1829, to emigrate, and after a rough 
voyage of more than seven weeks 
they landed with their small property 
and son in Boston, March 4. Going 
direct to Andover, Mass., the father 
found employment in a woolen factory 
there; but soon after accepted a better 
position in Saugus, and a few months 
later removed to Amesbury, where the 
family lived until 1836. In the fall of 
that year Mr. Briggs, in company with 
two brothers, purchased a woolen mill 
at Holderness, now Ashland, N. H., 
and having established his home near 
by, commenced business on his own 
account in the manufacture of woolen 

The mill was small, the capital in- 
vested in it very limited, and the few 
operatives were mostly members of 
the proprietors' families. Among them 
was the boy James, then a lad nine years 
of- age, who had begun, before the re- 
moval from Massachusetts, to contri- 
bute to the support of the family by 
working with his father in the mill. 
For the next five years he was con- 
tinuously employed in- 'the factory; 
but his leisure time was devoted to 
books, and with the help of his parents^ 
who were disposed to give him every 
advantage in their power, he acquired 
a fair elementary education. The fac- 
tory, upon which the resources of the 
family depended, had prospered dur- 
ing the time, and, at the age of four- 
teen, the boy's ambition was gratified 
by his being sent one term to the 
academy at Newbury, Vt., and subse- 
quently to Tilton. His expenses at 
these institutions were paid from his 
earnings in the mill ; but being an ex- 
pert operative, able to take the wool 
from the fleece and convert it into 
finished cloth, he earned enough to 
meet his bills one or more^terms every 
year until 1848, when he arranged to 
take another important step toward 
the goal of his youthful ambition 
(which was to become a member of 
the bar), by entering the law office of 
Hon. William C. Thompson, at Ply- 
mouth, as a student. But before thk? 
plan could be carried out great afflic- 
tions, which would have forever drs 



couraged most young men, fell upon 
the family. Business reverses over- 
took the partners in the mill, and in 
February the boy's father di rd sud- 
denly, leaving a widow and eight 
children, six of whom were younger 
than James, in destitute circumstances. 
This threw the care of the others 
largely upon him, and compelled him 
to abandon his purpose of going to 
Plymouth and return to cloth making. 
He did not however lose sight for a 
moment of the object he had in view, 
and procuring books from Mr. Thomp- 
son, he read law for a year at such 
times as he was not compelled to 
work at home, when he entered the 
office of Hon. Joseph Burrows, then a 
practicing lawyer at Holderness. 

In 1849 tne family moved to 
Fisherville, in order that the younger 
children might have employment, and 
he completed his studies in the office 
of Judge Butler, from which he was 
admitted to the bar in 1S5L A few 
months later he commenced practice 
at Hillsborough Bridge, whither he 
went a perfect stranger without repu- 
tation, money or business. But he had 
courage, self-reliance, energy, and 
ability. He knew how to live within 
a small income until he could make a 
larger. He had learned how to wait, 
and he was willing to work, and little 
by little he gained acquaintances, 
friends, and clients, who gave him a 
lucrative practice, sought his counsel, 
followed his leadership, and established 
his reputation as the most popular and 
influential man in the town, and one 
of the best lawyers in the state. 

In 1856, 1857, and 1858, he was 
chosen by an almost unanimous vote 
to represent Hillsborough in the legis- 
lature, where he, from the first, occu- 
pied the position of leader of his 
party. In each of these years he was 
a member of the judiciary committee, 
and in the last received his party's 
Domination for the speakership. At 
this time he acted with the democracy, 
and continued to do so until the war 
of the rebellion, when he felt that all 
loyal men should unite to save the 

union and maintain the national au- 
thority ; and having been nominsui 
for councillor by the democracy of 
his district upon a peace at any pries 
platform, he declined the position, aatf 
improved the opportunity to sever his 
connection with the party to whose 
doctrines he could not assent, and 
from that time he Ins been an ardeu: r 
active, reliable republican. 

When the eleventh regiment was 
being recruited, he tendered his ser- 
vices to the governor of the state, an i 
was assigned to duty as quartermaster 
on the staff of Col. Hani man. 

In this capacity he served through 
the battles about Fredericksburg, the 
military operations in Kentucky, and 
the Mississippi river expeditions for 
about a year, when he was prostrated 
by the malaria of the southern swamps, 
and compelled to resign and return to 
his home in Hillsborough. D irln? 
his absence in the field and ihe illness 
succeeding his return, his business had 
drifted to other hands, and on recover- 
ing his health he decided to begin 
anew in a wider field, in Manchester, 
to which city he remDved in 187 1, and 
formed a partnership with Hon. 
Henry H. Huse, wlvch still exists. 

Manchester gave him a cardial 
welcome. Her mill opcra'ives and 
other mechanics I him as an 
honored graduate uf their school, who 
in his after triumphs had never forgotten 
the hard road by which he had jour- 
neyed to success. Her lawyers and 
clients were well acquainted with his 
professional abilities. Her soldiers 
recognized him as an old companion 
in arms, and her politicans as an ear- 
nest republican who could and would 
be a tower of strength in every cam- 
paign. Under these circumstances he 
did not have to wait for business or 
political preferment. Soon after open- 
ing his office he was appointed city 
solicitor, and in 1874 he was elected 
to the legislature from Ward 3. Two 
years later he was chosen senator from 
the Manchester district, and in the 
same year was elected to the Constitu- 
tional Convention. In all these posi- 



dons he acquitted himself so as to 
*jn friends and admirers, and in 1877 
he was nominated for congress without 
substantial opposition, and elected by 
a large majority. At the expiration of 
his first term he was unanimously re- 
nominated, and after an exciting cam- 
paign was reelected by a majority of 
eight hundred and forty-nine over the 
combined greenback and democratic 
vote. Two years afterward it became 
a question whether he should be re- 
turned. The traditions and prejudices 
of the district were strongly against a 
third term. Four other able, ambi- 
tious and popular men were anxious to 
succeed him, and he declined to push 
for the nomination ; but he accepted a 
call to take the stump in Maine, leav- 
ing it for the party to determine 
whether it was wise to place his name 
upon the ticket. To one of his friends 
who wrote him that he ought to return 
and attend to the canvass, he replied, 
" I am assured that I can be of con- 
siderable service here, and as it is of 
vastly more importance that the cause 
shall triumph in this state next Monday 
than that I shall be renominated, I 
must remain and trust to you and 
others to decide whether it is best to 
send me back to Washington. What- 
ever that decision may be, I shall be 

The convention met just after the 
disastrous defeat of the party in 
Maine, and when it appeared that there 
was only a desperate chance for its 
nominee to be elected. It decided 
that if any man could succeed he 
could, and a few days after he fjok 
the stump. Manchester, which was 
counted a doubtful city, when the con- 
vention assembled, gave him more 
than eight hundred majority, and the 
rest of the district swelled this to 
fourteen hundred and eighty. In 18S2, 
Mr. Briggs was strongly urged by 
many of the leading men ot the dis- 
trict to accept a renomination, but he 
judged that the party would be stronger 
with a new candidate, and declined to 
allow his name to be used. He how- 
ever accepted a nomination to the 

state legislature from his ward in 
Manchester, and will be a member of 
the House that assembles in June. 

In congress Mr. Briggs has from the 
first been a faithful, hard-working mem- 
ber, and during the last four years has 
wielded a great influence. He is 
always ready to do his share of the 
committee work, always present to vote 
and sure to vote right : is tireless in 
serving his constituents, especially the 
veteran soldiers, and conscientiously 
and zealously devoted to the discharge 
of all his duties. In the forty-fifth 
congress he was a member of the com- 
mittee on patents ; in the forty-sixth, 
of that on naval affairs, and in the 
present, the forty-seventh, is chairman 
of the committee on expenditures in 
the war department, and a member of 
the judiciary, civil service reform, and 
several special committees. He suc- 
ceeds in Washington as he did at 
home, by quiet, patient, persistent work, 
which brings about substantial results 
rather than momentary sensations. 
No member of the House commands 
more perfectly the confidence of his 
associates, and few if any have more 
influence upon legislation. 

Committee reports bearing his name 
have generally been accepted as de- 
termining the questions involved, and 
his few speeches have been extensive- 
ly republished as complete justifica- 
tions of the parties whose views he 
has defended. This was notably true 
of his speeches on the Southern 
Election Frauds, the National Bank- 
ing System, and the Knit Goods bill. 
His tribute to the memory of his col- 
league in the House and tent-mate in 
the army, the late Major Farr, attracted 
wide attention as a model of graceful 
eulogy. During the present session, 
he has been prominent as a leader of 
those who have insisted upon the abo- 
lition or material reduction of the tax 
on sugar. 

Mr. Briggs is a man of splendid 
physique, tall, broad-shouldered and 
well-proportioned. In his boyhood 
he was too poor and too busy to in- 
dulge in any of the dissipations which 



often undermine the constitutions of 
more favored youths, and the temperate 
habits he then formed have greatly 
augmented and preserved his capacity 
for work. At fifty-five he has the 
vigor, the endurance, and the strength 
of forty. He is a ready writer, and 
his success at the bar, upon the stump, 
and in the halls of legislation, attest 
his great power as a speaker. He 
does not delight in rhetorical out- 
bursts, but he has the faculty of hold- 
ing the attention of an audience for 
hours, and his speeches bear reading 
and reproduction. He owns a large 
and well selected library, with whose 
pages he is familiar, and every occa- 
sion finds him well-equipped for the 
defense of his opinions. 

His wife was Roxana Smith, daughter 
of Obadiah and Eliza M. Smith, of 
New Hampton, who still presides over 
his attractive home. To her unweary- 
ing devotion, quiet courage and never- 
failing good sense, he doubtless owes 
much of his success in life. They 
have three children, a son who was 
educated at West Point, and was for 
several years a lieutenant in the regu- 
lar army, but is now engaged in mer- 
cantile business in New Jersey ; and 
two daughters, one of whom is Mrs. 
George Tewksbury, of Topeka, Kansas, 
and the other a student at Vassal col- 
lege. In concluding this brief sketch 
it may not be out of place for the 
author, who has known Mr. Briggs 
long and intimately, to make some 
direct reference to the qualities of 
head and heart which characterize 
him in every relation in life. Promi- 
nent among these are his perfect fidel- 
ity, industry, courage, and thorough- 
ness. It is natural for him to be true, 

impossible for him to be false. He is 
ambitious, and few prize more highly 
the honors they win ; but he is incapa- 
ble of the duplicity and trickery by 
which some men succeed. His faith- 
fulness to his convictions does not 
count cost or query about consequences 
to himself. He is a stanch and true 
friend as ever lived, and he never 
cheats those whom he dislikes or de- 
spises. His devotion to his family is. 
far-reaching and untiring. He is a 
public-spirited citizen, a kind neighbor 
and a pleasant companion. He is 
always approachable, patient and con- 
siderate. In every cause in which he 
enlists he is a hard worker and a free 
giver. He knows how to wait and 
how to look beyond temporary reverses 
to the complete triumph which he 
believes will crown and establish the 
right. He never frets and never rests 
until the result is secure. His private 
life is without a stain, and the fierce 
light of the hottest campaigns has dis- 
closed no shadow of a blot upon his 
public record. His sympathies are 
with the people, and his head and 
hands are controlled by his heart. 
These qualities, directing and support- 
ing his great natural strength of mind 
and body, have made James F. Briggs 
what he is. 

They have supplied the place of early 
advantages, influential friends and for- 
tune. They have carried him from the 
woolen mill, working for a few cents a 
day, to the national house of represent- 
atives, commissioned to speak and 
act for the largest and richest district 
in New Hampshire. They have made 
him successful at the bar, popular at 
the polls, and influential in congress. 






One evening, while taking a walk, 
she entered the church of Santa Croce. 
It seemed to her that in the midst of 
the remains of the great men of her 
country she would find inspiration, 
light and peace ; but she became lost 
in a deep revery, and found only chaos 
in her mind and heart. Suddenly, on 
turning around one of the arches, near 
a basin of holy water, she saw Marcel 
in an attitude of profound thought. 
He saw her at the same moment, their 
eyes met, and they stood as if lami- 
nated by an apparition. At this time 
the church was almost empty ; a few 
stragglers were finishing their prayers, 
crossing themselves and putting on 
their sandals upon the lettered marble, 
where each ray of light shone upon the 
name of some celebrated man. 'The 
candles added their feeble glimmer to 
the twilight, and the hour was propitious 
for avowals, questions and imprudent 
words. Both had them upon their 
lips. He passionate words of love ; 
she questions of himself, his object 
and his aims. They hesitated, and 
their eyes revealed their hesitation. 
Lucrecia had a presentiment of dan- 
ger ; still she did not distrust her 
strength, having never been tempted ; 
but in the presence of Marcel's love, 
she was instinctively afraid. She low- 
ered her head and moved away a few 
steps. Marcel did not dare to follow 
her. Meanwhile he stretched out his 
hand to offer her the holy water. 
Lucrecia returned and dipped her 
fingers. Their hands met, and for a 
brief moment were clasped ; but by 
an enegetic movement she drew her's 
away, and bowing, rapidly left the 

by f. w. R. 

That evening she was more agitated 
than usual, and she decided not to go 
to the house of Monsieur D. ; but the 
resolution cost her a strong effort, and 
the whole evening was spent in think- 
ing of Capellani. 

"What was he doing at Santa Croce? 
Did he follow me there? No; his 
astonishment was too real. Was he 
praying? Was he searching for some 
inscription? Is he a Christian? Is 
he a scholar, an antiquary, or an artist?" 
She could not get out of this circle of 

The next day she dined with the 
Marquise Malespini, and was. surprised 
at meeting Marcel there. But on no- 
ticing that the guests were few, she 
could not suppress a feeling of pleasure. 
She could now talk to this man freely, 
and solve the problem without danger. 
The conversation was animated, lively, 
and every way charming. A thousand 
subjects were introduced which were 
interdicted in larger gatherings. Lu- 
crecia became very bold. She spoke 
of Napoleon, and asked of the minis- 
ter how he had won his cross ? 

"They say Napoleon gave it to you 
himself. Is it true?" added the Mar- 

"Yes, madame, at Austerlitz," he 

" It is a fine thing, Monsieur, to have 
won this cross upon the field of bat- 
tle," replied Lucrecia. "To be notic- 
ed by such a commander as Napoleon 
one must be courageous indeed !" 

Marcel smiled and shrugged his 
shoulders as if it had been a small 
affair for him. "I was eighteen years 
old then," said he ; "at that age, when 
one is born in a country without laws ; 
where each has his own destiny to 



carve out, and when one has been 
brought up in the midst of a revolu- 
tion, the watchword of which is 'au- 
dacity !' one doubts nothing and does 
prodigies. In moments of political 
excitement, if a young man wishes to 
distinguish himself, he can astonish 
the world. This is the reign of enthu- 
siasm and the era of heroes ; but at 
forty, one looks at these things in a 
different light." 

"At forty, one is no longer capable 
of heroic acts of devotion then?" 

"At forty, one knows too much. 
Heroism comes only from two sources, 
the healthy ignorance of youth, or the 
supreme forgetfulness of all human in- 
terests. In order to sacrifice at one 
blow all earthly joys, one must either 
not know them or despise them, be a 
child or a Christian." 

After this reply Lucrecia did not 
dare to descend from the high plane 
to which he had carried the conversa- 
tion, to personal questions. In place 
of finding this man out, the more she 
searched the more undecided she be- 
came whether to admire or contemn 
him. He was unlike any type which 
her imag'nation had ever created. 
Meanwhile he had made an impression 
so deep that all the ideal characters 
to whom for twenty years she had been 
faithful were effaced. 

At this mom.nt her curiosity was 
excited to the highest degree. She 
felt a terrible {^v<:r of excitement in 
her veins. With a sudden and invol- 
untary gesture she motioned Marcel 
to follow her into a neighboring room. 

"What ! monsieur," she cried in an 
angry tone, as if to protest against 
the dizziness which was overcoming 
her, "what ! is there nothing true, 
nothing beautiful, nothing good in the 
world ! Nobility of heart, you say, is a 
question of age ! Devotion belongs 
only to youth or old age ! But there 
are Frenchmen who were at Saint 
Helma— " 

She interrupted herself, and did not 
finish this burning torrent ; but her 
audacity quickly returned. 

"What do you think of the insur- 
gents?" she asked brusquely. 

"Madame, greatness is no longer 
where you seek it. You are many cen- 
turies behind our civilization. The 
people who are killed are useless to 
others. Life quickly teaches that to 
one who will open his eves." 

A sudden and violent anger, a 
hatred, and a terrible desire for revenge 
came over Lucrecia, who lest all con- 
trol of herself. 

" Yes. you are right ! It is easier 
to let others be killed, and to use their 
dead bodies as stepping stones to 
power, is it not so?" replied she in a 
trembling voice. " Monsieur Capellani, 
I see you have passed the age when 
one has a heart, and that you under- 
stand, only too well, our modern civil- 
ization !" And with a swift movement 
she pulled out the red ribbon which 
decorated his button -hole. Scarcely 
had she done this rude act than the 
minister clasped her passionately in 
his arms. 

How did it happen that Lucrecia 
did not tear herself awav, indignant 
and furious? How did it happen that 
she did not cry out in teniMe anger? 
But with a ringing in her brain and a 
mist before her eves, she allowed her- 
self to fall into Capellani's arms, and 
received his ardent kisses without an 
effort to get away. A minute passed 
there, a minute which seemed like a 
dream, when an hour later she found 
herself alone in her chamber. 

Never had the idea of such a weak- 
ness occurred to her ; never had she 
thought that she could, in an instant, 
forget all her promises, and losing all 
control of herself, fall under the power 
of an unknown force. When they 
used to speak of the power of the 
passions over our feeble hearts, she 
would smile contemptuously ; but this 
evening an abyss yawned before her, 
and the terror which seized her was 
so much the greater as the cause of it 
was new. 

The night which followed was one 
of agony. While she accused and 
cursed herself, and could not find 



«ord.s to express her hatred and con- 
tempt for Marcel, she was overcome 
by the fury of her passion as by a 
terrible storm. With bare feet and 
trembling lips, she walked up and 
down her chamber with rapid steps, 
enable to find repose, or to calm her 
notation by fatigue. She was beauti- 
ful and vet frightful, like Eumenides 
of old ; but right in the midst of an 
imprecation, a gleam of happmess 
would come into her eyes and a sweet 
smile to her lips. One would have 
wid she had lost her reason. 

The morning air calmed her a little, 
and her features again took their severe 
expression, when she looked over the 
situation. She immediately aroused 
her servants and gave orders to pre- 
pare for departure ; wrote a parting 
letter to the marquise, and a few hours 
later fhe heaw doors of her palace at 
Pistoja closed behind her. 

Monsieur Rospiglio-i called upon 
her in the evening. He noticed that 
she spoke of her affairs with much 
more detail than usual ; of the life at 
Florence and a thousand unimportant 
things, and he was astonished at this 
vivacity ; at the pains which she evi- 
dentlv took to forget herself. She 
was detracted and preoccupied. The 
bishop had never seen her thus, and 
he tried to probe this mind whose 
strange powers and grandeur he well 
knew ; but Lucrecia. after some vague 
words upon the mistakes of the human 
heart, and curious follies of the imag- 
ination, shut herself up in an impene- 
trable silence. 

Since she had reached home, and 
was far from the danger, she tried .to 
forget even the temptntion. Her pride 
was thoroughly aroused, and she fear- 
ed to avow her fall. During the first 
few days Lucrecia expected the arrival 
of Marcel at Pistoja, and gave strict 
orders not to admit him to the house ; 
but he did not come. At fust she 
felt a great relief, but as the days pass- 
ed a strange anger crept over her. 

"So !" she cried, "this man did not 
We me ! It was but a passing fancy ; 
^he caprice of an evening. 'Because I 

forgot myself, he has punished roe by 
an insulting kiss, and that caused the 
passion which filled mv entire being, 
and does still. Oh ! shame ! shame I 
eternal shame !" 

Meanwhile, her excitement did not 
go away. It filled her heart, it charm- 
ed and fascinated her. With all her 
will power, and all her strength of 
character, she could not resist it. She 
passed from one extreme to the other, 
from strength to weakness. The Mar- 
quise Malespini returned to Pistoja. 
At the announcement of her arrival, 
Lucrecia could not control her emo- 
tion. "She will come to see me J 
Will she speak of him?" This ques- 
tion haunted her. But she resolved 
not to speak his name, and to use 
every effort to avoid saying any thing 
which would lead the marquise to speak 
of him. 

This struggle lasted five days, dur- 
ing which she suffered agony ; but at 
last the marquise uttered t!'? terrible 
name. Lucrecia devoured every 
word, and learned that Marcel had left 
Florence two days after her own de- 
parture. Strange enough, this news 
instead of calming her, only added 
fuel to the flame, and her passion be- 
came stronger than before. It was 
because she no longer had any choice, 
and could not succumb to the tempta- 
tion if she wished. Before, she had 
said " If I wish, I can be at Florence in 
a few hours, and see him again, but I 
will not give up to this folly. I will 
be as faithful as a Roman matron. I 
will wait for Palandra if I die at my 
post!" Now that she knew he had 
gone, and that she loved but a memory, 
she was filled with passionate regret. 
"This opportunity which was presented 
me I did not seize," she thought, "and 
now I have lost happiness forever!" 
As soon as she regained control of 
herself she spumed with horror all 
thoughts of regret ; but they returned 
ceaselessly, and each time more bit- 
terly. In fact she could no longer 
Temain at Pistoja, for even the name 
of Captllani, which frequently came 



into the conversation, threw her into a 
transport of sadness. 

She went to her country house in' 
the mountains, and shut herself up 
there. She read her old authors, and 
in searching for the strong and healthy 
impressions of her childhood, evoked 
all her ideas of duty and of honor. 
In order to overcome this love, she 
thought of her husband, of the dangers 
he had gone through, the martyrdom 
he was suffering, the nobility of his 
character ; she gave him a thous- 
and brilliant and poetical qualities. 
Her imagination made him a hero, 
and she wrote two or three enthusiastic 
letters, which were almost loving. 
But hardly had she begun to triumph 
over her dangerous feelings, than a 
longing more ardent than the previous 
ones seized her, and she threw to the 
wind all her good resolutions, and 
fell back once more into the torment 
of an unsatisfied love. 

"Yes," she said after innumerable 
failures, "I am a coward ! I am ruined ! 
and I, who despised such weakness. 
Where is my courage ! The wife of an 
hero, of a martyr ! I have allowed a 
stranger, a courtier, to gain all -my love; 
but when I think of this man, I ask my- 
self if it is love or hate I feel for him. 
Of what weakness am I capable? But 
I will do my duty ! I will stifle this 
feeling, whatever it is, and then I will 
go and join the insurgents. It is idle- 
ness which has caused my fall." 

A somber fire shone in her deep 
black eyes, and she trembled violently 
as she walked with rapid steps up and 
down the vast halls where the echoes 
repeated her anguished cries. Sud- 
denly she stopped in her furious walk 
and made a terrible oath, as if to bind 
herself forever, and to place an insur- 
mountable barrier in the way of her 
rebellious heart. 

Hardly had she done this when 
the door opened and a young peasant 
walked in, bringing her a bouquet of 
flowers. She took them and looked 
thoughtfully at the boy while thanking 

-"Do you know that you are quite 
large?" she said. "You are nearly as 
tali as I am, and" 

She broke off abruptly ; an idea 
came to her like a flash. "If I could 
borrow his clothes? If I could go 
alone, disguised, to Florence, or to 
Lucca, I could follow Capellani, and 
find out what sort of a life he leads, 
what his object is, and what he is 
thinking of." 

She overcame the temptation, but 
this insane desire to see him would 
not leave her. She even found 
sophisms to excuse her folly. 

" No doubt if I were near him, I 
should learn to hate him," she said to 
herself, "perhaps I should then get 
rid of this odious passion." 

Toward evening Lucrecia went 
into her vineyard. Her agitation 
was so intense that she could not rest. 
It was one of those beautiful Italian 
evenings of which a Neapolitan em- 
bassador at London has said : 

"You have beautiful sunlight here ; 
it is much like the light of the moon 
in my country." 

She descended, one by one, the 
terraces of her garden, which was on 
the slope of the mountain ; among 
the trees loaded with olives, pome- 
granates and peaches, among the 
vines and figs. Now and then 
she sat down upon the low terrace 
wol's, and plucked the great white 
lilies which climbed among the bushes, 
or the roses which grew in tangled mass- 
es all over the terraced ground. Then 
she would get up and continue her 
walk, trying to repress her tumultuous 
thoughts, and praying for peace. 
When she reached the last terrace she 
stopped, undecided whether to go 
into the country or return. There was 
a lane between her vineyard and a 
great forest of olive trees, and as she 
stood thinking, two lovers passed, 
their arms encircling each other. 
Lucrecia stepped back as though she 
had seen a Gorgon. 

"There are two who love each 
other," she murmured, and her voice 
trembled with anguish. 



She turned out of the path and 
tore through the trees at random, 
breaking the low branches, crushing 
the flowers under her feet, and scratch- 
ing herself on the thorns. She cursed 
life, virtue, Palandra and Marcel in the 
same breath. 

"What! ami condemned to live 
and die thus?" she cried in an im- 
perious voice. "Is there not one 
hour of happiness for me? My youth 
has passed like a dream. It seems to 
me I have not lived, and meanwhile I 
see old age coming on ; days, months, 
years roll by, and the time will soon 
be past in which I can choose ; but 
what am I saying? can I choose? am 
I loved? No! no! I am not! I 
have not even the merit of having re- 
sisted ! It was not my strength which 
saved me, but his abandonment ; for, 
if he had followed me, if he would 
come now " 

At this moment she thought she 
saw Marcel not three paces away, and 
the apparition, as she believed it to be, 
recalled her to herself, and she fled as 
fast as her feet would carry her. 

"Have I come to this?" she cried. 
"'I! I! wish to have him return? 
Have 1 fallen so low?" 

She returned to her house and went 
to bed, wishing she might fall asleep 
and never wake again. " If I could 
only die," she thought, " the question 
would be settled, and I should be faith- 
ful to my vows. But she could not 
close her eyes, and after long feverish 
hours, she got up and went down into 
the garden again to cool her heated brow. 
While the most strenuous resolutions 
occupied her mind, her steps turned 
mechanically toward the path where 
she had seen the lovers ; she followed 
it, urged on by a blind desire to see 
them, to put her feet in the same tracks 
they had trod in, as if to gain a little 
of their happiness. 

Then she turned among the olive 
trees. This was one of those vast 
forests which are so common in this 
part of Tuscany ; a forest the branches 
of which hung low under the weight 
of millions of olives. The ground 

was covered with thick grass like a 
carpet ; here and there the moon pen- 
etrated in little diamonds and odd 
shapes, and silvered the gray leaves of 
the trees ; the fire-flies filled the air, 
and seemed in the darkness like danc- 
ing stars. Not a sound disturbed the 
deep and majestic •silence. 

After walking a long time she sat 
down on the roots of an old tree and 
looked around her. Little by little a 
profound melancholy took the place 
of despair ; an infinite sadness filled 
her heart ; her nerves gave way and 
she wept. She wept, and thought as 
the warm tears fell on her hand, that 
these were the first she had ever shed. 
She wept for her lost youth. The 
days spent at Florence were the only 
ones in which she had really lived, and 
she had not been conscious of it. 
"Those happy hours are gone," she 
thought, "those hours during which I 
lived the life of one beloved, and I 
did not appreciate them then. I was 
astonished and did not understand. 
I did not know that they were to be 
the only ones in my life, and that the 
next day I would give my life for their 

Low sobs shook her frame, and her 
head dropped into her hands, and she 
said to herself, "what does it matter? 
I never shall see him again, I must 
stifle his very memory. Oh ! how 
cowardly I am !" 

A movement near her caused her to 
look up quickly, and there at her feet 
was Marcel. She cried out in surprise 
and fright. 

"It is I!" said he; "Lucrecia, do 
not be afraid !" 

She sprang up and cried " Monsieur [" 

But her voice died in her throat, 
and she fell without resistance into his 
arms. Their eyes met and it seemed 
as though she would read his soul in 
his eyes, but neither uttered a word. 

After a blissful silence of some 
moments, Capellani said, "This is not 
a childish folly. I am too old for 
such things ; this is the last love of 
. my life and the only one. From the 
first I have loved you with the most 



complete love, and I have felt you 
would love me. I have looked over my 
past and my future, and compared the 
happiness of power with that of love. 
At thirty I should have chosen power ; 
to-day I prefer love, such as you and 
I can ft^i:}. I know all human joys, 
and there is but one of them real." 

"I thought," ventured Lucrecia, 
"that you had a political mission." 

" I had one, but have none now," 
replied he. " Europe is to-day defi- 
nitely constructed. The Duke of 
Reichstadt will never be any thing ex- 
cept the son of the archduchess of 
Austria. 1 love power and that was 
why I stayed at Florence. It was a 
luxury for me to feel myself stronger 
than the liberals who died in the name 
of an impracticable idea, and who, in 
their enthusiasm suffered more slavery 
in order to conquer a chimerical 
liberty. I have reached that age when 
one must seize the opportunities as 
they pass, for. they do not return next 
day. I wish to realize true happiness — 
that which exists by itself, outside of 
all conventionalities, and without car- 
ing for the opinions of others. I wish 
to devote to this happiness what re- 
mains to me of youth and faith, and 
that is why I am here. That is why 
I wished to see you alone, and far 
from ail that could call you to pretend- 
ed duties. Lucrecia, I have spoken 
thus to you because the bonds which 
bound me to the world are severed, 
and I am free, and am yours forever." 

Lucrecia still struggled, but she had 
long been conquered. Honor, respect 
for her oath, both protested in her 
heart against the victorious passion ; 
but she could find no means of resist- 
ance, and perhaps if she had found 
them she would have rejected them, 
because of all the thoughts which 
filled her agitated mind, the most ter- 
rible was the fear of losing him a 
second time. 

They abandoned themselves to a 
delicious intoxication, while the hours 
rolled by, one by one, and while the 
twinkling stars disappeared in the blue 
heavens. Now they walked slowly, 

bending the low branches of the trees, 
the sound of their footsteps deadened 
by the thick grass, murmuring softly 
at intervals ; now they hurried along 
the dusty road, tearing the flowers 
from the bushes and throwing them to 
the winds with joyous cries. They 
seemed in a sort of enchanted world. 

"What a night ! Is this not supreme 
happiness?" they exclaimed. "Ah 1 
if it would only last for ever !" 

But the first rays of the sun already 
shot through the thick branches, and 
a line of light in the horizon showed 
the silhouette of the mountains ; it was 
day, and this was the end. 


After this there was no more strug- 
gle nor care. They did not separate, 
for theirs was a complete love, which 
sought neither for secrecy nor for in- 
dulgence. If her fall was great, it 
was proudly borne. Without change, 
without transition, they saw their aus- 
tere Countess Pahndra, whom they 
had admired at a distance as a heroine 
worihy of Rome, suddenly give herself 
up to a stranger, an ally of their 
oppressor, and ride out proudly with 
him in her carriage. It was a sad sur- 
prise for Pistoja — a sort of public 
bereavement. Not that in Italy 
opinion stigmatizes these faults as we 
do : but because the beautiful girl was 
surrounded by the prestige that the 
Italians accord to their illustrious citi- 
zens. She was the " Pistojian muse," 
and also the "goddess Lucrecia." 

The Marquise Malespini and her 
friends did not fail to blame her, but 
they did not cry out against her, and 
all continued to receive Marcel as 
before. Monsieur Rospigliosi prayed 
for her, and all trembled when they 
thought of Palandra's return. 

Meanwhile Lucrecia was happy; 
drinking with deep draughts the cup 
of love ; forgetting the future, enjoy- 
ing only the present, without regard 
for those around her. No one ever 
surprised a look of shame or remorse 
on her haughty brow ; but if the priest 
who had scrutinized her thoughts from 



childhood, had seen her, when, after 
her return from Pistoja, and when 
alone in her parlor, she stopped before 
Palandra's portrait, he would have 
comprehended from the somber ex- 
pression of her eyes, the clinching of 
her hands, and the broken words which 
escaped her, that she had taken a ter- 
rible resolution. 

But she kept on, adrift in life, and 
enjoying it to its full, with an abandon- 
ment of which she had had no concep- 
tion, even in the passionate dreams of 
her childhood. This was one of those 
loves which time binds together with 
chains of happiness, to which each 
day rivets a year more. By what 
mysterious affinity were these two souls 
so indissolubly bound? How had 
these two minds, apparently so oppo- 
site, been joined together? Was this 
one of those loves born of hate which 
are stronger than all others? Who 
knows ? 

Since she had found Marcel, 
Lucrecia stayed less at Pistoja ; some- 
times she lived at Florence, the city 
more indulgent to errors like hers, 
where lovers expose their wrongful 
happiness without a blush. Capellani 
had purchased a palace at Florence 
and a villa in the mountains of Pistoja, 
and more than once this humble cot- 
tage, hidden by running vines and 
olive trees, received the lovers, and 
saw the proud Lucrecia, with the 
Etruscan face and the bearing of a 
goddess, throw off her lace covering 
and bearing her beautiful shoulders to 
the night wind, tie the purple clusters 
in her black hair; bite, with her white 
teeth the hard pomegranates and give 
the- fruit she had tasted to Marcel, 
while laughing like a child. 

One morning, when she awoke at 
dawn, she had an insane desire to go 
and surprise Marcel ; to appear like 
an apparition at his door. These 
strange fancies seized her now and 
then with irresistible power. This was 
her youth, so long held in bonds, 
which broke forth suddenly in loving 
transports. She got up and dressed 
hurriedly, and went down over the 

terraces, ran across the fields through 
the grass, her feet catching in her 
dress, and bending her head to avoid 
the low branches. It was not far to his 
villa, and she soon reached the steps 
which led to his chamber. She went 
up sbwly, singing like a bird let loose 
from paradise ; opened his door, and 
threw a handful of dewy roses in his 
face. He awoke in time to see her 
throw off her hat and run toward him, 
her eyes shining with pleasure, and 
her cheeks and lips glowing from the 
fresh air. 

"Come! let us go !" said she. "Get 
up quickly, lazy one ! How can you 
sleep ? The sun is high ; the air is 
pure and fresh, and the flowers fill it 
with sweet perfume ; the trees hang 
low with fruit, and the birds are sing- 
ing in the branches. This is the most 
beautiful season of the year, and this 
the most perfect day. Let us go and 
run over the fields. Come ! come ! 
our days of happiness are numbered ; 
we are alone and we are tree !" 

They breakfasted under the trees in 
front of the house, on figs and wine ; 
while the sun peeped laughingly at 
them through the vines, and the birds 
overhead sang their morning song. 
Then they went into the fields like 
children let loose from school, running 
until out of breath, and then throwing 
themselves down to enjoy their happi- 

"Grand dieu / what happiness!" 
cried Marcel. " Do we have to pay 
for such joy? And I have gray hair. 
What a situation for one of Napoleon's 
old captains, for an old minister ! 
Have 1 lost my head? Perhaps so — 
but heaven grant I may never find it ! " 

It became warm, and they searched 
for a deeper and cooler shade than 
that of the olive trees ; and found, 
half hidden by running vines, a cavern 
or grotto in the side of the mountain. 
They welcomed it with shouts of glad- 
ness and merriment, and spent the 
warm hours of the day in delicious 
happiness in its cool shadows. 

Before leaving, they looked around 
the cavern as if to fasten every feature 



of it indelibly in their minds. The 
walls were in places discolored by 
smoke, and they read some Latin and 
Italian lines, roughly cut in the stone. 
Some were pious sentences, others re- 
publican couplets ; verses from Dante, 
breathing love in every word, mingled 
with the words of Brutus. A few 
attracted their attention, and cast a 
cloud over their happiness. 

" God alone is great ! " said one 
line. While Marcel was lost in. thought 
before this line, which seemed like an 
aerolite from heaven, Lucrecia trem- 
bled while reading a maxim of Jean 
Paul Richter's. 

" Do you believe that the rock of 
Saint Marin is the smallest of repub- 
lics? There is a smaller one still, 
where liberty reigns, and you carry it 
with you, if you have no heart." 

They walked slowly and thoughtfully 
down the mountain side, but the sun was 
too bright and their hearts too full of 
love to remain sad for long, and before 
they reached the bottom they had re- 
gained their happiness. 

Should they return to Capellani's 
villa? or should they go farther? They 
did not know, and did not care. 
Their souls flew on tireless wings in 
the ether of happiness, and beside 
the warm hours of the day had passed ; 
the sun had dipped below the horizon, 
and the shadows lengthened across 
the little lakes whose surfaces were 
gilded by the last soft rays. They 
followed the road, stopping now and 
then to pick a flower or a pome- 
granate, to gather a cluster of tempt- 
ing grapes, or explore some dark nook. 
What vows of faith and fidelity ! 
What sweet kisses under wide spread- 
ing boughs ! 

" What a day ! what a day ! " they 
often exclaimed. Joy overflowed in 
their hearts, and they would have 
made all the world happy had they 
the power. Toward evening, after the 
ange/us, they stopped for a moment 
in a little village to watch the crowd 
coming out of a church, singing the 
last lines of a chant, and dispersing in 
all directions. 

Soon the groups disappeared, and 
all was quiet. It was the hour of 
twilight, neither day nor night ; the 
sun, which had disappeared behind 
the mountains, left the clouds in great 
billowy masses of gold and scarlet ; 
but the moon was rising, and the last 
glimmer of day scarcely struggled 
against its rays. 

They approached the little church 
and looked curiously around. Under 
the porch there were tombs, and 
mechanically they read the inscrip- 

Guiseppe Veraci. 

Thirty years of age. 

He lived a life of love. 

" What a beautiful epitaph ! " said 

" But who wrote it? " replied Marcel, 
sadly. " Guiseppe's betrothed, per- 

He added, in an agitated voice, 
"Ah ! Lucrecia, does death then sep- 
arate lovers like you and me? I pray 
heaven I may never have to write 
your epitaph ! " 

Lucrecia shuddered, and looking at 
Marcel with loving eyes, replied : 

" What does it matter if you can 
write ' she lived a life of love ! ' " 

Night had now fallen and they felt 
fatigued, but were ignorant of their 
whereabouts. They went on, and 
finally came to a poor little inn, where 
they asked for supper, and were served 
with one which their sharp appetites 
alone rendered palatable. Often, 
afterward, they recalled this supper, 
eaten so merrily in this village inn. 
They said a thousand absurd things ; 
sat long at the table, continually repeat- 
ing, " what a day ! what a day ! " 

During the next two years their cup 
of joy was filled to the brim. They 
lived at Florence and at Pistoja ; lived a 
life such as is vouchsafed to few mor- 
tals — a life devoted to love. 

Whenever she returned to Pistoja, 
her admirers hurried to see her. They 
loved her so much that they did not 
dare regret, seeing her so happy, that 
she had fallen from the pedestal where 



they had placed her. They either 
forgot it or got used to it : they even 
raved Capellani, because here, intel- 
lectual power commands respect and 
admiration. Beside, the love which 
filled Lucrecia's heart had completely 
transformed her ; she appeared in all 
the splendor of her radiant beauty, all 
the verve of her powerful mind, all 
the maturity of her talents, and all the 
luxury for which her large fortune 
gave her the materials. 

Her palace, with its marble floors, 
its vestibule filled by liveried valets, 
its parlors paved with mosaics, its 
ceilings painted by Vasan, its walls 
ornamented with stucco work and gold, 
opened its doors each evening to the 
aristocracy of Pistoja. Dressed in 
velvets, cashmeres or silks, she looked 
like a queen ; and never had she 
spoken with so much eloquence, nor 
sung with so much enthusiasm. She 
was no longer a noble and cold statue, 
with ample and severe clothing; she 
was a living, palpitating woman, whose 
eyes shone with joy, and from whose 
red lips fell, with divine tones, the 
words and songs of love. She covered 
herself with thread lace and twisted 
pearls and gold in her beautiful black 
hair ; and when she heard murmurs 
of admiration around her, she trem- 
bled with pleasure, saying to herself, 
" Marcel is there, and he will see and 
hear me admired." 

Her parlors were filled, as of old, 
by titled ladies and learned men, only 
too happy to exchange, under the in- 
fluence of such a radiant patron, their 
discoveries or their ideas ; of lovers, 
wno could never lose sight of her ; 
some resigned to their fate, and others 
hurrying on to meet theirs ; but all 
waiting for Capellani's fall, as a signal 
for their triumph. Among others, the 
sad face of Tosinghi, who seemed to 
haunt this brilliant circle like a re- 
proachful phantom. 

One day, on the occasion of one of 
the great festivals, Lucrecia was re- 
quested to play the organ at San 
Spirito. She had often played this 
celebrated organ in her youth, and her 

splendid touch brought out all the 
sweetness of its tones, and they came 
from far and near to hear her. Then, 
she despised in her heart the harmoni- 
ous chords of the sacred chants, and 
the religious ceremonies of the faith- 
ful ; but now she found an unknown 
beauty in them, which she accepted. 

On this day. in spite of the attrac- 
tions elsewhere, the crowd pressed 
toward the church of San Spirito. While 
Luciecia was playing the prelude to 
the celebrated mass of Palestrim, 
Capellani came in with the Marquise 
Malespini, and knelt near her. He 
was moved, and trembled as if he 
were about to perceive Lucrecia in a 
new character. Around him he heard 
her name pass from mouth to mouth, 
and the first notes of the organ min- 
gled with the incense in the air. He 
looked at the brilliant spectacle ; the 
costumes, the clergy; he breathed the 
delicious perfumes ; he listened to the 
rustle of the silks as the ladies 
knelt and rose; the low. chant of the 
choir ; the sweet voices of children, 
and when, in the midst of it all, 
he heard the vibrating notes of the 
grand old organ, he closed his eyes 
to gain a more intense pleasure. A 
sort of intoxication, half physical, half 
moral, overcame him. Never had his 
soul been thus opened to religious 
emotions, fie prayed, without being 
conscious of it, an ardent sincere 
prayer, in which all his faculties joined. 

Every one around him was praying. 
The music rose to heaven, now in 
solemn notes, plaintive as the cries 
which mount from this sad earth to 
God ; now soft, pure, ravishing in their 
sweetness, like those of a choir of 
angels. It seemed as though the 
organ had a soul within it. Never 
had Lucrecia played like this ; the 
crowd listened breathlessly, and many 
wept. Marcel felt like giving way him- 
self, and he wondered if Lucrecia was 
praying, she who knew so well how to 
make others pray. 

The mass was finished ; the last 
notes of the organ filled the church 
with their deep sonorous tones, and the 


audience rose to go out ; but suddenly their hands and filled the church with 

it began again, and all stopped and their " Bravos !" 

listened. It was an improvisation, a Capellani trembled with emotionary 

triumphal chant, a grand alleluia, in pride and enthusiasm; but the face 

which it seemed as if all the choirs of the marquise clouded slightly, and 

of heaven took part. Enthusiasm taking Marcel's arm she drevr liira 

overcame this Italian audience, who quickly out of the church. 
no longer prayed, and they clapped [to be continued.] 



Two world-weary spirits were winging their flight 

To God's glorious haven of rest; 
Unto one life had been • II shadow and night. 

To the other hud fallen life's choicest and best. 

'T was soft hush of midnight as upward they flew, 

And the misty clouds shone silver-lined; 
The in nn gained in coinage the nearer they drew, 

But the woman was sad. and fell shyly behind. 

As they went they conversed : *• Tray how shall we know 
Which is Jesus, the Christ*?" the man said; 

u Will his lobes be purple, bis linen like snow? 
Will he wear a bright jeweled crown on bis head?*' 

The woman looked up with a smile on her face, 
And with bright, beaming joy ill her eyes; 

4k 1 -11 know my dear Lord by bis beauty and grace. 
By his meekness and love, which for us never dies." 

The haven was readied, and the portals flew wide; 

With assurance the rich man stepped in. 
Nor noticed the Porter who stood !>y his side, 

With water and blessing to cleanse him of sin. 

* ; I seek the Lord Jesus. " he loudly did cry — 
"Lead me straight to the foot ut the Throne:" 

The woman fell meekly and low with a sigh, 
With the Porter a kind band closely clasping her own. 

Still lower she sank, and embraced the dear feet, 

With tbe print of the cruel " nails'' still. 
"My Saviour." she murmured. "I've longed thee to meet, 

And I always have gloried to do thy sweet will." 

** Bise, sister," he cried. " by Xhy faith thou art sure 

Of a place at my Father's right hand; 
Though thy life hath been dark and hard to endure. 

Thou hast faithfully tilled every trying command." 

The rich man. ashamed, turned again to the door, 

And now Jowly he bended his knee: 
4t Thy pardon, dear Lord, but thy robes icere so poor, 

I am surely excused, for no one could blame me." 

44 1 blame thee not. brother, the glitter and dross 

Of the life which till now was thine own, 
Hath east into shadow the Light of the Cro33, 

Which the brighter for this trembling woman has shOML* 





The subject of this sketch was a 
"schoolmistress" well-known in many 
towns of New Hampshire more than 
thirty years ago ; her fame as a faith- 
ful teacher and successful manager of 
unruly scholars was somewhat exten- 
sive, and I am sure there must be, 
among the readers of this magazine, 
more than one man or woman who 
could furnish many interesting and 
profitable facts in regard to her life 
and work. From what I am able 
to learn of her history I am led to 
believe that she was born in Bed- 
ford, N. H., and was a descendant of 
John and Margaret Orr, who were 
among the very early settlers of that 

What I have to say is said more fcr 
the purpose of calling out more upon 
the same subject from those better 
qualified to furnish it. than from any 
hope of doing justice to it in the least 
degree myself. 

My acquaintance with Miss Orr was 
not extensive, being limited to a few 
weeks' pupilage in a village school of 
which she was the winter teacher. I 
was a little girl, not over eight years 
old, but if I should live to be eighty, 
probably "among the pictures that 
hang on memory's wall" Miss Orr and 
her school in the old brick school- 
house would still stand out in bold re- 

On the first day of school I associa- 
ted her in my mind with the bible 
verse which I had recited to my Sun- 
day-school teacher the Sunday before : 
" Stand in awe and sin not ;" and from 
that day to this, a vague relation be- 
tween this person and the text has 
always existed in my mind. Even 
now I find myself inclined to write her 
name Awe. Surely in her presence 
the offender had reason to " stand in 
awe," and he soon learned that his 

only safe course was to "sin not" 
against her. 

Her physique was masculine, medium 
height, broad-chested, a countenance 
that could face any emergency, and a 
voice tuned to the requirements of the 

Dressed in a black bombazine gown, 
with a round cape of the same mate- 
rial, just reaching to the bottom of the 
waist, where hung, suspended from her 
apron-belt, always, a pair of scissors, 
the sight of which, accompanied by 
her gestures and warning words, often 
made little ears tingle with lear. She 
was not a young woman, as I remem- 
ber her, but, I should say, considerably 
past the meridian of life. 

School was opened every morning 
with reading a chapter in the bible 
(and prayer, I think, but I am not pos- 
itive about the latter), each scholar 
reading a verse in turn, all remaining 
in their seats. When one dullard read 
in the parable of the vineyard " This 
is the hair-comb i let us kill him" the 
burst of merriment which followed was 
suddenly and instantly squelched by 
the stentorian command "Silence 1 ." 
emphasized by a stamp of the foot 
which threatened the very foundations 
of that ancient educational structure. 
Not a face dared to wrinkle after that. 

She had a frequent habit of sneez- 
ing, and her sneeze, like her whole na- 
ture, was broad, generous, decided and 
emphatic ; consequently the first im- 
pulse of every boy and girl in the room 
was to respond to it with a smile at 
least, which, if encouraged, would ea- 
sily have widened into a roar ; but no 
such opportunity was ever given. The 
sneeze always contained a codicil. All 
in the same breath with it, like a 
percussive attachment, followed the 
explosive " Silence !" accompanied, 
always, by an emphatic stamp of the 

1 7 6 


tutorial foot. The tone, the manner, 
the face, were not to be trifled with, 
and it was silence, — we sat in awe and 
smiled not. 

A row of little faces from the front 
seats turned up to hers all the day with 
watching, wondering eyes, a= she prom- 
enaded the floor of her little kingdom. 
Proud and happy the little one on 
whose head her hand rested unreprov- 
ingly for a moment in passing. There 
seemed to exist a magnetic sympathy 
between her and the very little ones, 
which drew them to her notwithstand- 
ing the brusqueness of her manner, — 
not so much because of spoken ten- 
derness on her part, as for unlooked- 
for acts of gentleness toward them, — 
a soft stroke upon the hair, a pat or 
kiss upon the cheek, made them all 
feel safe and confident in her shelter- 
ing shadow. The abecedarians always 
stood leaning against her lap as she sat 
in her chair in the middle of the room, 
to hear them read their letters. She 
would carefully part the tangled locks 
of one, and apply the corner of her 
handkerchief to the nose of another, 
while the scissors did alternate service 
as a pointer and an instrument for re- 
moving slivers from little hands, or the 
paring of overgrown little finger-nails, 
while she admonished them not to lisp 
or drawl their words ; her eyes at the 
same time taking full and constant sur- 
vey of all in the room. If, by chance, 
they should light upon an offender, 
she would rise from her little brood, 
and, with a broad, flat ruler in her 
hand, swoop down upon him with 
"Woe to you !" or, " I '11 flog you !" 
brandishing her ruler close over his 
head and ears, just brushing his hair, 
till he would think he had been be- 
headed, or, to say the least, deserved 
to be, and that it was only by the most 
dexterous methods of dodging and 
winking and blinking that he had es- 
caped annihilation. Then quietly re- 
turning to her chair, the little ones 
would again fall into their old places 
against the folds of her broad calico 
apron, and continue their explorations 
through the mysterious columns of 

black and white, on the first pages of 
Leonard's spelling-book. Before re- 
turning to their seats they stood up in 
line and repeated in concert some little 
hymn or poem, — as, 

" How doth the little, busy bee 
Improve each shining uour 

In gathering honey all' the day 
From every opening flower V" 


k * Let dogs delight to bark and bite. 

For God hath made them so; 
Let bears and lions growl and tight. 

For 't is their nature to : 
But ehildreu, you should never let 

Your angry passions rise; 
Your little hands were never made 

To tear each other's eyes (etc.)- 

This was an exercise that the chil- 
dren enjoyed exceedingly, and the 
teacher as well. She took great inter- 
est, and exercised considerable taste, 
in selecting and arranging rhetorical 
exercises for the whole school, to 
which one afternoon in every week 
was devoted with pleasure »?nd profit. 
It was not an easy matter in those 
days, to find, in books or papers, just 
the thing for a boy or girl to recite as 
a declamatory exercise in the school- 
room. The floods of papers and mag- 
azines for young folks that abound in 
such things in these days, were all un- 
heard of then, and we were mostly 
confined to the exercises found in the 
school readers then in use. But Miss 
Orr had a large calico bag, the size 
of a pillow-case, nearly filled with 
"pieces" which she had cut from 
papers and magazines, and as a special 
indulgence we were, at times, allowed 
to rummage in that bag to select some- 
thing to " speak." Some of them 
had become so worn that they were 
pasted upon bits of cloth, and so de- 
faced that we could scarcely read 
them; but all enjoyed the "speaking 
days," and the dullest scholar would 
do his best to acquit himself well od 
that day. 

I have no doubt that many a public 
speaker, in or out of New Hamp- 
shire to-day, owes his success as an 
orator, or, perhaps, his ability to speak 



at all in public, to the, early training 
and inspiration which he received in 
that direction as Miss Orr's pupil. 

My first attempt at "speaking a 
piece" was in her school. Long and 
hard I labored to commit to memory 
the little poem in The Young Reader, 
commencing : 

; * Mamma ! 1 've lost my thimble, 
My spool has rolled away. 

My anus are aching dreadfully. 
1 want to go and play !'.' 

When the hour arrived for my debut, 
I walked out tremblingly before the 
school, and, standing with my back 
close against the door, and my hands 
behind me, rattled it off as fast as I 
could speak the words, swaying my 
body from side to side, keeping time 
to the metrical movement of my reci- 
tation, and scratching the door at 
every movement back and forth with 
the buttons on the back of my pina- 
fore. Miss Orr's uplifted ruler, as she 
stood facing the school, prevented the 
burst of laughter which doubtless was 
struggling beneath the jacket of many 
an unsympathizing ** big boy," over 
my awkward performance ; and when 
I had finished she smiled (I think) 
and said, "very well," which sent me 
to my seat Hushed from chin to ear 
with the pride of conscious success. 
She afterward told me kindly that I 
had better take the same piece next 
week ; and then she gave me the same 
advice for the next week and the next, 
and each time she drilled me, and 
trained me in emphasis, accent, po- 
sition, gesture, etc., etc., until the re- 
sult was, that at the end of the term 
this had been my only piece, and she 
had drilled me every week upon it 
without letting me know that I had 
made a miserable failure of it in the 
first place, and she had been all that 
time trying to work me up to a respect- 
able degree of success. I was to re- 
cite it on the 'Mast day," before the 
committee and other visitors ; for it 
was to be a grand exhibition-day 
all that we had been learning during 
the winter. 

She particularly tried to make me 
assume, in this piece, a discontented, 
half-crying tone and manner. In this 1 
came far short of satisfying her at any 
of its recitals. But on examination- 
day, when I stood before all those 
strange faces, my voice began to trem- 
ble, and then seeing a boy on the back 
seat laughing at me, my throat filled, 
and the very voice and manner which 
she had so much desired, had come 
irresistibly upon me. I drew my 
sleeve across my eyes at the close of 
the first verse, and commenced the 
second. As my eyes continued to fill 
with r^ars, 1 wiped them on the corner 
of my apron and struggled on through 
the many verses to the end, and hur- 
ried to my seat to cry in real earnest. 
Quietly passing through the rows of 
seats, she came and stood by mine, 
and when the minister was making his 
speech she stooped down, and putting 
her hand on my head, said, " You 
spoke it just right. Do n't cry." 

That was enough. . T was satisfied. 
If she said it was "just right," I would 
cry no more, and I was happy. The 
long speeches came to a close, the 
minister made a prayer, the school 
closed, and I crowded with the others 
to kiss the teacher good -by, and have 
my little woolen tippet tied close under 
my chin by her warm hands ; and I 
never saw Miss Orr afterward ; though 
I think she continued to follow her 
vocation as a teacher for some years 

I have written my own recollections 
of her as a teacher. I have drawn a 
somewhat austere picture, perhaps, — 
so she seemed to me ; but I believe 
she was a kind and faithful teacher, 
notwithstanding. She had rough ele- 
ments to deal with, and she believed 
with Aaron Hill, and practiced what 
she believed : 

%k Tender handed stroke a nettle, 

And it stings you for your pains; 
Grasp it like a man of mettle. 

And it soft as silk remains. 
'Tis the same with common natures, 

Use 'em kindly, they rebel; 
But be rough as nutmeg-graters. 

And the rogues obey you well.'* 



Only evil-doers were ever thus 
roughly handled by her. No little 
child was allowed to leave the school- 
house, on a rough winter day, until 
she had seen that its cap, hood, tip- 
pet and mittens, were all properly 
adjusted and fastened. She was kind, 
.as a mother to them, and faithful, I 

believe, in the discharge of all her du- 
ties as a teacher. She was a some- 
what strange woman — a remarkable 
woman — a useful woman. Her life 
was long and well-filled with good, 
strong work ; and in her death New 
Hampshire lost a daughter worthy of 
an honorable place in her history. 



"The association is composed of 
alumni of Dartmouth College and 
those who have been students at, 
received degrees from, or made dona- 
tions to, that institution, in any of its 
departments, resident in Washington. 
Its objects are literary, social, and his- 
torical, and, through such an associa- 
tion, to keep alive an interest in our 
alma mater, and in each other. 

"Each member is urged to be pres- 
ent at the reunion, and all 'Dartmouth 
men' in the city, or within convenient 
distance, are cordially invited to join 
with its members in the pleasures of 
the occasion." — Annual Circular. 


The first thing ever done was the 
issuing of a circular of the date of 
February 18, 1876, calling for a pre- 
liminary meeting, which meeting was 
he'd at the rooms of the Commissioner 
of Education, February 21, 1876, when 
twenty were present. The organiza- 
tion took place Feb. 28, iS;6, and the 
following officers were elected : Pres- 
ident, (Jen. John Eaton, '54 ; vice- 
presidents, Rev. Royal Parkinson, '42, 
and Dr. N. S. Lincoln, '50 ; secretary, 
S. R. Bond, Esq., '55 ; historian, Gen. 
R. D. Mussey. This same set of 
officers has been reelected at each an- 
nual dinner since the organization of 
the association. 

• The first dinner was held March 27, 
1 876, at Gray's, and thirty were present ; 
the second, March 6, 1877, at Gray's, 

and twenty-seven present ; the third, 
Feb.i 1, 1 8 7S, at Gray's, and forty-nine 
present; the fourth, Feb. 6, 1S79, at 
Abner's, and thirty-three present ; the 
fifth, Feb. 3, 1SS0, at Abner's, and 
thirty-nine present ; the sixth, Feb. 16, 
1 SS 1, at Gray's, and thirty-nine pres- 
ent; the seventh, Jan. 18, 1882, the 
anniversary of Daniel Webster's birth- 
day, at the Hamilton, and thirty-eight 
present ; the eighth, F^b. 6, 18S3, at 
Vvillard's, and fifty-three present, the 
largest gathering since the organiza- 

At the last reunion and supper a 
new set of officers was elected, and 
they are : — President, Prof. J. R. East- 
man, '62, C. S. D. ; vice-presidents, 
Col. George Kent, '14, and Sup't J. O. 
Wilson, '50 ; secretary and treasurer, 
F. R. Lane, '8i ; historian, William H. 
Gardiner, '76 ; chorister, A. F. An- 
drews, '78. 

The following is the list of members 
(and those entitled to become such) 
resident in Washington : 

Class. Names. 

1804. *Hon. Isarel P. Richardson. Law- 

1814. Col. Geo. Kent, Treasury Depart- 

1825. *J. M. Brodhead, M. D. (Med. 
Dep'O.late 2d Compt. Treasury. 

1835. Rev. Cyrus S. Richards, Professor 
Howard University. 

1835. f Isaac N. Goodhue (partialcourse), 

1S3G. Daniel P. Merrill, Second Auditor's 



t'Th(:ii members are not now In the city. 



1837. W. D. Moore, Third Auditor's Of- 


1838. S.M. Bartlett, M. D. (Med. Dep'jk), 

Second Auditor's Office. 

1841. Hon. Gardner G. Hubbard, Law- 


1842. *Rev% Royal Parkinson. 

1842. Otis C. Wight, Principal Ritten- 

house Academy. 
1S43. Moses Kelley (partial course), late 

Cashier Xat. Met. Bank. 
1844. Hon. A. A. Eanney, M. C. from 

1844. Col. J. W. Drew, Post Office Dep't. 
1840. Asa Weeks. Lawyer. 

1847. H. E. Woodbury, M. D., Practic- 

ing Physician. 
1347. S. M. Wilcox, Pension Office. 

1848. J. Sullivan Brown. Patent Solicitor! 

1849. Emerson Hodges, Second Auditor's 

1S19. Rev. C. Spencer Marsh, Congres- 
sional Library. 

1850. X. S. Lincoln. M. D., Practicing 

1S50. Rev. David Bremner, Librarian 
Ag'l Department. 

1850. J. Ormond Wilson. Sup'tof Public 


1851. Hon. Joshua G. Hal!. M. C. from 

X. H. 

1852. Gen. Charts E. Hovev. Lawyer. 

1853. W. M. French Med. Dep ? t), Treas- 

ury I)ej>"t. 

1854. W. W. Godding. M. D.. Sup't Gov't 

Asylum for Insane. 

1854. Gen. John Ka ton, U. S. Commis- 
sioner *>f Education. 

IS.Vi. Gen. R. D. Mussey. Lawyer. 

1854. J. P. Folsom. Lawyer. 

1855. fHon. Walbridgv A. Field. Judge 

Supreme ( ourt. Mass. 
ls.V). Hon. NVlson Dingiey, jr.. M. C. 

from Maine 
1855. S. E. Bon 1, Lawyer. B. Sanborn (partial course). 

185C. W. L. Peabodv. Pension Office. 
1857. Henrv A. Blood. State Dep't. 
1857. F. H. Goodall (Scientific Dep't), 

Second Auditor's Office. 

1857. T. A. Cushing, internal Revenue 


1858. George A. Lyon, Paymaster U. S. 


185S. Capt. A. W. Fisher. Chief Clerk 
Pension Office. 

1S59. J. H. llobbs, Pension Office. 

1861. M. L. Baxter, M. D. (Med. Dep't), 
Surgeon-Gen. "s Office. 

1882. J.K.Eastman (Scientific Dep't), 
Prof. Xaval Observatory. 

1802. X". P. Gage, Teacher. 

18G2. P v ev. Geo. B. Patch, Second Audi- 
tor's Office, and Pastor. 

1802. fJ. J. Sanborn (partial course). 
Department of Justice. 

1SG2. Horace S. Cummings, Lawyer. 

1SG2. James F. Allen, General Land Of- 

1862. fStephen W. Rand. Pavmaster U. 

S. Navy. 
18G2. C. S. Brown, General Land Office, 

1863. Henrv 31. Baker, Lawyer. 

1864. W. F. Harvev, M. I)., Physician. 
1864. I. G. Hobbs. Pavmaster U. S. 

1864. E. E. Meriam, M. D.. Physician. 
1868. fllenry C. Bliss. Lawyer.' 
1871. Henry A. Hazen. Signal Office. 
1871. Lewis W. Holmes. Pension Office. 
1873. fHenry M. Paul. Prof. University 

of Tokio, Japan. 

1873. fH. D. Lawrence, U. S. Consul at 


1874. James R. Freeman. M. D. 

1876. William H. Gardiner. Chief Clerk 
Bureau of Education. 

1876. E. A. Paul, Principal of High 

1*76. William Twombly, Lawyer. 

Ls78. Addison F. Andrews. Surgeon- 
Gen. 's Office. 

1878. Winfield S. Montgomery. Super- 
visor of Colored Schools. 

1878. Charles Parkhmsr. Pension Office, 

1878. fWilliam D. Parkinson. 

187*. A. C. Paul (partial course), Ass't 
Examiner Patent Office. 

1;>78. fGeorge F. Wingate. (Scientific 

1S78. E. H. Fowler, Coast Survey. 

1879. Leonard K. Graves. Surgeon-Gen- 

eral's Office. 
1S80. William E. Barrett, Correspond- 
ent Boston Advertiser. 

1880. L. A. Smith. Bureau of Education. 

1880. fCharles S. Sloane (Scientific De- 

1*81. Arthur Sullivan Brown. Law Stu- 

1881. Nathan D. Cram. Teacher. 

1551. Ephraim G. Kimball. Teacher. 
1881. Frank E. Lane. Teacher. 

1881. Francis W. Lane. Patent Solicitor. 

1881. fEdward X. Pearson, Editor. 

1882. f Joseph G. Chandler. 

1882. George A. Loveland (Agricultural 
Department). Signal Office. 

1882. Harlan A. Xiehols, Signal Office. 

1552. C. S. Clark. Teacher. 

1883. Walter B. Patterson. 
1883. Benjamin Phillips. 
1885. Richard Hovey. 
1885. H. C. Bryan. 

1885. John F. Clark. 

1885. Charles E. Thomas. 

1885. Herbert C. White (Scientific De- 

1885. Samuel M. Wilcox, jr. (Scientific 



Recipients of honorary degrees from 
Dartmouth : 
Hon. Noah H. Swayne. Late Associate 

Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 
Hon. Henry W. Blair. U. S. Senator from 

Hon. E. II. Rollins. U. S. Senator from 

X. H. 
Hon. Justin S. Morrill, U. S. Senator 

from Vermont. 
Hon. Henry F. French. Ass't Secretary 

of "the Treasury. 
Hon. William E. Chandler. Secretary of 

the Xavy. 
Gen. William T.Sherman. General U. S. 

Hon. Amasa Xorcross. M. C. from Mass. 
Hon. Ossian Ray. M. C. from X. II. 
J. G. Parkinson (now of Cincinnati, O.), 

Patent Solicitor. 
.f. R. Dodge. Statistician Agricultural 

Ten away from the city are usually 
invited to attend. 

There are one hundred and nine 
different persons who are entitled to 
come to the meetings of the Alumni 
Association, of whom eighty-seven are 
members, ten are alumni residing near 
Washington, eleven are recipients of 
honorary degrees from Dartmouth, and 
one is an honorary member. There 
are classes of thirty-eight different 
years represented by the members, of 
which the class of '62 has the largest 
number, while the class of 181 4 heads 
the list. 

There are sixty-six graduates in the 
city. Of this number thirty are natives 
of New Hampshire, twelve each of 
Massachusetts and Vermont, three of 
Maine, two of Mississippi, one each of 
Illinois, New Vork, Pennsylvania, 
Washington, Province of Quebec, 
India, and Scotland. 

The following items concern the 
sixty-six graduates in this city, bio- 
graphical sketches of whom have been 
prepared by the writer, and sixty-five 
of which appeared in the Boston 
Journal, Feb. 8, 1883. 

In preparing for college five attend- 
ed Kimball Union Academy at Meri- 
den, N. H. ; four each the academies 
at Andover, Mass., and Exeter, N. H. ; 
three each the academies at Pembroke, 
N. H., Thetford, Vt., and Townsend, 
Vt. ; two each at the academies at 

Dover, N. H., Gilmanton, N. H., New 
London, N. H., Sanbornton, N. H,, 
Tilton, N. H., Norwich, Vt., Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; one each at the academies 
at Waterville, Me., Ashburnham, Mass., 
Bvfield, Mass., Easthamptou, Mass., 
Groton, Mass., Leicester, Mass., Bath, 
N. H.,Boscawen, N. H., Concord, N. 
H., Deny, N. H., Hampton, N. H., 
Hanover, N. H., Haverhill, N. H., Hop- 
kinton, N. H., Laconia, N. H., New 
London, N. H., Wakefield, N. H., Can- 
ton, N. Y., Lima, N. V., Erie, Penn., 
Barre, Vt., Bradford, Vt., Brandon, Vt., 
Danville, Vt., Derby, Vt., Ludlow, Vt., 
Newbury, Vt. ; one each at the high 
schools at Chicago, 111., Lawrence, 
Mass., Lowell, Mass.,Claremont. N.H., 
Manchester, N. H., Nashua, N. H., 
Portsmouth, N. H., Columbia Gram- 
mar School, New York City. These 
represent forty-eight different fitting 
schools, and eight different states and 

Forty-four taught while in college ; 
thirty-three taught after leaving col- 
lege ; and eight are teaching now. 
Thirty-four have taught in New Hamp- 
shire, twenty-two in Massachusetts, six- 
teen in Vermont, thirteen in Washing- 
ton, four each in New York, Tennessee, 
and Virginia, three each in Alabama, 
Connecticut, Illinois, and Maine, two 
in Ohio, one each in Indian Territory, 
Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, 
and Wisconsin. 

Thirty-eight are married now, one 
having been married thrice ; twenty-two 
are not married ; five are widowers, 
and of one it is unknown whether he is 
married or not. It is not known 
whether five have children or not ; 
thirty-three have not any children, 
while twenty-eight have seventy-four 
children in all. 

Thirteen formerly were clerks in the 
various Departments, of whom seven 
were in the Treasury ; two each in the 
Pension Office and War Department, 
and one each in the Land Office and 
Attorney-General's Office ; twenty- 
seven are now clerks in the Depart- 
ments, distributed as follows : Treas- 
ury, eight ; Pension Office, five ; Sig- 



nal Office and Surgeon-General's Of- 
fice, three each ; Bureau of Education, 
two ; Agricultural Department, Indian 
Office, Land Office, Patent Office, 
Postmaster-General's Office, and U. S. 
Coast Survey, one each. 

During the late war thirteen served 
in the army and one in the navy. 
Nine have been connected with the 
House of Representatives in various 
state legislatures, while four have been 
connected with the Senate. Previous 
to their present occupations one w r as 
an Adjutant and Quarter-master Gen- 
eral ; one an appointment clerk in the 
Department of the Interior ; two are 
cashiers of banks ; one a centennial 
commissioner ; one a chaplain of the 
Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives ; one chief clerk of the Interior 
Department ; one chief clerk of the 
Pension Office ; two city solicitors ; 
one Deputy Collector of Customs ; 
one Commissioner of Sinking Fund ; 
one county solicitor ; one disbursing 
clerk of the Interior Department ; two 
in drug store businesb ; eight editors, 
or connected with newspapers ; three 
farmers ; one one of the founders of 
the N. H. Historical Society ; one a 
governor ol Maine ; one principal of 
the Illinois Normal School ; one in- 
spector of Boston Custom House ; 
sixteen lawyers ; one manager of a 
manufacturing company ; two mayors ; 
three ministers ; one a Paymaster in 
the U.S. Army ; four physicians ; one 
Probate Judge ; five professors in col- 
leges ; one register ; one Sanitary In- 
spector ; one Speaker of the Maine 
House of Representatives ; one su- 
perintendent of copper mines ; one 
superintendent of freedmen ; three 
superintendents of schools ; one sur- 
geon ; two assistant surgeons ; three 
trustees of institutions of learning, one 
of them being Dartmouth ; one U. S. 
Commissioner ; one U. S. Consul ; 
one U. S. District Attorney ; one 
Deputy U. S. Marshal ; one water 

The present professions are classed 
as follows, some performing double 

duty : One chief clerk in Bureau of 
Education ; one chief clerk in the 
pension office ; twenty-seven clerks in 
the various departments ; one Com- 
missioner of Education ; one Dean of 
the preparatory department at Howard 
University ; three editors, or newspaper 
correspondents ; ten lawyers ; one a 
retired lawyer ; three members of 
Congress ; two ministers ; two in Gov- 
ernment libraries ; two paymasters in 
the navy ; two physicians ; one prin- 
cipal of Washington high school ; one 
professor at the Naval Observatory ; 
three solicitors of patents ; one super- 
intendent of the Government x\sy3um 
for Insane ; one superintendent of 
schools ; two supervisors of schools ; 
eight teachers. 

At the recent reunion and dinner, 
Col. George Kent, '14, replied to the 
toast : " Early and later examples of 
the rhyming art in connection with 
Dartmouth," by reading a hymn and 
ode composed by him for the 4th of 
July celebration at Hanover, N. H., in 
1S14 ; "A Song of Degrees," written 
for the centennial celebration of Dart- 
mouth in July, 1869, but not delivered, 
owing to a great storm interrupting 
Judge Barrett just as he commenced 
to read it, and it has never been pub- 
lished before ; a monody, in remem- 
brance of Daniel Webster, the great 
expounder of the constitution, and 
Dartmouth's most honored son. and 
written for the observance of Webster's 
centennial birth-day anniversary at 
Dartmouth College, June 2S, 1882. 

The following extract from a letter 
written to Col. Kent by Fred. Chase, 
Esq., treasurer of the college, will ex- 
plain how the hymn and ode came to 
light : 

•• My Dear Sir : 

I take pleasure 
in sendiug herewith the copy you desired 
of the Hymn and Ode written by you for 
the 4th o*f July celebration. 1S14. I take 
it from a newspaper fragment, which I 
suppose to be the Concord Gazette. &c." 

[Col. Kent's contributions will appear in the 
April number of GRASITK MONTHLY.— Ko.] 




When the allotted span of three 
score years and ten has rounded out 
the life of man, he has accomplished 
his life's work and has made his mark 
upon his generation. It is hard to re- 
concile ourselves to the loss of a young 
life, just on the threshold of man's . 
estate, when gifted and full of promise. 
We have to accept the inevitable, and 
to have faith that what is our loss is 
his gain. 

Charles Dudley Warde, known to 
his many friends as Charlie Warde, 
son of the late Hon. David A. and 
Martha (Cleaves) Warde. was born in 
Concord, July 2, 1S58. The genealogy 
of his father's family may be found in 
Cogswell's history of Henniker. He 
received his education in the public 
schools of Concord, and commenced 
the study of law with the firm of 
Leach and Stevens. In the fall of 1SS2 
he entered the senior class of the law- 
school of Boston University. The 
following January he returned to his 
home sick, and died February 15. 
1883, in his twenty-fifth year. 

He was a son of whom any mother 
might be proud, loving and true in his 
nature, fond and proud of his family 
and home. In person he was tall, of 
graceful carriage, with a striking, if 
not handsome face, every line indicat- 
ing character, intellect, and soul. 
His tastes were cultivated and refined ; 
in his heart was harbored no mean, or 
petty, or jealous thought. He entered 
heartily into manly sports, and was the 
life of social assemblies. Of fruits 
and flowers, and of their culture, he 
was fond ; his appreciation of the 
beautiful in nature and art was innate, 
yet highly cultivated. He was well- 
balanced and temperate in all things. 
Possessed of a sound judgment, he 
was the soul of honor, thoroughly 
trusted and respected by all. In his 
intercourse with the world he was gay, 
light-hearted, affable, polite, friendly, 

popular. Contact with his sunny 
nature made chance comrades his 
friends — and no act of his ever alienat- 
ed a friend. He was fond oi books, 
and it was a pet scheme of his to pre- 
pare and illustrate a book delineating 
the beauties of the Merrimack valley. 
Of history, poetry, and biography, he 
was a diligent reader, and he entered 
upon his legal studies with an enlight- 
ened mind, strong to overcome the 
many difficulties of the profession. 
His love for his native city was strong, 
and her material interests were very 
dear to him. His future was closely 
interwoven with the future of Concord. 
Poor boy, his hopes, lofty and noble, 
his ambition, his plans, are over now. 
His family grieve and mourn for him ; 
his friends lament his loss \ the world 
wonders again at the inscrutable dis- 
pensations of Providence. Had he 
lived he must have made his mark 
high upon the roll of honor and use- 
fulness. We were friends, and this 
slight tribute is offered to his memory. 

Stricken down in the battle our friend is 
at rest. 

Far removed from the conflict, the tur- 
moil of life, 

And at peaee the great heart which beat 
true in his breast. 

His ennobled endeavors withdrawn from 
the strife, 

He has joined the grand army of those 
gone before ; — 

In the pride of young manhood and vig- 
orous youth. 

He has crossed the dark stream to the 
opposite shore. 

A young knight, undismayed, a brave 
champion of truth. 

His exalted ambition, each grandly 
drawn plan. 

Laid aside, with a sigh for his hopes un- 

Did he have no regrets, he were more 
than a man — 

He accepted the fate which the great 
Father willed. 

Will his friends left behind consolation 

From the promise of life unto all who 





I find in an old history the following 
paragraph : "The colonization of this 
country originated either in religious 
persecution carried on in England 
against the Puritans and other denom- 
inations of Christians, or in visionary 
schemes of adventurers, who set out 
for the new world in quest of settle- 
ments, or in pursuit of gain. It was 
the former cause which peopled the 
colonies of New England ; it was to 
the latter that the colonies of Virginia 
and New York owe their origin." 

But, succeeding Raleigh's disastrous 
early attempts to found settlements in 
what is now North Carolina, there 'pen- 
etrated to the northwestern part of that 
state a few families who sought relig- 
ious freedom like their prototypes of 
Plymouth. Of these colonists the 
greater number were French Hugue- 
nots, the remainder being Scotch Pres- 
byterians and Irish Protestants. Many 
of the men were cadets of noble fami- 
lies, and with them, as with the heads 
of families, came a handful of retainers 
faithful to their masters. 

The fortunes common to all colonial 
settlements were borne by these peo- 
ple ; their men fought, governed and 
died, their women endured, as has 
been the fashion of the world since 
time began, but still the children 
thrived and grew to the stature of their 
fathers, and their widening lands were 
tilled by their increasing families of 
slaves. The descendants of those in 
service who came from the mother 
countries straggled over the slowly 
growing villages and passed at last 
into the class familiarly known as 
"Redjohns," or poor whites. The soft 
climate and productive soil fostered 
habits of improvidence, and languid 
though ardent temperaments, and it is 
not strange that an old inhabitant may 
find it in his heart to doff his hat with 
exquisite courtesy, you may be sure, 

to the hurrying world, while he prefers 
to stand still and only see it hasten 
through the years. 

This region, then, is The Land of 
Nod. the country where stoves are an 
innovation, and wide-throated fire- 
places, with veritable hearth-stones, 
rule the roast ; where people send 
produce to. market in great road- 
wagons that are often out for weeks ; 
where farmers carry or send their grain 
to mill on horseback if they may, but 
if they may not, on any other thing 
that can be induced to bear the bur- 
den, with small regard to gender or 
style ; where the tenderest beef is sold 
for six cents a pound, and the most 
respectable mutton for eight centsj 
where eggs are always ten cents a 
dozen, and chickens fifteen cents 
apiece ; where cattle wander at will, 
and pigs wax fat on the mast ; where 
graceful deer, clumsy bear, and lithe 
panther still range in the forest prime- 
val ; where poverty is purely pictorial' 
of costume, and exploded notions of 
caste still smolder among the natives j 
where simple religious faith holds pres- 
tige, and hymns are still deaconed out; 
where cmoke from the chimneys of 
hospitable homes soars skyward nn- 
frightened by screaming steam eagles, 
and where there is a post-office yciept 

But sparkling streams smile adown 
broad fertile fields, and the austere 
grandeur of guarding mountain peaks 
gives majesty to the picture, while 
over all the soft deep blue of the 
southern sky holds th~ glowing "Heart 
of Day." The Land of Nod has been 
rarely explored by pleasure seekers; a 
few artists, whose eyes have drawn 
beauty from these wild haunts of the 
dryads, to charm blase citizens, hav- 
ing been almost their only frequenters, 
aside from their scattered inhabitants. 
Down the east stretches the beautiful 

1 84 


valley of the Yadkin, whose terraces 
are adorned by the picturesque homes 
of planters formerly owning hundreds 
of slaves. Whether, in order to be 
picturesque, one may be trim, or not, 
one must leave an open question, but 
it is true that things are not altogether 
'•'shipshape" in the Land of Ned ; and 
the prevailing lack of trimness is not 
to be attributed wholly to the disturb- 
ances of the late civil war, since even 
in the best of the old times, to which 
regretful reference is sometimes made, 
the tendency of the population was not 
progressive. The people cling to the 
customs of their Scotch, English, and 
French ancestors, and while a refresh- 
ing minority give evidence of having 
been born in the morning, the majority 
seem to have preferred the post- 
prandial season, as would certainly be 
natural in the Land of Nod. 

City-bred Yankees might be sur- 
prised at the many old-fashioned ways 
common in this section of the country, 
and once practiced in New Hampshire. 
Imagine water, for the use of a large 
household, brought from springs in 
pump-logs, or on the head of some 
lithe, straight negro, and nobody seem- 
ing to regard such an arrangement as 
inconvenient. Dishes must be washed 
on the tabic, and the water therefrom 
flung wherever the flinger listeth. For- 
tunately the houses are usually well 
drained in the natural and safe way of 
setting the buildings on high land, 
which is easily done, since there are so 
many gentle slopes whose feet give 
fields excellent for cultivation, and 
whose summits afford sites for dwell- 
ings. Nodites first, however, hunt a 
spring of good water ; then they pro- 
ceed to erect the many buildings ne- 
cessary to comfortable southern life, in 
the neighborhood of the spring. The 
Nodding housekeepers do not buy 
enticing and ornamental little boxes of 
what purports to be ground spice, et 
eete ra ; they buy,«for instance, pepper- 
corns, and somebody must grind them 
in, a ponderous iron mortar with a 
correspondingly heavy pestle ; many 
oth'rr articles, which innocent Yankees 

are prone to purchase at the grocer's, 
are quite disdained by the ladies of 
Nod who will not tolerate adulteration 
in their ample store-rooms. 

Kerosene is believed by many Nod- 
ites to be an inveution of the devil, so 
old-fashioned lamps, filled with oil or 
lard, assist candles in placidly making 
darkness visible, while in the families 
of quality their great silver candlesticks 
of ancestral value give nearly as much 
radiance to a supper-table as do the 
lights which they support. I regret to 
say that many an old piece of silver 
went to help support "our army." 

Negro servants are necessarily hired 
to a large extent, but many good house- 
servants have been evolved, so to 
speak, from the class known as poor 
whites. The evolution has been ac- 
complished through the patient care 
of the mistresses, who are almost with- 
out exception gentlewomen and sincere 
Christians. Indeed it would be hard 
to find a community where earnest 
faith in some creed, is so much the 
rule as in the country of which we 

Of the blacks not in service many 
have fallen into the idle and improvi- 
dent ways natural to the race. Per- 
haps r,ne out of fifty keeps his cabin 
tolerably free from leaks, his rail or 
brush fences up, and his cattle in fair 
working condition, while his wife and 
children assist him to cultivate the 
land which he has hired from his old 
master, and which he hopes to buy 
sometime. Of those who have at- 
tempted a course of study their teach- 
ers agree in saying that up to a certain 
point they are promising scho'ars ;but, 
beyond that stage progress seems 
barred to them, save in occasional in- 
stances. Undoubtedly the negro does 
as well as would the white man who 
had emerged from the same condition 
with the same precession of circum- 

There is a class in the Land of Nod 
somewhat like the farmers of the 
north living far from railroads. Absence 
of northern school system has caused, 
I think, in a measure, a lack in this 



diss for the thirst for reading, the 
craving for knowledge, which is charac- 
teristic of its fellow in New England ; 
but the Southerner is nevertheless 
sharp in a bargain, and industrious, 
and many have acquired a compe- 
tency. Speaking of a bargain reminds 
me of an incident ; waiting for the 
mail one day, in a post-office at the foot 
of a spur of the Blue Ridge, I amused 
myself, as women will, by observing 
whatever there was to be seen ; a 
peculiarly pert-looking mule appeared 
at the doorway, and a mountain woman 
alighted therefrom ; among sundry arti- 
cles with which the mule was laden there 
came to view a monstrous cheese of 
yellow beeswax. The postmaster, who 
was also the storekeeper, lifted the 
wax, indented it with his thumb-nail, 
smelled tt, and finally weighed it, then 
coolly broke it in two. Rage filled 
the woman's hard face and choked 
her speech ; the cheese was filled with 
ashes ! Perhaps justice should oblige 
me to say that the storekeeper was so 
nearly a Yankee as to have been born 
in Pennsylvania. 

Although the traditional Yankee, 
without doubt, is to be found in New 
England, it was never my fortune to 
behold him until he appeared to me in 
the mountains of North Carolina. He 
whittles and whistles, wears remark- 
able trousers and as remarkable a hat, 
, a queer coat, untied or half-tied shoes, 
and has the face narrow, long and 
sharp- featured, with the quick, keen 
eyes, crowned by lank, light hair ; he 
is as sharp as he looks, but is still 
somewhat opposed to railroads, think- 
ing that with them his dozen mules, 
with great road-wagons to match, 
would be at a discount ; but if a 
railway were extended from Yadkin 
valley through Patterson to Boone 
(the county seat of Watauga), thence 
across the boundary to meet a line in 
East Tennessee, then indeed he might 
find his strong teams thoroughly useful 
in carrying, to meet an eager demand, 
his butter, cheese, luscious fruits, 
sweet and healthy grains, his young 
and well broken horses and cattle, his 

mutton and beef, his poultry, his soft 
furs, and his magnificent lumber to the 
waiting steam-car. For lack of such 
facility of transportation this marvel- 
ously fine country awaits its destiny. 
Both physical and social atmospheres 
are eminently congenial to the habits 
of those young northern families who 
go out. now-a-days, from their birth- 
places to seek new homes. Here is 
a charming and excellent climate, free 
from agues, excellent water, the most 
productive of soil, unsurpassed scen- 
ery, no trouble of consequence from 
insects, and no political disturbance. 

Its botanical possessions are pecu- 
liarly rich, and one would be surprised 
at the amount of its medical exporta- 
tion. There is hardly a known min- 
eral but may be found here in profit- 
able quantity, and from the presence 
of flexible sandstone it is inferred that 
diamonds may lie perdu among these 
mountains as well as in those of Geor- 

It must be admitted that, in default 
of diamonds, glittering drops are man- 
ufactured in the mountains, as fatal to 
the brain as is said to be the moon- 
shine which has given them a name, 
and while the moonshiners would 
ordinarily be peaceable folk enough, 
the thought of a revenue officer is to 
them like flint to powder. 

Only the strictest sense of duty 
sworn to would lead the United States 
soldier in search of the mysteries of 
the mountains. The service, looked 
at outside of its unmistakable duty, 
seems almost as mean as the sin, and 
only too often results in crippling and 
death. When the government can 
prevent the sale of intoxicating liquors, 
then indeed their manufacture will 
easily cease. 

We visited one morning a warehouse 
in Caldwell county, to which the 
smaller produce of the Boone road is 
brought, and whence it is shipped to 
Raleigh. The agent of the firm con- 
trolling the business took us first to 
the top story of the building, where 
were monstrous bins of grain from 
which funnel shaped passages allowed 



the grain to slide into sacks tended 
and weighed by a young fellow of 
seventeen, who in old times would have 
been well on the way to "William and 
Mary's," or possibly Yale, it might 
even be Harvard, but who now was 
finding a way to go into business and 
make money. 

Similar receptacles for live geese 
feathers filled an apartment, and were 
likewise empted of their fluffy contents. 
The funny part of the plucking of the 
geese, by the way, was illustrated 
many years ago in Harper 's Afagazine, 
by Porte Crayon (Gen. D. II. Strother 
of Virginia). 

On a floor below we found all man- 
ner of dried fruits about to be shipped 
noith, seeds in countless variety, of 
which one of the most costly was 
lobelia, its price at that time being six 
dollars per pound ; roots of all shapes 
ever devised, ginseng especially every 
where present ; honey in abundance ; 
hops, and the flowers of the white ever- 
lasting, from which Nodding women 
who dislike hops make yeast where- 
with to leaven their bread. 

Another room held furs from all 
things that wear it, a comical contrast 
being shown by an enormous black 
bear-skin from the corner of which was 
suspended the skin of the tiniest of all 
moles, its hands being left on, and giv- 
ing one a sudden painful sense of the 
helpless pathos of its morsel of life. 

The cellar of the warehouse held a 
profusion of dairy produce, and all 
these things had been brought from 
the mountains in the most laborious 

If no wagon could come from "up 
Mulberry, " the surest footed mule in 
the neighborhood might have brought 
its load ; and where no mule could 
pass the hunter himself, in his fringed 
deerskins, the long rifle on his back, 
the pistol in his belt, and the knife in 
his boot-leg, might have brought to 
market the skin of the great bear he 
had fought and conquered. 

"Can we ride to your place by the 
Purifoy Gap?" we asked an old hunt- 
er, one day. He hesitated a moment, 

then said, "Well, yer mought, if yer an 
old rider and a moughty good un, and 
if yer horse war raised up yereabout/' 
That meant that if he could do it we 
could try it. We asked, "How about 
Coffee Creek road?" "Thar, now 
thar's a moughty bad road ; you uns 
mustn't 'low to ride up Coffee Creek ; 
if yer do, yer'll never come down." 
So. not being the crows that fly, we 
did not go. But to Watauga, and 
across the mountains into East Ten- 
nessee, there runs an old turnpike 
road, and on this ancient, friend one 
may travel as he will, if only he be not 
too much inclined to haste, and if he 
be strong of loin as well of heart, with 
an ever present faith that the all-wise 
Father will not withdraw him from this 
world until Ins work the:ein is done. 
So one may cheerily ride, he may 
camp on top the Black, he may come 
down by way of the little church of 
Valle Crucis, and worship there, fortu- 
nate if he happen on a Sunday of the 
kindly Bishop's ministration, and for- 
tunate, too. to see how his and his 
neighbors' ancestors went to church, 
since the good people here go to church 
in well appointed carriages, if may be; 
but, if needs must, mounted on a 
good horse or stout mule that can 
carry double or even treble, with soft 
lambs-wool for a seat, while, should a 
side-saddle not be available at the mo- 
ment, any sort of a saddle, or none at 
all, will serve the lithe mountain girl 
who can spring from the ground to 
the back of her steed. 

Still coming down, one may stop at 
Fairview where he can see the springs 
of six rivers which flow respectively 
into the Gulfs of St. Lawrence and 
Mexico, and into the Atlantic ocean, 
while twenty-seven mountain peaks 
surround him closely, and there lies a 
little way from him Blowing Rock Gap, 
a thousand feet deep and wonderful 
to see. 

Down the valley one may spend an 
evening that will make him dream he 
is in the salon of a modern Madame 
R£camier, although he is simply in the 
manor house of a Davenport, a Gor- 



• I in, a Graham, or a Lenoir, with, 

i.vever, a brass lock on his bed-room 
,Joor that came from France in the 
seventeenth century, and with a man- 
tcl in the room most curiously carved, 
high and narrow, oaken and black. 
Perhaps the clapboards outside are of 
oak and beaded at the edge laborious- 
ly by handiwork, and the great hinges 
of the door were beaten into shape by 
a stalwart arm two hundred years ago. 
On the verandah encircling the house 
a half-dozen couples may promenade 
abreast, and the many little building? 
that cluster about make the place 
seem like a small vilbge. 

Careful serving and exquisite cour- 
tesy make the sojourner a happy soul, 
unless care follows him from the sad- 
die, and he goes to his bed to find it 
piled high with soft blankets, fine 
linen and the downiest of pillows, 
while the room is enchanted by an 
open fire glowing behind the fretwork 
of the fender. 

Caste is present in this country, but 
respectability is respected, and repre- 
sentatives of the first quality are seen 
gracious and kindly at the infarings 
of the' farmers. With the advancing 
years the intelligence of both classes 
broadens and deepens until one may 
believe that they may sometime meet 
naturally on the common level of hu- 
manity and Christianity. One does 
not expect ignorance and education to 
assimilate, even though the mutual 
feeling be one of thorough kindliness 
and of respect for abilities which are 

Wakened from morning sleep by the 
horn of the hunter and the baying of 
his hounds, one is reminded of the 

novels of the late lamented Anthony 
Trollope, and in fact the whole tone 
of life in the Land of Nod is curiously 
like that depicted in the most soporific 
of those books. To hunt the deer and 
chase the fox is the unfailing amuse- 
ment of Nodite gentlemen, down to 
the six year old buys, while an occa- 
sional bear hunt up the mountains 
adds an element of danger to spice 
the fascination. The late dinner and 
the lively evening conversation, varied 
by music and games, with — if I must tell 
it — a monstrous punch-bowl well filled, 
or great bowls of egg-nog, finish to his 
satisfaction the hunter's day. 

But the fields are well watched in 
the season of growth, and it is only 
now and then that some ne'er-do-well 
leaves his crops to the careless super- 
vision of the black people, who work 
well, as a rule, only under intelligent 
direction, just as is the case with the 
majority of white laborers. 

The opening chapters of Miss Wool- 
son's "For the Major," now being 
published in Harper's Magazine, give 
a charming revelation of a society 
startlingly like that in certain portions 
of the Land of Nod, the fair and 
peaceful country that awaits with quiet 
eagerness the coming of people who 
will make it blossom with homes for 
whose needs field, forest and stream 
are ready to give of their abundance, 
while the full earth shall open its vast 
stores of precious stones and pure 
gold. To develop the remarkable re- 
sources of the Rip Van Winkle state 
there are needed three things, i. e., 
money, electricity, and Yankees ; the 
third being given imply the first and 



The stage route known as the For- Saratoga, and was one of the most 

est Line, extended from Nashua to famous in the state for many years. 

Charlestown, N. H., forming a con- It was founded in 1833, and continued 

necting link in the line from Boston to unbroken till the scream of the steam 

1 88 


engine drove from the hills and valleys 
the crack of the stage-driver's whip. 
To most of the quiet towns along this 
line, the arrival and departure of the 
stage was the most interesting event of 
the day. To be at the post-office or 
tavern at that hour, was to know who 
had come to town, who was leaving. 
who had a letter, and. if you chose, 
where the letter came from, — matters 
of no small moment in those days of 
slow news-gathering, before shipwrecks 
and railroad accidents, murders, sui- 
cides, bank robberies and star-route 
trials had become every-day occur- 
rences among us. 

Well do I remember the childish 
enthusiasm with which we children 
were wont to proclaim to every body, 
within the reach of our voices, the 
tidings " The stage is coining!" at 
the first sound of the rattling wheels 
in the distance. 

That was a day to date from, when, 
after a severe snow-storm, the stage 
tipped over just below our house, and 
some half dozen or more men and 
women came in to warm themselves, 
while the stage and horses were set 
right, and made ready to proceed to 
the tavern, a distance of a mile and a 
quarter. Nobody was hurt. We chil- 
dren received many pleasant words 
and some pennies from the good- 
natured passengers, and, altogether, it 
was the one interesting and thrilling 
event of that season at least. 

At another time, when the snow lay 
so deep that the plows, in breaking 
out the roads, had cast up a ridge on 
each side some four or five feet high, 
so that turning out, by heavy teams, 
was quite out of the question, except 
in certain favorable spots where the 
snow lay thinner, or some previous 
track had been made, the stage sud- 
denly stopped in the level road across 
the plain just above our house, then 
moved a few paces on and stopped 
again, proceeding in this way till quite 
beyond our sight, a distance of more 
than half a mile. This was such a 
fine piece of road that the horses 
generally struck into a brisk trot on 

reaching it, and, therefore, their very 
slow and hesitating movements on that 
day, gave rise to many speculations 
and conjectures, among inquiring 
minds, until it was found that this trav- 
eling institution, of man's cunning de- 
vice and invention, had been intercept- 
ed and impeded in its progress by a 
traveler of much more ancient origin. 
This was a small, fur-clad individual 
belonging to the genus Mephitis Amer- 
icana. Complexion black, with two 
white stripes extending the length of 
his body ; head terminating in a some- 
what sharply-pointed nose, neither Ro- 
man nor Grecian in profile, and carry- 
ing above his back a graceful, bushy, 
black-and-white plume, as a signal of 
his strength. He took the middle of 
the road, marching in front of the 
United States mail with an air of con- 
scious security, receiving every intima- 
tion of impatience from those in his 
rear with the coolest indifference. 
There was a stage-load of men — " lords 
of creation" — mighty to will and to 
do, and six horses beside ; but this lit- 
tle creature, smaller than the fur-gloved 
hand of the driver, was mightier than 
they all ! His A/e/)hitissh\p having, 
by virtue of possession, first right of 
way, thus deliberately maintained it at 
his own creeping pace, against the shiv- 
ering and impatient travelers, until they 
reached a farmer's door-yard, where 
they found a chance to turn out and 
leave him at a properly safe and re- 
spectful distance. 

Many years later I chanced to be a 
stage passenger on the day following 
a long snow-storm. The snow lay two 
feet deep on a level. The day dawned 
bright and keenly cold, with a wild 
north-west wind which filled the air 
with the newly-fallen flakes, piling 
them into miniature mountains across 
the road in some places, and leaving 
it bare for rods in others. The stage 
was well filled with passengers, and 
drawn by six stout horses. As the 
round-faced driver drew the lines 
over the backs of his ready roadsters, 
we had only a parting glimpse of the 
swiftly receding objects about us, for 



we were literally flying over the road, 
diminishing in velocity, however, as 
the hills became more frequent, and 
the drifts larger and harder, until we 
reached a place where the road is 
flanked by a steep, ascending bank, - 
forty or fifty feet high on one side. and 
on the other a declivity of a hundred 
feet or more descending almost per- 
pendicularly to a river gulch below. A 
rail fence ran on the edge of the em- 
bankment, to protect teams from driv- 
ing off. The snow had blown across 
this place, completely covering every 
mark of road or fence, making one 
steep slide from the top of the bank 
above, to the bottom of the precipice 

The horses were walked slowly, for 
the stage tipped more and more to one 
side. The men, cne by one, got out 
and walked by the sides to hold it in 
position — plunging, like the horses, 
deeper and deeper into the snow 
at every step. Then we , heard bells 
from behind us, and a sleigh drawn by 
a poor, lame, dirty, white horse, and 
containing two men, both of whom 
had the appearance of having "tarried 

long at the ," well, perhaps it was 

only Baldwin a;: pies, or their juice, but 
something certainly had given a most 
exaggerated color to their noses, and 
size to their tongues. 

The one who was driving called out 
with an oath, demanding a chance to 
go by. Our driver answered that we 
could not turn out till we had passed 
that drift, and advised him to be a little 
more patient. The man would not 
listen to reason, and, after indulging in 
more oaths, he hit his poor nag — 
already covered with frost and steam 
from over-driving — a sharp cut, and, 
shouting "Ye 're makin' us late to a 
weddin',and this 'ere 's the feller that's 
got to be there to be married," at- 
tempted to pass us on the lower side. 

This, of course, was impossible ; for 
by this time every stage passenger, ex- 
cept three ladies, was wading through 
the snow, holding the stage to keep it 
right side up, so steep was the road at 
that place for a distance of sixty rods 
or more. The poor old horse, urged 
on by lash and tongue, gave a few des- 
perate plunges alongside of us, and 
then, over went horse, sleigh, driver, 
and bridegroom, down the steep bank, 
rolling together — legs, arms, harness, 
buffalo robe, shafts, runners, hats, 
boots, and red noses — each in its turn, 
"above, below, betwixt or between" — 
as the revolving mass presented its 
alternating portions to our view. When 
almost at the bottom of the abyss they 
struck a small tree with such force 
as to sever the horse from the sleigh, 
and arrest the whole caravan in 
its progress, settling the two men 
firmly in the snow, bare-headed, 
some distance apart, in the attitude of 
"'stump speakers," and leaving the buf- 
falo robe with a part of the harness on 
the tree, while the sleigh spread itself 
in different directions, and the old 
horse lay quietly on his side as if he 
enjoyed the pasture better than the 
road. Whether the poor creature ever 
arose from his snowy bed, I never 
knew, or whether the aforementioned 
wedding was seriously delayed on ac- 
count of this untoward accident to the 
groom ; for we were only able to pull 
ourselves through the drift with the 
greatest difficulty, and could do noth- 
ing for their relief. 

It is to be hoped that both, the im- 
petuous Jehu and the prospective 
bridegroom, profited by this most ex- 
cellent opportunity for cool reflection, 
and that their precipitate plunge into 
the valley of humiliation had the effect 
to make them soberer if not wiser 





Hon. Jeremiah Mason was a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives 
in December, A. D., 1S20, and 
while standing in the gallery, we heard 
him state the proposition that in his 
experience he knew of no little laiu 
cases. That all alike, whatever the 
amount involved might be, turned 
upon the same golden hinges of jus- 
tice. And it was sometimes as diffi- 
cult to ascertain the true merits of a 
case, or trace the accurate boundaries 
of right and wrong, where only five 
dollars might be involved, as where 
thousands were at stake. The ques- 
tion then pending before the House 
referred to the amount of litigated 
claims of which a certain court should 
by law have jurisdiction. Now at the 
January term of the superior court in 
Merrimack county, in A. D. 18:14, 
Mr. Mason argued a cause with much 
ability, where only three dollars was 
claimed by his client, and the evidence 
presented difficulties he could not 
solve to the satisfaction of the jury. 
It was a just appeal, wherein one 
Crossman, an inn-holder in the town 
of Andover, was original plaintiff; and 
one Lowell, a schoolmaster of Salis- 
bury, was defendant. Both sides prose- 
cuted this case with much zeal. We 
state the facts as briefly as possible : 
In the winter, o r 1822 Lowell was 
teaching school in his native school 
district on Raccoon hill in Salisbury. 
On one Saturday his neighbor, Kezar, 
who had some business to transact in 
West Andover, proposed to Lowell to 
convey him in his sleigh to the same 
place, together with another young 
man, about eighteen years of age, 
whose name we do not recollect. In 
the course of the afternoon the three 
called at the plaintiffs inn. Lowell, 
according to the custom of the times, 
being a passenger, felt bound to treat, 
and called for three drinks accordingly. 
In payment he delivered a bank bill to 

the bar-keeper, and here commenced 
the dispute. The plaintiff's bar-keeper 
was a young man about twenty years 
of age, and testified in substance that 
it was a three dollar bill, and that he 
found himself unable to make the 
change, and returned it to Lowell with 
the request to get it changed ; that 
soon afterward the plaintiff, Crossman, 
came into the room, and took the bill 
from Lowell, and returned the balance 
due him. He testified further, that 
after retaining the bill for six or ten 
days, it was ascertained the bill was 
counterfeit, and that within two weeks, 
in company with Crossman, they called 
upon Lowell and tendered the bad bill 
to him, demanding good money in re- 
turn. Lowell refused to take it back, 
avowing he never had the bill,- and 
that it was a good two dollar bill which 
he had let him have. Such was the 
plaintiff's testimony. The defendant's 
testimony was from Kezar and the 
aforesaid young man from Salisbury. 
Kezarsaid after the bar-keeper returned 
the bill to Lowell, he delivered it forth- 
with to him, requesting his aid. He, 
Kezar, examined his own money, and 
found himself unable to change it, 
and soon returned it to Lowell. He, 
was posit ive it was a two dollar bill. 
Could not tell of what bank. It look- 
ed like a good or genuine one, though 
he did not pretend to be a good judge 
of money. The other Salisbury boy said 
he did not have the bill in his hands, 
but then understood., from the conver- 
sation had in his presence between 
Kezar and Lowell, that the bill passed 
to Crossman by Lowell was a two 
dollar bill.. He also stated that Cross- 
man finally came into the room and 
took it from Lowell and took pay for 
his liquor, and gave back the change 
to Lowell. 

At that time the law did not allow 
the parties to the suit to testify. Hon. 
Ezekiel Webster had commenced tin's 



iction, and assisted in its manage- 
ment. Parker Noyes conducted the 
defence. Mr. Mason complimented 
him for the ability of his argument. 
The case was submitted to a very 
intelligent jury, of which Hon. Isaac 
Hill was foreman, Jeremiah Pecker, 
Esq., of East Concord, was second on 
the panel, and Joshua Fifield, Esq., of 
Salisbury, was No. 3. Fifield knew 
the parties and witnesses. The ver- 
dict of the jury was for the defendant. 
The Exon. rendered on the verdict 
had the effect of breaking up Cross- 
man, and he soon removed away from 
this part of the state. It was not a 
very profitable suit for Lowell. He 
remarked to us, in reference to this 
case, "that he fought against imposi- 
tion in defence of his character and 
for victory." 

At a later stage of this term we lis- 
tened to one of the most able efforts 
of Mr. Mason which distinguished his 
long career at the bar. It was in be- 
half of two medieal students, who 
were indicted by the grand jury for 
digging up the body of a young lady 
in the town of Northfield in this county. 
The case naturally gave rise to much 
excitement and public interest. On 
the part of the government the prose- 
cution was managed by Geo. Sullivan, 
then attorney-general, with signal 
ability. "There were giants on the 
earth in those days." The facts dis- 
closed by the evidence in the case did 
not show the body in the possession of 
the respondents, or that they had been 
recognized by any one as having been 
connected in digging up the body. 
The body was not actually removed, 
as the parties engaged in digging it up 
were actually frightened away by a 
person who happened to pass by the 
grave-yard at the time the digging 
was going on. The government relied 
upon the tracks of a horse and wagon 
traced on the highway some miles 
westerly of the grave-yaid, and driven 
by the respondents. On this evidence 
of the state Mr. Mason strenously 
contended that the offence charged 
was not fastened upon his clients with 

sufficient legal certainty, and claimed 
that a strong legal doubt existed whether 
the respondents had in any way parti- 
cipated in the transaction, arguing that 
there was a total want of positive evi- 
dence in the case, and if the jury con- 
victed at all their verdict must be 
founded upon weak circumstantial evi- 
dence. And here he launched forth 
his argument with great power and 
effect upon* the impropriety and great 
danger of fixing crime upon a party 
by the proof of mere circumstances 
so vague, uncertain and disconnected, 
as were here relied on by the- state. 
Mr. Mason's argument was earnest, 
cogent, eloquent, skillfully dissecting 
the evidence, and commanding the 
close attention of the jury and the 
large audience that filled the court 
room. He cited from memory a 
number of cases where the verdicts 
of juries had proved erroneous, and 
the innocent had suffered, when reiving 
alone upon this quality of testimony. 
He referred to the Bourne case in 
Rutland, Vt., where the two Bournes 
had quarreled with a neighbor, and 
had in a severe conflict thrown him 
into a cellar and fled. The neigh- 
bor not appearing the next day, 
the inference was the Bournes had 
killed their victim and secreted his 
body. The Bournes were tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be hung. 
But a short time before the execution 
was to take place, the supposed dead 
man appeared in Rutland alive. 

Again to show the danger of resort- 
ing to this kind of testimony, he quot- 
ed the case in England where two men 
met, when excited by angry, malicious 
feelings, in a retired place and fought ; 
one being armed with a pitchfork killed 
the other and left the dead body and 
the bloody pitchfork near it, and re- 
turned to his home. A third party 
passing that way, soon afterward, finds 
the dead body and pitchfork, and takes 
it away with him. He is found with 
the bloody pitchfork in his possession, 
is tried for the murder, convicted, and 
hung. The guilty man upon his death- 
bed confesses the crime, but too late. 



With the statement of these and 
other similar cases, he pressed home 
the dangers of conviction, and warned 
the jury not to offend in like manner. 
His strong appeal had the effect to 
divide the jury, and no verdict was 
rendered at that term. We subse- 
quently heard Mr. Mason argue a 
number of legal cases, both to the 
court and jury, but we never knew 
him to exhibit so much active pas- 
sionate feeling and animation, so much 
energetic action, and such rapid utter- 
ance of keen logical argument as 
were shown by him on this occasion. 
A short time before he arose to address 
the jury, he had a lively encounter with 
the attorney-general, in which both 
sides indulged the use of severe lan- 
guage, such as was not often employed 
by these gentlemen. The dispute 
arose upon some question about the 
admission of evidence. It was under 
the influence of the warmth and ex- 
citement of this occasion, when his 
passions were roused to an uncom- 
mon extent, united with the great im- 

portance felt in the case, when he 
arose and put forth his whole energies 
and his lion's strength into that de- 
fence. It is not singular or strange 
that he should have carried with him 
a number of the most intelligent jury- 

Mr. Mason's personal appearance 
was very imposing. His height was 
over six feet and six inches. His 
weight about two hundred and seventy- 
five pounds. His uncommon size 
naturally attracted the wonder of be- 
holders. His arguments to the jury 
were never tedious, always command- 
ing their close attention, being remarka- 
ble specimens of plain, clear, direct/ 
comprehensive, logical reasoning, gen- 
erally addressed to the understanding 
rather than to the passions of the 
hearer. He presented clear ideas 
aptly and forcibly expressed. He 
managed well an unwilling, untruthful 
witness. In his quiet and easy way 
he would turn such a witness inside 
out without letting him know what he 
was about. 



I saw a bright and solitary cloud. 
Above the mountain peak v mid-way in heaven. 
Within it* coverlet of snow-white folds 
A cherub lay. 

The sun-beams, deathly cold. 
In mocking splendor, played upon the cloud. 
The suu went down; a fearful night came on; 
The storm fiends raged in fury, and their king. 
The mighty Sarsor, icy wind of death, 
With all his hosts, assailed the cloud, and strove 
To kiss the cherub's lips. 

In vain! The cloud. 
That seemed so frail a breath would dissipate, 
Was stronger than the web of fate; it was 
Divine; it was the mantle Innocence. 

Tbf above verses arc a re-publication, having b<:en written in the author'8 school days.— Ed. 






Dkvoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

APRIL, 1S83. 

:s T o. 7 


A citizen of the United States, native 
or foreign born, cannot help being 
proud and patriotic as he views the 
magnificence of the city of Washing- 
ton. It is laid out for a regal city ; its 
streets and avenues are wide and 
straight ; its private residences are 
palatial ; the public buildings are im- 
posing, enduring, substantial, massive, 
beautiful. From every point of view 
the Capitol is grand ; its dome is fault- 
less in its proportions ; its interior is 
perfect. Within its walls are congre- 
gated the representatives of fifty 
million people, the senators of thirty- 
eight states. There the laws for a 
great nation are enacted, affecting 
every citizen and every industry 
throughout our vast territory. Words 
uttered within those walls are heard 
around the world. The millions of 
Europe, from the prince to the peasant, 
read and ponder. India, China, and 
the distant islands of the ocean have 
a deep interest in the debates of our 

In the senate chamber are gathered 
the envoys or representatives of the 
sovereign states, — senators, men select- 
ed for their wisdom, eloquence, good- 
ness, and ability, to guard the vast and 
varied interests of their constituents, 
to direct the expenditure of an im- 
mense revenue ; to improve the con- 
dition of the American people, and 
protect all classes in liberty, freedom, 

and equal rights. In that body have 
been gathered the intellectual giants 
of the century of America, who have 
had to meet and settle great constitu- 
tional questions affecting our national 
life. Therein have been assembled 
Webster, Clay, Calhoun, and Benton, 
Chandler, Wilson, Conkling and Blaine, 
political Warwicks. That wise and 
dignified body has ever been the bul- 
wark of ourgovernment,givingstrength 
to its councils and moderation to the 
enthusiasm of the more popular branch 
of congress. It has settled definitely 
the question of state rights, national 
unity, human slavery, manhood suffrage 
and equality. 

There are great questions yet to be 
settled by the congress of the United 
States, questions which over-shadow 
the past and render gloomy the future ; 
the disposal of the public lands of our 
national domain ; the development of 
our great agricultural interests ; the 
protection of labor \ the education of 
the masses : the national care of 
wounded soldiers and the families of 
stricken heroes ; the elevation of 
women to equal rights ; the suppression 
of intemperance. These are the great 
questions of the future to be settled 
by statesmen. Politicians can attend 
to the privileges and elections, mili- 
tary, naval and Indian affairs, claims, 
patents, railroads, post-offices, terri- 
tories, civil service and retrenchment ; 



bankers can control appropriations, 
foreign relations, finance, commerce, 
manufactures and mines ; lawyers the 
judiciary ; — the great departments of 
the government will run in a rut of 
their own momentum ; the shoulder of, 
a giant is needed to raise the wheels 
from the rut. There is needed in the 
halls of congress, the statesman, the phil- 
anthropist,, the humanitarian, the reform- 
er, the man with broad sympathies and 
tender nature, quick to respond to the 
wants of his countrymen. 

Lately it was my privilege to occupy 
a seat in the gallery of the senate 
chamber and look down upon the 
senate of the United States. Con- 
spicuous in that assembly for the dignity 
of his bearing, the courtesy of his 
manners, and the charm of his per- 
sonality, was our honored senator, 
Henry W. Blair, a sketch of whose 
struggle in life from humble beginnings 
to his present eminent position, it is 
my purpose to lay before the readers 
of the Granite Monthly. 

Henry William Blair, son of Wil- 
liam Henry and Lois (Baker) Blair, 
was born in Campton, December 6, 
1834. On his father's side he traces 
his descent from a Scotch-Irish em- 
igrant ancestor, who first settled in 
Londonderry. The family, in com- 
pany with the Coxes, Shepards and 
Livermores, were among the first set- 
tlers of the Pemigewasset valley. Mr. 
William H. Blair was born in Camp- 
ton, was a teacher in his youth, mar- 
ried and settled in Campton, and died 
there December 8, 1836, from inju- 
ries received by the falling of the frame 
of a building. Mrs. Lois Blair was a 
descendant of the Bakers of Candia, 
of an influential family in Campton, 
a teacher before her marriage, a fine 
singer, ''gifted with remarkable mental 
endowments and rare sweetness of 
disposition." She died in 1846. Four 
children blessed their union : 

1. Hannah Palmer Blair, born 1830 ; 
died 1843. 

2. Moses Baker Blair, born 1832; 
died 1857. 

3. Henry W. Blair, born Dec. 6 

4. Lois Esther Blair, born May 27, 
1837 ; married John Henry Giles, of 
Chelsea, Mass. 

The untimely death of the husband 
and father left his widow and family ' 
very poor ; they were obliged to sep- 
arate. At the early age of eight 
Henry was taken into the family of 
Richard Bartlett, of Campton, with 
whom he remained until he was seven : 
teen years of age, laboring upon the 
farm and enjoying the usual privileges 
of country common schools. He had 
a home with the Bartletts until he 
came of age. 

Mr. Blair often speaks of his home with 
the Bartletts, and always in terms of the 
highest respect, affection and gratitude. 
Mr. Bartlett was a nephew of William 
Bartlett, the merchant prince of New- 
buryport during the early years of the 
country, two of whose brothers, Eben- 
ezer and David, emigrated to Camp- 
ton and were among the most upright 
and honored of the earlier settlers of 
that town. Their descendants were 
numerous and influential in that vicin- 
ity and in every community where 
they have resided. Mr. Richard Bart- 
lett died in i860; Mrs. Bartlett, hon- 
ored and beloved by everybody, is 
now the wife of Dea. Norris, of Mere- 
dith Village. 

In the midst of the grand and sub- 
lime scenery of his native valley young 
Blair was maturing a noble character, 
a sound intellect, and a healthy 
body. He was a pupil of the Holmes 
academy, at Plymouth, two fall terms 
in iS5i-52,and, undertheinstructionof 
the principal, Rev. James H. Shepard, 
made rapid progress in his studies. 
His ambition was aroused, his thirst 
for knowledge was insatiable, and he 
resolved to receive the benefits of a 
collegiate education, unaided save by 
his clear brain and active muscles. 
His struggle was heroic ; early and 
late he toiled with head and hands 
to accomplish his chosen purpose. 

From the time he was seventeen, 
he labored, taught school, canvass- 



ed and studied, until his health gave 
out and he was prostrated on a bed 
of sickness. For five* years his in- 
domitable will sustained him. and not 
without a pang did he relinquish his 
design. Upon the advice of his friend 
Samuel A. Burns, himself a distin- 
guished teacher, he decided to enter 
upon the study of the legal pro- 
fession with the preparation he had 
already acquired, and accordingly 
May i, 1856, he entered the office 
of William Leverett, esquire, Plymouth, 
and for three years pursued his studies 
under the advice and tuition of that 
able lawyer. In 1S59 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. and associated him- 
self with his instructor in the practice 
of his profession. The next year he 
was appointed to his first office, county 
solicitor for Grafton county. 

From the first Mr. Blair was a 
thorough-going Republican. An in- 
stinctive hatred of slavery and all its 
attendant iniquities inspired him as a 
boy to look eagerly forward to the 
time when he could join in the warfare 
against it, and when he reached his 
majority he lost no occasion to declare, 
by voice and vote, his convictions upon 
the subject. When the slaveholders 
raised the standard of revolt against . 
the government he had ju^t begun to 
reap the fruits of his early struggles 
and see the realization of his boyish 
dreams of success in his profession ; 
but every call for men served to render 
him uncomfortable at home, and while 
the twelfth regiment was being recruit- 
ed, he put away his books and briefs 
and tried to join it, but failed to pass 
the surgeon's examination. He then 
enlisted as a private in the fifteenth 
regiment, and was chosen captain of 
Company B. Before leaving the state 
he was commissioned major by Gov. 
Berry, in which capacity he went to 
Louisiana. Soon after his arrival 
there the disability of his superior 
officers left him in command of the 
regiment, and from that time the drill 
and discipline which made it one of 
the best in the service were his work. 
In the assault upon Port Hudson, in 

May, 1S63, he was severely wounded 
by a minie-ball in the right arm, and 
was carried to the hospital to recover ; 
but, learning a few days later that 
another attack on that rebel strong- 
hold was to be made, he insisted on 
disregarding the commands of the 
surgeons by joining his command, 
and, with his arm in a sling, led his 
men, who had the head of the column, 
in the ill-fated charge of June 14. 
Here he was shot again in the same 
arm by a bullet, which tore open the 
old wound ; but he refused to leave 
his troops, and remained with them 
until he could take them from the 
field. About this time he was promot- 
ed to be lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment, and, as such, brought it 
home when its term of service had 
expired. He reached Concord little 
more than a bodily wreck, and for 
some weeks his life hung by a thread ; 
but careful nursing by his devoted 
wife and friends restored him to suffi- 
cient strength to warrant his removal 
to his old home on the banks of the 

Chief Justice Doe put aside his judi- 
cial work, came to Concord, and for 
some days carefully watched and wait- 
ed on his friend with the tenderness of 
a woman until the greatest danger was 
over. Hon. J. D. Sleeper was con- 
stant in his delicate and affectionate 
attentions to the wounded man. Mr. 
Blair has often said that to these two 
men he felt largely indebted for his 

A long season of suffering and dis- 
ability from wounds and disease con- 
tracted in the army followed his re- 
turn ; but he gradually regained his 
health sufficiently to resume the prac- 
tice of law at Plymouth, in which the 
court records show him to have been 
remarkably successful. He had a legal 
mind, had fitted himself for the bar 
with great thoroughness, prepared his 
cases carefully and patiently, and 
managed them skillfully, seldom fail- 
ing to obtain a verdict. The Grafton 
county bar was at that time noted for 
the ability and learning of its mem- 



bers. and he was rapidly working his 
way to a prominent place among them, 
when he turned aside to enter political - 
life, — a step which many* of the emi- 
nent men with whom he was associat- 
ed in the trial of causes, regard even 
now as a great mistake, his brilliant 
success in the field of politics failing, 
in their estimation, to compensate for 
what he was capable of achieving in 
the law. For several years he practiced 
alone ; but in 1S75 formed a partner- 
ship with Alvin Burleigh, which con- 
tinued until his election to the U. S. 

In 1866 Mr. Blair was elected a 
representative to the popular branch 
of the state legislature, and there 
began the political service which has 
since made him so widely known. 
The next year he was promoted to 
the state senate by the voters of the 
eleventh district, and in 1S68 was re- 
elected. In 1872 the third district, 
composed of the counties of Coos, 
Grafton, Sullivan, and Cheshire, elect- 
ed a Democrat to congress ; and in 
1874 the Republicans, looking about 
for a candidate under whose lead they 
could redeem it, found him in Mr. 
Blair, whose reputation as a soldier, 
clean record as a citizen, personal 
popularity, and indefatigable industry 
and zeal dictated his enthusiastic nomi- 
nation, and after an exciting campaign 
secured his election to the forty-fourth 
congress. In 1876 he was again 
elected, and in 1878 declined a re- 
nomination. The next summer the 
term of United States Senator Wad- 
leigh having expired, Mr. Blair came 
forward as a candidate for the suc- 
cession. He was earnestly supported 
by the younger men of the party, by 
the temperance and soldier elements ; 
and, though his competitors were the 
ablest men in the state, he bore away 
the great prize, and immediately en- 
tered upon the discharge of his duties 
at Washington, to which he has since 
devoted himself. 

Mr. Blair's election to the national 
senate was largely due to the record 
he had made in the house, and to his 

remarkable faculty of winning and 
retaining the hearty friendship of 
nearly all with whom he had ever been 
associated. From his youth up he 
had held radical views upon public 
questions ; and the persistency and 
zeal with which he advanced and de- 
fended these under all circumstances 
convinced even his opponents of his 
entire sincerity, and bound to him his 
co-workers with locks of steel. Men 
liked him because he was cordial, 
frank, and earnest, and respected him 
because he had ability, industry, and 
courage ; and so they rallied around 
him with a devotion and faith which 
overcame ail opposition. 

During the four years he represent- 
ed the third district in the house, he 
served upon the committees on Rail- 
roads and Accounts, and several 
special committees. In the senate of 
the forty-sixth congress, upon the 
committees on Education and Labor, 
Agriculture, Transportation, Routes to 
the Seabord, Election Frauds, Pen- 
sions, and Exodus of the Colored 
People : and in the present congress 
is chairman of the senate committee 
on Education and Labor, and a mem- 
ber of those on Pensions, Public 
Lands, Agriculture, and Woman Suf- 
frage. In committees he is known as 
a working man. 

Soon after entering the house he 
introduced and advocated with great 
ability a proposition to amend the 
national constitution so as to prohibit 
the manufacture or sale of distilled 
spirits in the United States after 1S90, 
a measure which gave him a national 
reputation, and caused him to be re- 
cognized by the temperance people of 
the country as their leader and cham- 
pion in the national capitol. They 
regard him also as the special pro- 
moter of the great movement to amend 
the constitutions of the several states 
so as to prohibit the manufacture of 
intoxicating liquors for other than 
medicinal, mechanical and chemical 
purposes. The woman suffragists have 
also found in him a vigorous and un- 
wearying defender. His speeches and 



labors in behalf of education in the 
House and Senate and elsewhere show 
how carefully he would guard our lib- 
erties by the universal intelligence and 
virtue of the people. Over a hundred 
thousand copies of his speech in the 
House on Free Schools were printed 
and circulated by the Republican 
Congressional Committee. In the Sen- 
ate his bill and speeches in behalf of 
national aid to education have awak- 
ened the greatest interest. He points 
to the perils of illiteracy, and urges an 
ample appropriation from the National 
Treasury, and makes conditions to 
render the aid safe and effective. His 
speeches have been called for and 
printed at the expense of friends 
of education by tens of thousands. 
When the financial policy of the 
country became a subject of discussion, 
and many of its strongest minds were 
carried from their moorings by the 
Greenback cyclone, Senator Blair 
stood sturdily for an honest currency 
and strict honesty in dealing with the 
government creditors, and by his 
speeches in congress and on the stump 
contributed in no small degree to the 
triumph of those principles and the 
incidental success of the Republican 
party. One of his speeches on this 
subject in the House was printed and 
circulated by the Republican Congres- 
sional Committee by the hundreds of 
thousands. The veteran soldier has 
always found in him a friend who lost 
no opportunity to speak and vote for 
the most liberal pension laws, and who 
never tired in responding to individual 
calls for assistance at the department. 
The representatives of many interests, 
like those of starch and knit goods, 
well know how untiring and effective 
were his efforts for their protection 
when imperilled by proposed legisla- 
tion. His other service in Congress 
has been most conspicuous in his 
speeches and reports against the Texas 
Pacific Railroad Subsidies, upon For- 
eign Markets and Commerce, Election 
Frauds in the South, the Exodus of 
Colored People, the Japanese Indem- 
nity Fund, the Public Land Bill, the 

Commission of Inquiry into the Liquor 
Traffic, upon the Administration of the 
Pension Laws, Tariff Bill, and several 
other important measures ; his eulo- 
gies upon Henry Wilson, Zachariah 
Chandler, and Evarts W. Farr ; and 
his reports on numerous subjects which 
have claimed the attention of his com- 
mittees. He is rarely absent from his 
seat, and when present never declines 
to vote. His first term expires March 
3, 1SS5. 

The inadequacy of these notes will 
be apparent when it is known that it 
takes nearly two pages of the Record 
to index the Senator's recorded efforts 
in a single session of Congress. 

Mr. Blair is a citizen of Plymouth, 
and is very public spirited in local 
affairs. His neighbors claim that it was 
owing to his promptness and generos- 
ity that the Normal School was located 
in the town, and the Holderness 
School for Boys in the adjoining town. 
Through his efforts the old court house 
where Webster began his legal career 
was preserved from destruction, re- 
paired, and devoted to the uses of a 
public library. His residence and 
most of its contents was destroyed by 
fire in 1870, and since then his home 
has been at the Pemigewasset House. 

From this brief sketch it will be 
seen that Mr. Blair owes his excep- 
tional success in life to no extraneous 
or accidental aids. His parents were 
poor, and their untimely death depriv- 
ed him of their counsel and example. 
His boyhood was a struggle with pov- 
erty, of which his youth was only a 
continuance. All he had he earned. 
What he became he made himself. 
As a man he has shown great capacity 
for work and a disposition to do his 
best in every position. He is always 
intensely in earnest. He has indomi- 
table perseverance and persistency, and 
never allows his abilities to rust in idle- 
ness. He is an outspoken and aggres- 
sive but practical reformer : a radical 
but sagacious Republican. Though 
his early advantages were few, he has 
been a voracious reader and a close 
student, and does not lack for the help 



which familiarity with books gives. 
He is an easy writer and a fluent 
speaker. He is generous to a fault ; 
and his most prominent weakness is a 
disposition to magnify his obligations 
to his friends. 

Senator Blair married, Dec. 20. 
1859, Eliza Nelson, the daughter of 
Rev. William Nelson, a Methodist 
clergyman, of Groton, and has one 
son, — Henry P. Blair, — born Dec. 8, 

Mrs. Blair is a model wife and 
mother, beloved by all who know her. 
Her intellectual abilities are of a high 

order. She possesses great strength 
of character. Every one familiar with 



the circles 

where she has moved for severed years 
past, w'll bear witness to the univerr-al 
esteem in which she is held by all. 
She devotes much of her time to be- 
nevolent work and is deeply interested 
in the establishment of the Garfield 
Memorial Hospital, a great national 
work, of which she is Corresponding 

The leading filet* in thi* sketch are from SUC- 
CESSFUL New Hamtshike Mkx. John B. 



On the shores of tli" Adriatic as sunset's splendor dies. 

From loving hearts and tuneful lips the sweetest anthems rise. 
"With songs the fisher's wife recalls her husband home to rest. 

Soothing the while her slunib'ring babe upon her sheltering breast. 

How sweet to the weary fisher, as shadows gather round. 

Must be the echoing eadeuee of that most welcome sound; 
But sweeter to those awaiting, what joy each bosom thrills, 

As the song is echoed back and the wistful silence fills. 

The maid awaits her lover with fond, impatient sigh; 

The little child its father with a brightly beaming eye; 
While the mother smiles serenely, when sea and sky are calm, 

When tempests roar she prays her God to keep her loved from harm. 

But. whether in calm or tempest, be weather foul or fair. 

Surely as fall-; the twilight dim those love songs till the air. 
Ah! true, 't is amidst the lowly the sweetest customs hold. 

Binding together human hearts with purer links than gold. 

'T is told a fair young maiden there lived in days of yore, 

In a tiny, vine-wreathed cut on the Adriatic shore. 
llow she loved and was beloved by a fisher lad so gay. 

And they were shortly to be wed— was set the bridal day. 

But one eve arose a tempest, drowning those calls of love. 

The waters raged, a seething mass. "the lightnings glared above. 
The anxious wives were forced to seek the welcome warmth of home, 

The tender maid with aching heart kept weary watch alone. 

The wild wind roared, the rain beat down upon her floating hair, 
Vet still she watched and waited, breathing a fervent prayer. 

And when the storm abated, at her feet her love lay — dead! 

She laughed, and toyed with his ebon locks, her mind for ever fled. 

And still she waits and watches; as the sunset splendors die, 

Sings for awhile, then listens, awaiting his reply. 
There ift a sweet expectant look upon her aging face. 

As she lists, in vain, the answ'ring sound upon the air to trace. 

And often far into the night that sad. weird song is heard, 

Pity is felt in many breasts seldom by pity stirred. 
At last she turns, with mournful sighs, her heart with waiting numb, 

Whispering softly to herself. "To-morrow my love come."' 





BY F. W. R. 


One evening, several months later, 
while the Countess was awaiting her 
reception hour, carelessly reclining up- 
on a divan, her eyes half closed, and 
her hand in that of her lover, a servant 
entered and handed her a large letter 
of official appearance. Lucrecia open- 
ed it and turned ghastly pale. 

"What is it, darling? What is the 
matter?" cried Marcel. 

" Nothing, merely a chill." 

She grasped the letter and walked 
hurriedly several times up and down 
the room. Marcel, uneasy, followed 
her, without daring to question her a 
second time. Suddenly she threw her- 
self into his arms, and pressed him to 
her heart with all her strength, covering 
his face with kisses. This excitement 
gave Marcel a presentiment of misfor- 
tune, but just as he was about to ques- 
tion her further the first guests arrived. 

The Countess swept away all traces 
of agitation. She was more brilliant 
than ever; she sang songs of courage, 
and threw into them all her verve and 
talent. One would have said that she 
wished to enchant, once more, this 
court of which she was the queen, and 
give Capellani a full understanding of 
her worth. 

She announced later that she left for 
her vineyard next morning, and as they 
were astonished at this, she added, — 

" Oh ! it is only for a few days, a 
very few days." 

They wished her a pleasant trip, and 
each took his leave as usual. She 
pressed the hands of her old friends 
warmly and repeatedly, and she em- 
braced the Marquise, saying, " Good 
by ! good by !" 

Tosinghi came among the others. 
but more sadly than usual ; the brilliass 
gayety of Lucrecia had hurt him. As 
he was going he was struck by a deep, 
questioning glance which she threw 2* 

" Come to-morrow at ten," said she 
in a courageous tone, " I have a ser- 
vice to ask of you." 

Never had Capellani found her so 
tender and so passionate as the nex: 
morning, when she spoke to him oz 
going to the country. 

"Are you not tired of this noisy 
life?" she said. "Are you not wearied 
by these continual ovations ? Oh ! fat 
our quiet love in' the solitude of the 
mountains, our careless rambles in the 
fields ! • Come, let us make the most 
of the last clays of autumn. Who knows 
if we shall ever see spring ! Marcel, 
my well beloved, I want to drink again 
the long, deep draughts of love ; I war.: 
to throw off these silks and diamonds 
which stifle me, and lean upon your 
arm dressed in muslin ; to run through 
the grass in the olive fields ; to feel the 
cool shade of our grotto in the moun- 
tains, where we passed the happiest 
days of our lives. My God ! if we 
could never enjoy again such happi- 
ness ! If some archangel, with sword 
of fire, were to appear before us, as 
before the gates of paradise ! Come ! 
come quickly ! Let us not lose these 
days of liberty." 

Marcel, delighted by these loving 
words, listened with beating heart. 
Once, a somber presentiment crossed 
his mind, but he rejected it ; besides 
he did not dare mar this picture of 
happiness by a cruel thought. 



He went first, with a single domes- 
tic, to his villa, for it was there, in the 
rustic cottage, where they had passed 
their first delicious days of love, that 
Lucrecia was to arrive that evening. 

At three o'clock Tosinghi found the 
Countess Palandra dressed and ready 
to get into her carriage. She held out 
her hand to him and led him to a seat. 

" Are you still my friend ?" 

u Have I changed since I devoted 
my heart and my life to you?" 

She gave him the letter which she 
had received and added : 

" The Count Palandra has been 
pardoned. This is the letter which 
announces it. It says he will leave 
Vienna and arrive at San Michele Mu- 
rana on the ioth of November. This 
is the 15th. The Count has left the 
prison, thanks to the pardon. He will 
take a carriage from Padua to Boulogne, 
and the stage from Boulogne to Flor- 
ence. In three days he will be here." 

Tosinghi trembled and would not 
reply to this terrible announcement. 
He knew that these simple words were 
the prologue to an inevitable catastro- 
phe. He knew the Count and he 
knew Lucrecia. Pale, with his eyes 
fixed upon those of the Countess, he 
waited : and as the silence continued he 
murmured in a trembling voice, " Well." 

" I do not desire my husband," re- 
plied Lucrecia, with an expression 
which frightened Tosinghi still more, 
" to arrive here without knowing all. 
That would be a double treason. I 
count upon your friendsrr'p, upon this 
devotion which you have so often of- 
fered me, and I have dared to ask it. 
You must go to Florence and to Bou- 
logne, if there is yet time, and — " 

"What ! you want me to go to Bou- 
logne to tell Palandra of his misfor- 

" You will have nothing to tell him. 
Here is a letter which you will give 
him. Only, when he has read it be near 
to offer him a friendly hand, and do 
what he requires." 

Her voice trembled and faltered. 

Tosinghi took the letter, and mechan- 

cally read the inscription, examined 

the coat-of-arms, and returned it with 
a vague feeling of terror. 

"But," said he, "what do you in- 
tend to do?" 

" What I ought." 

" Lucrecia !" 

" Have I presumed too much upon 
your strength and friendship?" added 
the Countess. " No," replied Tosinghi, 
" I will do it. I believe it is necessary 
to leave at once, is it not?" 

" Immediately, if you can." 

" Adieu, then, Lucrecia." 

"Adieu," she replied, in a sad voice. 

She gave him her hand again, and 
he seized it and pressed a passionate 
kiss upon it, and two great tears, which 
he could not hide, rolled down his wan 

Two hours later the Countess Palan- 
dra was with her lover, and took sup- 
per with him under the arbor, with its 
reddened leaves. 

She had thrown off her traveling 
dress, unbound her hair, and folded 
over her shoulders a lace shawl. She 
ate a pomegranate, sipped a glass of 
wine, and pelted Marcel with purple 
grapes, laughing with wild, fresh laugh- 
ter. At times she would run to her 
lover, throw her beautiful arms around 
his neck, and look at him with eyes 
filled with ineffable tenderness. 

Night came on, and a large antique 
lamp was placed upon the table, Lu- 
crecia drew a long gold pin from her 
hair, and called for oil to fill the lamp 
full. " I want it to burn for a long 
time," she said, " to give light to the 
happiest of nights." Then suddenly 
she blew it out. 

" What !" she cried, " shall we measure 
the hours by seeing them fade away ! 
No ! no ! let it be night, let the moon 
and stars hide themselves, and we will 
dream of eternity." 

The next day she carried Marcel to 
every place to which any pleasant 
memory was attached ; to her own 
villa ; to the terraces ; under the olive 
trees, and then farther away into the 
country to look once more at the grot- 
to and the village inn. They went 
also to the tomb of Guiseppe and re- 



read the touching epitaph. Lucrecia 
placed a bunch of autumn flowers, 
which she had gathered along the way, 
upon his grave, and then she sat down 
near it, and could not restrain her tears. 

"What is it, darling?" said Marcel,, 
wonderingly, "you are crying, Lucre- 

" It is so sad to die when one is 

"Why speak of dying!" 

She did not reply, but clasped his 

" Poor Guiseppe !" 

This was her only moment of weak- 
ness during the two days which she 
spent alone with Marcel. The rest of 
the time she abandoned herself to the 
completeness of love. She was happy, 
with a feverish happiness which be- 
came more intense as the hours passed 

" A day like this does not come often 
in a lifetime," she would say every time 
a sad thought came into her mind. 
Sometimes she would look at her 
watch, hiding a shudder at seeing how 
the time flew by, and she counted the 
moments which remained. " How 
short they are," she said to herself, " and 
nothing can prolong them., nothing ! 
nothing ! But I forget, in thinking of 
the end, that I am tasting the most 
perfect happiness. The minutes roll 
swiftly by ; I speak and they are gone." 
Then she placed her head upon Mar- 
cel's shoulder and held him tightly as 
if she would lose herself in him ; stop- 
ping his breath as if by so doing she 
could retain the present, this fleeing 
happiness, the false god, to which one 
sacrifices the future and eternity, and 
which, by the way, does not exist. 

Why was it that Marcel did not di- 
vine these terrible thoughts? Why 
did he not read her awful resolve in 
her eyes? Why did he not hear the 
chant of the swan ? Who knows ! while 
one abandoned himself to love without 
fear ; the other evidently drained the 
last drop from the cup of life, and said : 
" This day is my last, there will be no 

The morning of the third day Lucre- 
cia told him that she was going to 
Florence, on business for her husband. 
She said this in a calm voice, and very 
coldly, she had such perfect command 
of herself. 

" 1 will go with you," cried Marcel. 

" No," said she, " It is impossible." 
Then she added, " I have foigotton 
the Count Palandra long enough. The 
time for duty has come, and I must 
answer its call." 

" What do you mean ? The time 
for duty? Lucrecia, where are you 
going? What are you going to do?" 
For the first time the idea of danger 
presented itself to him ; the blood left 
his heart, and Lucrecia heard a sound 
like an enraged lion. 

"This is nothing of importance," 
she said in a reassuring voice, " Only 
some matters of business. Do not be 
uneasy, it will quickly be done." 

" Know at least," he replied sternly, 
" That I can and shall protect you from 
all dangers." 

" My darling ! My well beloved !" 
she cried, throwing her arms around 
hismeck, and looking at him as if she 
would carry away with her every line 
of his countenance. She tore herself 
away to stifle the cry of despair that 
rose to her lips. By a supreme effort 
she repressed the heart broken words, 
and added simply : " Adieu !" She 
hurried to her carriage, and hardly 
had the horses taken a dozen steps 
when she burst into the most heart- 
breaking sobs. But suddenly they 
ceased, and she quickly dried her eyes. 
Marcel was following the carriage. 

" U you are going first to Pistoja let 
me go with you," cried he. Suddenly, 
Lucrecia's face brightened as if the sun 
had broken forth from a stormy sky. 
" Come," said she ; and while he was 
getting in she murmured with delirious 
passion : "An hour more of love." 

How short this hour was ; how 
quickly the carriage went ; how rapidly 
the wheels traced their double track 
in the dusty road. They reached 
Pistoja. Lucrecia assumed her old 
severe expression, and went up to her 



chamber, where she arranged her pa- 
pers, and then called her servants, and 
told them she was going to Florence 
upon business for the Count. No one 
dared to question her, but she noticed 
on all faces an expression of constraint 
and terror. "The news has spread," 
she thought, '"'and Marcel will hear it." 
She hastened her preparations, said 
good by to all, and wrote two letters , 
which she placed in her bosom. Then 
she passed for the last time through 
the palace of her ancestors, of whom 
she was the last representative, and 
got into her carriage, which she had 

A long kiss in the embrasure of the 
doorway, and a convulsive pressure of 
the hand, were her last adieux to this 
lover whom she was leaving forever, 
and who suspected nothing. 

This time Capellani saw the carriage 
disappear at the bend in the road, and 
heard the last faint sound of the wheels 
as they died out in the distance. He 
went back into the palace, and walked 
through the silent halls. This was the 
first time they had been separated, 
and a terrible melancholy settled down 
upon him. In order to overcome this 
feeling he went out into the street. He 
met few persons whom he knew, and 
these seemed to avoid him. His sad- 
ness increased every minute, until at 
last, in spite of the early hour, he went 
to see the Marquise. 

Ordinarily, Lucrecia's old friend ac- 
corded an affectionate welcome to 
Marcel, but to-day she received him 
with embarrassment, arid hardly dared 
to pronounce Lucrecia's name. He 
told her of Lucrecia's departure, and 
the Marquise turned pale, and cried : 
" What ! is she gone ? My God ! what 
does she mean to do?" 

The old lady's fright, her cry of ter- 
ror, were a revelation to Marcel. 
"What have they hidden from me?" 
he cried. 

" What ! you do not know ? The 
Count Palandra is pardoned ; he is on 
his way home." 

Marcel sprang up, and rushed from 
the house, and an hour later his post 

horses were flying along the road to 
Florence in pursuit of Lucrecia. 

He held his head in his hands fur 
his brain seemed ready to bur^t. 

" What is she going to do? Fool '. 
I have seen nothing ; I, who can read 
men so well. What had she to fear?'' 
And the poor fellow lost himself in 
wild conjectures. He thought of all the 
means of safety which his former power 
still rendered easy for him, but the blood 
boiled in his veins, and the minutes 
seemed hours, and he cried incessant- 
ly, " hurry ! hurry !" At Prato, while 
the horses were being changed, he 
learned strange news. Lucrecia had 
asked the inn-keeper to send two let- 
ters by a swift messenger to Pistoja ; 
then, instead of continuing on to Flor- 
ence, she had gone off in another di- 
rection and no one knew whither. 

A cry of anger escaped him. He 
did not know what to do, and he 
cursed God and man. For the first 
time in his life Napoleon's ex-captain 
felt that his courage was. useless. He 
saw he must return to get the let- 
ter, and with a groan of despair he 
gave the order to do so, and his horses 
went tearing back over the same road. 

He found a letter awaiting him, tore 
it open, and was obliged to lean against 
the wall for support, because, before 
reading a line, he knew a terrible blow 
was about to fall upon him. 

" My friend, my darling, have cour- 
age. I depend upon you. Marcel, 
your friend is dead. 

"The Count Palandra will return, I 
told him when he went to prison, 
where I sent him, you can depend 
upon me ; and I have betrayed him. 
For whom? For one of his jailers, 
perhaps ; but from the day on which 
I opened my arms to you, Marcel, I 
was resolved. I have drained the cup 
of love ; I am intoxicated with such 
delight as angels might envy ; but 
happiness here below, is a debt 
which one contracts. The time for 
payment has come. I pay. 

" Do not regret me, if you love me, 
for if it were necessary to choose be- 
tween a long life of honor and a day 



spent with you, I should choose the 
day. Marcel, it is these supreme joys 
which it is impossible to describe, 
that carry one above the world. These 
joys I have tasted. They are a hun- 
dred times more precious than life, and 
I throw mine down without a regret, 
and without complaint, as an empty 
cup, as a dead flower whose perfume 
is gone. 

"As for you, my friend, have I made 
you happy? Then reproach me for 
nothing ; you know I am not a coward ; 
that I would not flee, with shame on 
my face, from rendering an account to 
my husband. You will weep, my well 
beloved. I know there are griefs so 
poignant that one weeps tears of blood ; 
but be cautious ! Xo one will know of 
my death. I have taken my precautions 
to disappear without a sign. The 
Count Palandra, Monsieur Rospigliosi 
and you, will alone know the truth. 
Three days ago I sent Tosinghi to the 
Count with this letter. 

" ' Monsieur : 

Do not return to Pistoja. 
I have failed in my duty ; I have be- 
trayed you ; but 1 know what such an 
offence requires, and when you read 
this you will be avenged. The verdict, 
which my conscience alone has pro- 
nounced, my own hand will execute 
without noise or scandal. To all the 
world the Countess Palandra has gone 
to meet you at Florence ; but the car- 
riage which carries your unfaithful wife 
will stop at a turn of the road, and the 
guilty will die in an unknown cave, 
where no one will find her body. 
Adieu ! ' 

" Marcel, my friend, you will know 
where to find my body. It is from 
you that I wish a last kiss, and a few 
shovelfuls of earth. Oh God ! the 
idea that you will press me to your 
heart, that you will lay me in my grave, 
and cross my hands upon my breast, 
fills me still with a wild joy ! I do not 
wish to tell you here the place where 
you will find my body, for I fear that 
in your first grief you may betray me. 
Go to Monsieur Rospigliosi. I have 
written to him. 

" You must not die ; it would be a 
weakness. As for me, to satisfy honor, 
I willingly lay down my life, when it is 
beautiful as Paradise, and when each 
day added more delight ; but for you 
it would be to flee from sadness, you 
would desert the field of battle. Meet 
Palandra, if he seeks you, and then 
carry out your destiny which I have in- 
terrupted, and be noble and great in 
memory of me. 

" Adieu ! adieu ! for the last time ! 
May the breeze which passes as I ex- 
pire carry to you all my love and not 
a regret." 

At first Capellani stood like a statue. 
He believed himself insane, or a prey 
to a horrible nightmare, and he read 
her letter again. Then he felt a fu- 
rious desire to know the truth, and 
had a vague hope of saving her still, 
and he rushed to the Bishop's. Mon- 
sieur Rospigliosi was kneeling in his 
orator)-, and an envelope near him in- 
dicated the object of his prayers. Ke 
rose and took the poor fellow's hand, 
and the latter burst into suppressed 
.sobs. At last he gave Marcel the letter. 

" Monsieur :" said she, "pardon the 
guilty one who ought to see in you 
only a judge, but who dares address 
you as a friend. When you read this 
1 shall be dead. I know that the 
Catholic religion regards suicide as an 
unpardonable crime ; but I did not die 
as an atheist but as a stoic ; my suicide 
is not an act of cowardly despair, it is 
an expiation. I am punishing myself 
for being too happy in a guilty love. 
But if you will bless my mortal body 
you will at least carry out my last 
prayer. Console Capellani, fortify 
him against despair, and tell him my 
body is hidden not far from Casade 
Dei, in a cavern which he knows, and 
where I desire to be buried. Perhaps 
you will see the Count Palandra. Say 
to him that I pray for pardon. 

" I beg you, Monsieur, to second the 
efforts which I have used to disap- 
pear from the world without attracting 
notice, and accept the respectful adieux 
of the guilty one whom you always 



honored by your fatherly care and 

Monsieur Rospigliosi's carriage was 
called. Both got in and drove toward 
Casade Dei. 

Capellani knew the way to the cav- 
ern only too well. Around the en- 
trance the bushes were not broken, 
and the earth showed no tracks. For 
a moment hope filled their hearts. 

Alas ! at the back of the cave, upon 
a mass of autumn leaves, lay Lucrecia, 
a poniard in her breast. Marcel threw 
himself upon the still warm body with 
a horrible cry. He pressed her to his 
heart, and looked at her with terrible 
agony in every feature ; he kissed her 
and called to her by every endearing 

In the presence of the dead the 
Bishop found his apostolic strength. 
He seized Marcel with a powerful hand 
and drew him away. 

"Leave this body." he said sternly, 
" which needs nothing now but a little 
earth, and think of this soul which you 
have lost. Come ! cover her with her 
shawl, hide the entrance to the cave, 
and say a prayer." 

Marcel could not reply, and hardly 
understood. He had not strength to 
resist, and fell upon his knees, stupefied 
with grief, but he handed the Bishop 
her letter, and while he read it a low 
moaning sound escaped from Marcel's 

"This woman was not a christian," 
said the Bishop severely, giving the 
letter back. 

"She was a heroine," murmured 

" A pagan, a sophist, poor girl ; who 
knew no better than to try and repair 
a fault by a crime, and who mistook 
physical courage for the best of the 
virtues. Ask of religion, that is of 
eternal justice, what her duty was, and 
it will reply : to break a guilty bond, 
to expect of God alone her punishment, 
and to expiate by prayer her youth and 
folly ; but that would have been long, 
painful, and humiliating. It was easier 
to die and she did. Ah ! you have 
much to expiate for her. Pray ! my son, 
yes, pray long, pray always for her and 

The minister had spoken, but with 
this last thought the friend, the father, 
could no longer repress a deep sob, 
the sign of an aching heart. He 
crossed himself, and repeated a prayer. 
Then he went out. 

Marcel raised a stone tomb in the 
grotto, and buried her there ; but he 
never left her. With a cross upon his 
breast and her tomb at his feet he spent 
his life in prayer. 

Count Palandra did not return to 
Pistoja. Monsieur Rospigliosi sent 
word to the authorities, who kept him 

One evening, ten years later, Mar- 
cel, with white hair and bent shoulders 
was saying his prayers at the setting 
of the sun, when suddenly from a 
neighboring thicket a stream of fire 
poured forth, a ball whistled through 
the quiet air of evening, and he fell 


[Read by Col. George Kent at the recent re-union of the Dartmouth College 
Association, Washington, D. C] 

Hanover, X. EL, 4th July. 1814. 
Hymn composed by Mr. George Kent, 
and sung b}' the choir. (Tune — Den- 
mark. J 

Eternal God thy name we praise; 

To thee we humbly look for aid: 
And while to heaven our songs we raise. 

The tribute of our hearts be paid. 

♦See Gkanite Monthly for March, page 181. 

Thy power and goodness, mighty God! 

in all thy works of wonder shine; 
The heavens declare thy love abroad. 

The earth proclaims thy power divine. 

'Tis by thy power, from age to age. 

Creation* stands, and time endures; 
Thy voice can calm the whirlwind's 

Thine arm the thunder's force secures. 



Tie by thy goodness nature lives — Thy boundless goodness we adore. 

The seasons change, — and night and Which still preserves our native land; 

day Though war's dark tempest ever roar. 

Thy bounteous hand subsistence gives, Its fury turns at thy command. 

And shields creation from decay. 

Of old thv mercv. Lord, was known ; Parent of All ! to thee we turn 

Thine arm didst break the oppressor's For blessings on this natal day. 

rod. Attune oar hearts to love, and learn 

And led thine Israel to thy throne. Thy sovereign pleasure to obey. 

Through desert wild, and seas of blood. 

Almighty God! in thee we trust: Then followed an eloquent, spirited 

We humbly bow. and own thy power and appropriate oration, in his usual el- 

Whieh raised our country from the dust 
And saved us in a threat'ninsr hour. 

egant manner, by Jo.-iah Dunham, Esq. 

The following ode, composed by Mr. Kent, was sung by Col. Brewster in a mas- 
terly style. (Tuue — Anacreou in Heaven.) 

Rise, sons of Columbia ! and hail the glad day. 

When your count ly triumphant beamed forth as a nation: 
And shone from the mist that encircled her way. 
Like the sun of the morning — the pride of Creation. 
Let your praises arise. 
And ascend to the skies 
To unite with the prayers of the good and the wise. 

That her sons may their virtue and freedom maintain, 
TiLl the tires of Mount .Etna are quenched in the main. 

In the arms of oppression our nation had slept. 

Till, shorn of her strength, she could make no resistance; 
But a Washington's sword from its scabbard first leapt. 
And shone in defiance to earth's farthest distance. 
Let your praises ascend 
To your Father and Friend. 
And your eagle to bear them to earth's remote end; 

May the spirit of Washington hoVer around. 
While Bene\olence listens to catch the first sound. 

For his country he lived — but that hero is dead: 

For his country, in Heaven is his sprit now singing, 
The tears of affection remembrance has shed 

In the breast of benevolence keep it from dying. 
For his sons yet remain, 
And their freedom maintain. 
Which they never will barter for glory or gain. 

Though the angry waves roar, and the thunders descend, 
Their Liberty's Temple they'll ever defend. 

His spirit now lights, with its holiest beams. 

The dank mists of darkness which shadow creation; 
The nations of Europe have felt its mild gleams — 
The day-star of liberty's regeneration. 

They awoke from their trance — 
See the tyrant advance ; 
We fight for the world and the freedom of France. 

By the tire of their domes they first conquered and bled. 
By the eagle of Russia to victory led. 

Then hail to the chief in whose name we appear! 

As Disciples of Washington let us assemble; 
And all hail the day, still to memory dear, 

When Freedom, enchanted, bade tyrants to tremble. 
May her sons of the West, 
In smiles still be blest, 
Till in peace, they retire with their fathers to rest; 

While Columbia's Genius yet hovers around. 
To defend from oppression such sanctitied ground. 




[For the Centennial Celebration of 
Dartmouth College, July. 1869. By 
GEORGE Kent, graduate of the class of 

A hundred years ! what hopes aud fears 

Are crow'ded in its pages — 
What seems to thrill, of good or ill, 

In glancing down the a^es ! 
So sang 1 once when Bedford's sons 

Were gathered for re-union — 
And so sing we. in joyous glee. 

As Dartmouth claims communion. 

An "Indian School," "gainst rhyme or 

Has grown beyond our knowledge. 
And now presents, to sight and sense, 

A well-established college. 
Borne by degrees, through stormy seas. 

To such commodious harbor. 
Her frame displays, by length of days. 

The real vita arbor. 

Of knowledge good to those who *ve 

The test of manly training, 
With pure desires, no after tires, 

Of guilty passion staining. 
An evil tree to those who sec 

The good, and follow scorning — 
Whose later life, in worldly strife. 

Belies their early morning. 

As need might call, each stately hall 

Has risen to the vision. 
And Dartmouth Plain, a hope once vain, 

Become almost Elysian. 
These classic shades,! by tasteful aids, 

Exhibit sylvan graces — 
And nature's wilds, in beauty's smiles. 

No more are desert places. 

With modern skill, and funds at will. 

And every new appliance, 
A union meet seems now complete. 

Of blended Art and Science. 
Witli Teachers true to ends in view. 

Of progress and advancement. 
Each rolling year will see most clear 

Oi happiness enchantment. 

Of ancient fame, the Wheelock name 

Is linked with classic rule; — 
By noble aid thus early made 

A college from a school. 
With Christian trust, Wheclock. the first. 

In rude and savage region. 
Foundation laid, for Learning's aid, 

To sons now numbered legion. 

As years sped on the Prexy John 
O 'er Dartmouth boys bore sway — 

Long favored he, in courtesy 
Unrivaled for his dav. 

Thirty and six. if years we fix. 

Denotes his term of rule — 
His teaching found scarce as profound 

As lore of modern school. 

Of proud renown, the brilliant Brown 

Buled but for little space- 
In lore well skilled, the Chair he filled 

With dignity and grace. 
For a brier" year a name still dear 

To memory, graced the board. 
And Dana came, of modest fame. 

With fair requirements stored; 

Of good repute, deemed lit to suit 

The College in its need. 
TYLER came next, well versed in text 

Of Scripture, faith, and creed; 
Faithful for years, as well appears, 

To principle and right. 
A classic fame he scarce could claim, 

In learned critic's sight. 

Of good record, the veteran Loud 

Served faithfully his day — 
Of judgment sound, if not profound, 

In every modern way. 
Linked to the past, his faith held fast 

To ancient creeds long tried — 
And deemed unjust to duty's trust — 

Reform's advancing tide. 

The name of Smith, to us no myth. 

Stands forth in proud revealing — 
Though Holmes has said, as we have 

*T was given for concealing. 
But no such dread our College head 

Need have of fate's mischances — 
What e'er the name, 't is all the same 

While Dartmouth high advances. 

♦But time would fail to tell the tale 

Of Dartmouth's fame and greatness. 
With duties charged, when once enlarged 

From College bounds of straitness. 
Webster and Choate. if put to voie. 

The palm would bear away. — 
While Marsh and Chase" survive to 

The College in our day. 

A further store of learned lore. 

Grave men and brothers jolly. 
We might recount to large amount. 

But more to add were folly. 
At home, abroad, we're on record 

In states throughout the Union — 
If proved by works, no quips or quirks 

Will bar us full communion. 

A century's round, this year has crowned 
With blessings rich and rare — 

An earnest true of good in view, 
Vouchsafed to future care. 



With friends to aid, as here displayed. 

And hearts in union blending. 
Will Dartmouth's sons, as Time's glass 

Joy in next century's ending. 

*• Let us have peace ! " will never cease 

With ghid acclaim to prove 
Our watchword good of Brother- 
hood — 

Fit emblem of our love. 
'Hi' electric chain, on land or main. 

That binds our hearts together. 
Shall firm abide old Ocean's tide. 

Or Arctic's winter weather. 

Then hail the Day whose natal ray 

Lights up our happy faces! 
To Freedom true we pledge our due. 

Throughout all times and places. 
To Brothers dear we send good cheer. 

However wide their roaming — 
In each full heart they'll find a part 

At everv evening irioaminrr. 

♦Since Century Day, in which my lay 

Got strangled in its birth. 
Smith, well" beloved, has been removed 

From toils and scenes of earth. 
Its duties done, as well begun, 

His life, to service given. 
Might well prepare his soul to share 

The lasting bliss of heaven. 

Well to succeed one, who the meed 

Of praise so high attained. 
Is no light task, strictly to ask 

Of him the place who gained. 
'T will, in these days, be no mean praise 

The standing to attain 
Which BARTLETT, true to end in view, 

Is certain yet to gain. 

Their names still live, and sanction give 

To Learning's varied claim — 
Showing their view of Science true 

Above mere worldly fame. 
Each man true J 'rater to Alma Mater, 

Or films loyal-hearted — 
Xever of choice, with heart or voice. 

From Dartmouth's interests parted. 


By George Kent, a graduate of 1S14. In remembrance of Daniel Webster, the 
great expounder of the constitution, and Dartmouth's most honored son. Written 
for the observance of Mr. Webster's centennial birthday anniversary at Dartmouth 
College, June 28, 1SS2. 

If ever form was of majestic mold — 

If ever mind of native, massive power — 
It surely need not now or here be told 

T was his, whose fame engrosses this choice hour; — 

Here, where his early feet the path essayed, 

By sure degrees, the vast Olympian height. 
Was first, in consciousness of power, displayed 

His after mastery of the True and Eight. 

Beginning humble, from his early choice 

Of village life, as •' to the manner born," 
Years passed before that deep-toned clarion voice 

Rang far and wide, as rousing Alpine horn. 

" Excelsior " was his motto from the first. 

And Dartmouth early claimed his magic power 
To such effect, that from his lips there burst 

An eloquence remembered to this hour. 

Not more remembered for its rich display 

Of eloquence, than for its legal lore — 
Assuring for all time — not for a day — 

Rights never fully recognized before. 

To this let Dartmouth sound its loud acclaim, 

And other seats of Learning join the song, 
That, greatly by impress of Webster's name, 

Rights were secured that may to them belong. 

But higher still the steps to which he rose, 

In the great Forum of the Nation's view, 
When in defence, 'mid early rebel throes, 

He proved to Law and Constitution true. 



Such his rare triumph ; in our humble lay 

Is no attempt to utter all his praise; 
He rests in peace, awaiting the great day 

That small and great from death's repose -may raise. 

Webster * ; still lives": to us of olden time 
Lives in our memory as a vision bright; 

His noble thoughts and style, in sense sublime. 
Furnish a fund of ever fresh delight. 

" Lives " in the school-boy's theme, in manhood's page. 

On every leaf of time's best-lettered scroll ; 
14 Lives " in the record of his own rare age. 

In sons he gave his country's honored roll. 

So rich in thought, so varied in his theme, 
On his ascent each age and sex may rise; 

As with the •• ladder in the Patriarch's dream, 
Its foot on earth, its height above the skies." 

If to his memory I ascribe no fault, 

T is not that he, or any. is all pure; 
His known defects I bury in his vault — 

His noble deeds will with his God endure. 

To him, all-wise, all merciful, and just — 
With whom a century's time is as a day — 

Tis well to feel we safely can entrust 
Friends loved and honored who have passed away. 

Marshfield may claim the venerated dust 
Of Webster, in his last august repose; 

The vital spark, that animated first 
The soul within, our Granite hills disclose. 

The old '• Bay State " with pride asserts her claim— 

Our wide-spread Union mourns him as her son; 
Sis pride and pleasure ever was to name 
New Hampshire as his first-loved, cherished one- 
Washington, D. C, June, 1S:>2. 

Quarter^', first and fourth party per saltier, azure and argent, 
a saltier gules, second, third azure, the sun in his glory proper — 
Crest, a Baron's coronet and helmat, a ram proper — Supporters, 
two greyhounds px>r, gorged with a ducal coronet. 





In the Portsmouth Journal of No- 
vember 3, 1 866, appeared an article 
furnished by the author of this sketch, 
entitled " Rambles about Portsmouth." 
No. 167, being the History of Method- 
ism in that City. The facts relating to 
the introduction of Methodism into 
Portsmouth were collected from Asbu- 
ry's and Lee's Journals, Conference 
Minutes, from unpublished sources, 
mainly manuscripts, and from our own 
recollection of what we had seen and 
heard concerning it. We were par- 
ticularly indebted to Rev. Dudley P. 
Leavitt for his sermon at the dedication 
of the new Chapel on Daniel street, 
Dec. 6, 1859, and also to a previous 
discourse by Rev. Samuel Kelley, con- 
cerning the early history of the denom- 
ination in Portsmouth. Both of these 
obtained considerable information from 
the oldest members of the Church, 
during their pastorates in that city. 

The official record in relation to the 
introduction of Methodism in Ports- 
mouth, and its subsequent history, is 
very meager and incomplete. Before 
presenting the history of the denomi- 
nation in Portsmouth, we will briefly 
consider its origin in England, and its 
introduction and growth in America, 
until it became firmly established in 
New England. 

Methodism had its origin in 1729, 
at the University of Oxford, England, 
when John and Charles Wesley, with 
others, associated themselves together 
to promote scriptural holiness and im- 
provement in scholarship. John Wes- 
ley considered the world as his par- 
ish ; and the labors of himself and his 
contemporaries — Whitefield and oth- 
ers — exemplified the sentiment he had 
enunciated. The first Methodist con- 
ference convened in London, June 25, 
1744, for the purpose of considering 
the best method of conducting the 
work. It was composed of ten per- 

sons : John and Charles Wesley, four 
ordained ministers of the church of 
England, and four lay preachers. The 
first Methodist conference in this coun- 
try, numbering ten persons, assembled 
in Philadelphia. July 14, 1773, and 
closed its session two days later. The 
first Methodist preacher in New Eng- 
land was Charles Wesley, who was 
invited as a minister of the Church of 
England to preach in King's Chapel, 
and Christ's church, the only Episco- 
pal church then in Boston. He ac- 
cepted the invitation and preached 
September 24, 1736. On the 25th 
of the following month he embarked for 
England. George Whitefield was in 
Boston four years later, in Sept., 1740. 
In 1772 or 1773, Richard Boardman, 
one of the first two missionaries whom 
John Wesley sent to -America, was in 
Boston and preached there ; but the 
mission did not long survive his depart- 
ure, there being no one to organize or 
care for the converts. In 17S4 Will- 
iam Black, while returning to Nova 
Scotia from a conference held in Bal- 
timore, preached in Boston. In 1788 
Freeborn Garrettson, a distinguished 
Methodist pioneer, returning from 
Nova Scotia, passed through Boston, 
and preached several sermons. The 
founder, however, of Methodism in 
New England was Jesse Lee. He first 
successfully introduced the denomina- 
tion into Boston, when he preached on 
the common under the large elm tree, 
July, 1790; and through his labors 
Methodism was permanently establish- 
ed in Boston and its vicinity. 

George Whitefield, who was born in 
Gloucester, England, Dec. 16, 1714, 
introduced the general " Methodistic 
movement" into America, and first 
visited Portsmouth in Nov., 1744. He 
was sick there for a short time, but 
sufficiently recovered to start for Bos- 
ton on the 24th of Nov., 1744. He 



again visited Portsmouth Feb. 25, 1745, 
and preached for Rev. William Shurt- 
leff at the South church ; on the follow- 
ing day (26th), for Rev. Jabez Fitch, 
at the North Parish, and subsequently, 
Sept. 23d to 29th, 1770. he preached 
again in Portsmouth and vicinity, once 
at Kittery, once at York, and the 29th 
at Exeter ; on the 23d, 24th, and 25th, 
four times at Portsmouth, being the 
week previous to his death, which oc- 
curred at Newburyport, Sept. 30, 1 770. 
Mr. Whitefield left Portsmouth for Ex- 
eter, where he preached on Saturday, 
for two hours in the open air, as none 
of the buildings in that town could ac- 
commodate the people who desired 
to hear him. This was his last sermon. 
In the afternoon he rode to Newbury- 
port, where he intended to preach 
the next day ; but he died suddenly, on 
Sunday morning, of asthma, and was 
buried under the pulpit of the Federal 
Street Congregationalist church. " No 
clergyman ever possessed the power 
of oratory in a higher degree." He 
was a Calvinistic Methodist, — not dis- 
tinguished as an organizer — while Wes- 
ley was Arminian in sentiment, and 
eminently successful. Methodism prop- 
er, however, was not introduced into 
Portsmouth until 1790, when Jesse 
Lee, " the apostle of Methodism in 
New England," first visited that town. 
In 1787 Lee was stationed at Balti- 
more : in 17S8 he labored in New 
Jersey; and in 17S9 entered New 
England, spending considerable time 
in Connecticut, where he formed sev- 
eral societies. He was a Presiding 
Elder in 1790, and had the oversight 
of the ministers appointed at Boston, 
New Haven and Fairfield, but was 
stationed at Boston, where he had a 
colleague, being thus enabled to visit 
contiguous places, and finally to ex- 
tend his travels to Salem, Ipswich, 
Newburyport, and thence to Ports- 
mouth. His biographer informs us 
that " From Newburyport he proceeded 
to Portsmouth, which was then the 
metropolis of New Hampshire. Here 
he preached to a solemn and attentive 
congregation, and some were truly 

thankful that he had visited the place. 
He then left Portsmouth and returned 
to Newburyport." This was, doubt- 
less, the first sermon preached in Ports- 
mouth by a properly accredited Meth- 
odist minister, and, indeed, the first in 
the State. It was delivered on or about 
the nth of July, 1790; but the place 
and the subject are unknown ; nor can 
it be ascertained where Mr. Lee was 
entertained. There are no records 
concerning either. He writes "We 
used to preach occasionally in that 
town (Portsmouth), from that time 
(1790), but we never made any par- 
ticular stand until 1S08, which was 
eighteen years from the time of our 
first beginning there. In the course of 
that year one of our preachers (George 
Pickering) took his station in that town 
and purchased an old meeting house 
that was formerly occupied by another 
denomination (Universalist), and he 
had a good congregation to hear him." 
In 1 791 Mr. Lee was appointed Pre- 
siding Elder for New England, having 
under his supervision twelve preachers 
and seven circuits in Connecticut, 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 
He labored most of the time in 
Lynn and adjacent towns. August 
26 he stopped at Greenland, N. H., 
where he dined with Dr. Clement 
March, a well-known citizen of that 
town, and then proceeded to Ports- 
mouth, where he was entertained 
by Rev. Joseph Walton. A meeting 
was first held in a private dwelling, and 
at the request of Mr. Walton, Mr. Lee 
preached in his church, on Pitt street, 
the text being from Psalms 1 : 6 ; " For 
the Lord knoweth the way of the right- 
eous ; but the way of the ungodly shall 
perish." Lee writes: "I found it to 
be a time of much life and love, and 
some of the people seemed to be 
much affected. When the meeting 
ended, some blessed God for an inter- 
view, and when the minister asked them 
what they thought of shutting such 
preaching as that out of the meeting 
house, they replied, if they shut that 
man out, they did not know whom 
they would let in. All seemed very 



friendly." He remained in Ports- 
mouth and its vicinity about one week. 
Among Mr. Walton's papers was found 
a letter from Mr. Lee, written Dec. S, 
1791, which indicates there was a dis- 
turbance in Mr. Walton's congregation 
because he had encouraged Mr. Lee to 
occupy his pulpit. In 1 792 Portsmouth 
was not visited by this " tireless itiner- 
ant." He had charge of the Lynn, Bos- 
ton, Needham, and Providence circuits. 
In 1793 Rev. Ezekiel Cooper was ap- 
pointed Elder for Boston, Mass., and 
Rhode Island, and Mr. Lee was as- 
signed to the " Province of Maine and 
Lynn," a somewhat indefinite but ev- 
idently a very extensive field of labor. 
In September he ' started for Maine, 
and on the 7th dined with Dr. Clement 
March at Greenland ; going thence to 
Portsmouth. He writes '"I went to 
see Rev. Mr. Walton, but he did not 
appear to be so friendly as he did when 
I was here before ; so I went and put up 
my horse at a tavern, and then went to 
a boarding-house to lodge. On Sun- 
day I went to hear Mr. Walton, fore- 
noon and afternoon. After he was 
done I went with some friends to the 
Old Court House ; but the great men 
would not consent for me to go into 
the house to preach ; so I got on the 
steps of the door of the Court House 
and began. When I commenced I 
had but about one dozen people, but 
they soon began to flock together, and 
I had some hundreds to hear me 
before I was done, standing in differ- 
ent parts of the streets. I had much 
freedom in speaking, ' and the word 
reached the hearts of many of the 
hearers, who were as solemn and at- 
tentive as though they had been in a 
meeting-house." He " lodged with a 
Samuel Tappan, a school-master," and 
on Monday left for Maine. The Court 
House, where Mr. Lee preached, was 
sometimes called the State House, 
where the General and County Courts 
were held, and formerly the Legisla- 
ture convened there. The building 
was situated on the Parade, or Market 
square, between the North meeting- 
house and High street, and was remov- 

ed in 1 S3 7, when the new Court House, 
which occupies the site of the old alms- 
house, on Jaffrey street, now Court, was 
finished. Samuel Tappan, who enter- 
tained Mr. Lee, was the son of Rev. 
Benjamin Tappan, of Manchester, 
Mass.. and a brother of a former Pro- 
fessor of Divinity at Harvard. For 
several years he hid the care of one 
of the public schools of Portsmouth, 
and was successful as a teacher. His 
leisure hours were devoted to visiting 
the sick and afflicted. He was active in 
assisting at private religious meetings. 
He died April 29, 1S06, aged 47 years. 
In 1794 Mr. Lee was appointed 
Presiding Elder of the New Hampshire, 
Maine, and Massachusetts Districts. 
Nov. 4, he was in Portsmouth. He 
writes : " I heard a discourse at night in 
a private house, preached by Mr. Wal- 
ton, from Romans 5 : 1,2." No mention 
is made of other meetings ; but it is 
quite probable they were held, as Mr. 
Lee remained in Portsmouth three days, 
and then continued his journey to 
Portland. Mr. Waiton had the pas- 
toral charge' of the Independent Con- 
gregationalist Church, of which Rev. 
Samuel Drown, who died January 17, 
1770, aged 50, had been pastor. The 
church was situated on Pitt, now Court 
street, and was purchased by the south 
parish, and used, mainly, for Sunday 
school purposes, after vacating their 
small chapel on Wentworth street, 
which was subsequently moved to Liv- 
ermore street, and altered into a dwell- 
ing-house, but has since been moved 
to Water street. The site on Court 
street is now occupied by the new chap- 
el of the South Parish, the old wood- 
en structure having been taken down, 
and the present neat and convenient 
building erected in 1857. In 1789 Mr. 
Walton became the pastor of the " In- 
dependent Society," and was ordained 
on the 2 2d of September of that year. 
He had been one of the ruhng elders 
since 1777, and, when the society was 
without a preacher, conducted the ser- 
vices. He was a native of Newcastle, 
a cooper by trade, and died January 
10, 1822, aged 80 years. He was from 



a very respectable family, one of his 
ancestors having been for many years 
the President of the Provincial Council. 
He was a very acceptable pastor, great- 
ly beloved by the congregation to 
whom he preached, and highly respect- 
ed by the ministers and churches of the 
other denominations. He was "a pious 
and useful minister, who discharged 
his parochial duties with uncommon 
diligence and faithfulness." The Cal- 
vinistic Baptist church on the corner 
of Middle and State streets was the 
outgrowth of this society. 

In 1 795 Mr. Lee was in charge of 
Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut ; and on his return 
from Maine, at the commencement of 
the year, Jan. i, he stopped at Ports- 
mouth and was hospitably entertained 
at his residence on Washington street, 
by Samuel Hutchings, the great-grand- 
father of the late Dr. Brackett Hutchings. 
The following record was made by Mr. 
Lee : " They collected a few of their 
neighbors together, to whom I preach- 
ed with liberty and satisfaction ; but 
religion is at a low ebb in this town at 
present." From other sources it has 
been ascertained that his congregation 
consisted of four persons, beside the 
family of Mr. Hutchings. There is no 
record that he stopped at Portsmouth 
on his next eastern tour, or visited the 
town in 1796. The minutes assign him 
to Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, 
and New Hampshire. In 1797 Mr. 
Lee was recommended by conference 
and became the traveling companion 
of Bishop Francis Asbury, who was 
then in feeble health. Rev. George 
Pickering was the Presiding Elder for 
New England generally, and also in 
the years 1798, 1799, and 1800, to 
districts designated as Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. 
In 179S Bishop Asbury and Jesse Lee 
traveled in New England, and, according 
to " Asbury's Journal," on August 15, 
1798, they " entered properly into New 
Hampshire." He says : " We passed 
Hampton Falls where the people and 
priests were about installing a min- 
ister into the deceased Dr. Langdon's 

congregation. We had a dripping 

morning ; however, we set out and 
rode twenty miles to Portsmouth, 
where is a fever somewhat malignant 
and mortal." [The yellow fever was 
then prevailing.] " This is a well 
fortified town against the Methodists. 
Mr. Hutchings and daughter received 
us with great Christian politeness. Be- 
ing exceedingly outdone with heat and 
labor, I was easily persuaded to tarry 
till morning. We passed the Piscataqua 
river in a flat-bottom boat at the town 
of Portsmouth into Maine." (Rice's 
ferry, near the stone store on Market 

From 179S to 1807 there is no 
record of Methodist preaching in Ports- 
mouth ; but the town was no doubt 
visited by the itinerants, as appoint- 
ments were made by the conference to 
certain towns in the county of Rocking- 
ham. The late John Trundy, Esquire, 
a very intelligent and reliable citizen, 
a native of the town, and an active 
official member of the church for many 
years, and well acquainted with Meth- 
odism in Portsmouth, in its early strug- 
gle, informed us that class and prayer 
meetings were held in different parts 
of the town in 1S05 ; that he attended 
a ciass-meeting in v thc winter of that 
year, on South street ; that many houses, 
from 1S00 to 1807, were notedas being 
used for social meetings by the people 
known as Methodises ; and that prior 
to 1808 a regular organization of 
classes existed. During this period 
Jesse Lee was laboring in the South. 
He had charge of the Annapolis dis- 
trict, and was chaplain of Congress 
during six successive terms, which ac- 
counts for his disappearance from the 
records of Methodism in New England 
until 1S08. He died Sept. 12, 1S16, 
in Maryland. In 1807 Martin Ruter, 
the classic student and indefatigable 
laborer, was appointed to Portsmouth 
and Nottingham (the only reference to 
Nottingham in the minutes). We have 
no definite information concerning 
Martin Ruter's labors in Portsmouth 
during that year. In 1808 Rev. George 
Pickering was missionary of the Boston 



district, and William Stevens, Alfred 
Metcalf, and Thomas Asbury, were ap- 
pointed to Salisbury. Mass., Poplin, 
and Salem, N. H. This year is mem- 
orable in the history of Methoiism 
in Portsmouth. Although no regular 
appointment was made, yet the society 
was organized in 1S0S. Classes had 
been formed previous to that time ; but 
they were not permanent. The church 
register makes 1S09 the time of organ- 
ization ; but it is believed to be incor- 
rect, as it errs in some other historical 
particulars. Rev. Samuel Kelley. when 
preparing his historical discourse, had 
access to some who had been mem- 
bers of the first class, and they named 
1 80S as the year in which the church 
was formed ; and in TS59. when Rev. 
D. P. Leavitt preached his dedication 
sermon at the new chapel on Daniel 
street, it was the impression of the old- 
est members of the church, then living, 
that 1 80S was the correct date. A 
class was probably organized by George 
Pickering in the house owned and oc- 
cupied by Samuel Hutchings, No. 12, 
Washington street, situated on the East 
side, second house south from Jeffer- 
son street. Rev. Messrs. Pickering, 
Metcalf, and Stevens, preached in the 
town, interchanging their labors as was 
customary on the circuit system. The 
preachers and friends had been embar- 
rassed for the want of a suitable place 
for public worship ;but during the year 
a house was secured. The Univer- 
salists, having erected their church on 
Pleasant street the year previous, va- 
cated the one the society had occupied 
on Vaughan street, which was purchas- 
ed by the Methodists in 180S. Rev. 
George Pickering was active in nego- 
tiating for the property, and finally 
secured it for $2,000. Pews were 
reserved by the former owners to the 
value of $500, so that the amount 
paid in cash was $ 1,500. The fol- 
lowing well-known citizens constituted 
the committee selected by the new 
society ; namely, Samuel Hutchings, 
Joshua Johnson, Benjamin Gardner, 
John Underwood, and Nathaniel S. 
Pierce. While the negotiations for the 

purchase of the house were progressing, 
Jesse Lee was on his final visit to 
New England. He had been absent 
about eight years. July 29, 1S0S, he 
was in Portsmouth for the last time, 
and made this record in his Journal : 
" I put up at Mr. Hutchings', and at 
night preached in the old meeting 
house belonging to the Universalists. 
I had a crowded house, owing to a pre- 
vious notice being given that one of 
our preachers on that night would 
preach on a particular subject. How- 
ever, he gave place to me, and I found 
a good degree of freedom in speaking, 
and was glad to be there. Two of our 
preachers were in town ; they had just 
begun to preach in that place, and they 
intend to continue it every Sabbath, 
and withal they contemplate purchas- 
ing the old meeting house in which I 
preached, if they can. It has a bell 
and steeple, and is fitted up with 
pews." The next day Mr. Lee crossed 
the river into the province of Maine, 
returned to Boston by another route, 
and soon left New England for other 
fields of labor, where he remained un- 
til his earthly career was ended. " The 
first Methodist Episcopal society in 
Portsmouth" was incorporated by the 
New Hampshire Legislature in 1808, 
and Samuel Hutchings, Nathaniel S. 
Pierce, Joshua Johnson, John Under- 
wood, Caleb Stearns, Benjamin Gard- 
ner, Samuel Hutchings, jr., Benjamin 
Hill, and Nathaniel Souther, are named 
in the act as corporators. From this 
period there was preaching on the Sab- 
bath regularly, Portsmouth being con- 
nected with other towns on the circuit 
system until 1812, when it first became 
a station. 

In 1809 John Brodhead, Alfred 
Metcalf, Isaac A. Scarritt, and Daniel 
Perry, were appointed to Portsmouth 
circuit, Rev. ?vlessrs. Brodhead and 
Metcalf chiefly supplying the desk. 
In 18 10 John Williamson, Orlando 
Hinds, and John Brodhead, were 
appointed to Portsmouth and Green- 
land ; Asa Kent, Benjamin Sabin, and 
John Jewett, to Salisbury, Poplin and 
Salem. Messrs. Williamson and Kent 

2I 4 


preached mainly in Portsmouth ; the 
latter, from December to June, receiv- 
ing $89.29. In 1S11 John Brodhead 
and John Liudsey were appointed to 
Portsmouth, Newmarket, and Dur- 
ham, — Mr. Lindsey preaching at Ports- 
mouth most of the time. During these 
years the society relied on public col- 
lections at each meeting to defray cur- 
rent expenses, and the amount re- 
ceived was entered in the record book. 
The house was lighted with candles ; 
and that item of expense for 1S0S was 
$14.56. In [812 Portsmouth became 
a 6tation ; and Jordon Rexford was 
the first regularly appointed pastor. 
The table which accompanies this arti- 
cle will give all the subsequent appoint- 


Portsmouth was included in the 
New England Conference, Boston Dis- 
trict, until 1S20; then in the New 
England Conference, New Hampshire 
District. At the session held at Ports- 
mouth, June 10, 1S29, the New Eng- 
land Conference was divided, and the 
" New Hampshire- and Vermont" Con- 
ference formed. In 1830 it convened 
at Barre, Vt. ; and Portsmouth was 
classed in the New Hampshire District. 
In 1832 the conference, embracing the 
same territory, was known as the " New- 
Hampshire" Conference ; and the Dis- 
trict in which Portsmouth was included 
retained the name of New Hampshire 
District. In 1835 it was changed to 
Dover District ; since which time the 
Conference and District have remain- 
ed unchanged in name, but not in 
boundaries ; for in 1844 the Vermont 
Conference was organized, and the 
Districts in that state connected with 
the New Hampshire were assigned to 
the new conference. 

In 1773 the first annual conference 
in America assembled in Philadelphia. 
The first three conferences were held 
in that city, and subsequently annually 
at Baltimore until 1784, when the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in the 
United States was duly constituted. 

John Wesley, who had been consulted 
by the American Methodists, advised 
organization ; and on the 25th of De- 
cember, 17S4, a special session having 
been called for that purpose, it was 
accomplished by the conference now 
historically known as the Christmas 
Conference, which assembled Dec. 24. 
17S4, and continued in session until 
January 2, 17S5, Bishop Coke presid- 
ing. The first regular conference was, 
however, held in the monumental city, 
Nov. 1, 1792. Coke presided, Asbury 
assisting. Rev. Dr. Thomas Coke, a 
native of Wales (born Sept. 9, 1747, 

died at sea, near India, Mj 


was the first elected Bishop or Super- 
intendent ; and Rev. Francis Asbury 
(born in England, Aug. 20, 1745, died 
in Virginia, March 31, 18 16), was the 

The annual conferences are com- 
posed of the itinerant preachers, includ- 
ing the effective, supernumeraries and 
superanuated. Their respective bound-- 
aries are prescribed by 'the General 
Conference. Annual conferences are 
divided into Presiding Elders' districts ; 
and to each is assigned an Elder se- 
lected by the Presiding Bishop. The 
New Hampshire conference has three ; 
namely, Dover, Concord and Ciaremont 
Districts. There were formerly four, 
the fourth being Haverhill. The first 
annual conference of the church was 
held in Philadelphia in July, 1 773. In 
1776, and during the Revolutionary 
war, they were generally held in 
Baltimore. In 1784 there were only 
three annual conferences in the United 
States. In 1 796 the number was ad- 
vanced to six, and has since been 
steadily increased until in July 1, 1882, 
they numbered 99, beside 13 Missions. 
The New England was one of the six 
which constituted the whole number 
of annual conferences in 1796, at 
which time the boundaries of each 
were defined. The New England em- 
braced the territory bearing that name, 
and all that part ot the State of New 
York east of the Hudson river. Its first 
session was held at Wilbraham, Mass., 
Sept. 19, 1797. Bishop Asbury being 



sick and unable to be present, Rev. 
Jesse Lee presided. The Annual Con- 
ferences from i 773 to 1 796 had no de- 
finite boundaries. Ministers attended 
such conferences as were most accessi- 
ble, or elsewhere in pursuance of notices 
from the Bishop. Conferences held 
in the large Presiding Elders' districts 
were known as District conferences, 
the chief conference being at Balti- 
more. The New Hampshire Confer- 
ence was severed from the New Eng- 
land at the conference held at 
Portsmouth, June 10. 1829, Bishop 
Hedding presiding. At this session 
the New England was divided, and the 
New Hampshire, embracing mainly the 
states of New Hampshire and Vermont, 
was formed. May 20, 1S30, the New 
England convened at New Bedford. 
The New Hampshire and Vermont 
held its first session at Barre, Vt., June 
23, 1830, and included all the State of 
New Hampshire, excepting that por- 
tion east of the White Mountains and 
north of Ossipee Lake, — Gorham, Bart- 
lett and Conway being assigned to the 
Maine Conference, and also included 
that part of Vermont east of the Green 
Mountains, and all that portion of the 
state of Massachusetts northeast of 
the Merrimack river. In 1S32 the 
name of the New Hampshire and 
Vermont Conference was changed to 
New Hampshire. The Maine Con- 
ference was organized in 1824, and its 
first session was held at Gardiner, July 
7, 1825. In 1844 the New Hamp- 
shire Conference held its annual session 
at Portsmouth, commencing July 10, 
Bishop Hamline presiding. It was the 
first conference he attended as Bishop. 
It was at this conference that all that 
portion of the state of Vermont con- 
nected with the New Hampshire con- 
ference was separated from it, and was 
organized as the Vermont Conference 
with other territory assigned to it, leav- 
ing the New Hampshire conference as 
now defined, all the State .excepting 
that portion east of the White Moun- 
tain range, as heretofore named, and 
all that part of Massachusetts north- 
east of the Merrimack river, which in- 

cludes Lawrence, Haverhill, Amesbury, 
Methuen, and Salisbury ; the Dover, 
Concord, Claremont, and Haverhill 
Districts, constituting the New Hamp- 
shire Conference ; and the Montpelier, 
Danville and Springfield districts, the 
Vermont Conference. The New 
Hampshire Conference for the first 
session met at Winchester, N. H., 
May 2S, 1S45 5 tne Vermont at Roch- 
ester, Vt., Jan. iS, 1845. The first 
Methodist society in New England 
was formed in Stamford, Conn., by 
Rev. Jesse Lee, Sept. 26, 17S9. Rev. 
John Wesley, the founder of Method- 
ism, gave to the meetings of ministers 
associated with him in evangelistic 
labors, when convened to consider 
matters of discipline, doctrine, or the 
interests of the cause they represented, 
the name of Conferences, which desig- 
nation has been retained. All organ- 
ized bodies of Methodism, whenever 
assembled for ecclesiastical purposes, 
adopt the name. In this country we 
have ''' General Conference.^/' which 
meet quadrenially, and are composed 
of Ministerial delegates elected by the 
different annual conferences, and also 
a lay representation of two from each 
annual conference chosen by an elect- 
oral conference of laymen, at the 
place where the ministerial delegates 
are elected by the annual conference, 
excepting when a conference is only 
entitled to one delegate ; then the 
same number is accorded to the 
electoral conference. 


The first meeting-house owned and 
occupied by the Methodists of Ports- 
mouth was purchased in 180S, of the 
Universalist society, as formerly no- 
ticed, for two thousand dollars. It 
was situated on a short avenue or alley 
between Congress and Hanover streets, 
in the rear of the Pickering mansion, 
which was built by Edward Hart in 
1 "80, and occupied by him until it be- 
came the property of Judge John Pick- 
ering, who removed there when his 
residence on Market street was de- 
stroyed by the fire of 1802. The church 



was built in 1 7S4, by the Universalist 
society ; purchased by the Methodists 
in 1S0S ; occupied by them nineteen 
years ; and sold just after the dedica- 
tion of the State street Methodist Epis- 
copal church in 1828. It has since 
been altered several times, and used 
first as a theater ; then by the Ports- 
mouth Lyceum. Subsequently it was 
owned by the Portsmouth sacred mu- 
sical society ; and after bein^ altered, 
was opened with appropriate exercises. 
Rev. Dr. Charles Burroughs, the belov- 
ed Rector of St. John's church for forty- 
nine years, delivered a dedicatory ad- 
dress, and called the building "The 
Cameneum." It was devoted to mu- 
sic, concerts, lectures, and similar un- 
objectionable purposes. A large organ, 
built in Portsmouth by Barton, Nor- 
wood and Cobb, was placed in the 
building. Since the society disbanded, 
the property has been sold, and the 
building converted into a public livery 
stable, for which purpose it is now 

In 1S27, during the pastorate of 
Rev. Shipley VV. Wilson, the present 
church on State street was built, at a 
cost, including land, of nine thousand 
dollars. The church was dedicated 
Jan. 1, 1828, by Rev. Dr. Wilbur Fisk, 
his text being Hag. 2:9: " The glory 
of the latter house shall be greater 
than the former." A board of nine 
trustees was appointed to receive the 
deed of the new church ; namely, John 
G. Pray, Jonathan Barker, Joshua John- 
son, Samuel P. VViggin, William Gibbs, 
Joshua Hubbard, Walter B. Hill, Will- 
iam Walker, and Joseph Sherburne. 
The only surviving trustee, Walter B. 
Hill, is now in the SSth year of his age, 
having been born June 29, 1795. ^ ne 
old house on Methodist Lane was 
probably sold in 1829. Joshua Hub- 
bard, Francis Wingate, and William 
Gibbs, were the committe empowered 
to dispose of it. In 1828 Rev. John 
Newland Maffitt, the eloquent pulpit 
orator, was pastor. He was absent a 
considerable portion of the year solic- 
iting aid from the large societies of the 
South, toward the payment of the debt 

incurred in building the church, and 
was successful. During his absence, Rev. 
Squire B. Haskell, of Poplin, supplied 
the pulpit with ability. He was ah admir- 
er of General Jackson, and quite as ac- 
tive in the political held as in the Gos- 
pel vineyard. In 1837 Rev. Jared Per- 
kins being the pastor, the vestry over 
the vestibule, not being of sufficient 
capacity, was vacated, and a room 
finished in the basement of the church, 
which was occupied for social meetings. 
The vestry over the vestibule was chang- 
ed by removing the partitions, and was 
used by the choir. In it was placed 
the new organ. During the year 1 85 1 , 
Rev. Richard S. Rust being pastor, the 
vestry in the basement, under the 
southerly half of the main building, was 
improved by an outlay of four hundred 
dollars. In 1S54 the church was 
thoroughly repaired, and the present 
cornices substituted for brick battle- 
ments, which were removed as inse- 
cure, having become weakened by the 
weather. In 1855 Rew Sullivan Hol- 
man, pastor, was particularly active in 
collecting a sufficient amount ($2,300) , 
to pay the entire indebtedness of the 
church. He was an excellent finan- 
cial manager, and very acceptable as a 
preacher and pastor. In 1S59 the 
convenient chapel on Daniel street was 
erected on land leased from Captain 
William Stavers, at a cost of about fif- 
teen hundred dollars. The land was 
subsequently bought, Dec. n, 1875, 
for $1,100. The building is used 
for the accommodation of the Sunday 
school and social meetings. The old 
basement vestry, which had been oc- 
cupied for twenty-two years, was aban- 
doned, being deemed somewhat damp, 
besides being inadequate for the wants 
of the society. Rev. Dudley P. Leav- 
itt, who was pastor of the church, deliv- 
ered a very interesting historical ser- 
mon at the dedication of the new 
chapel, Dec. 6, 1859, his text being 
Heb. 13: 7, 8: "Remember them 
which have the rule over you," etc. 
The building committee consisted of 
John Trundy, Esq., Hon. John Henry 
Bailey, and Carpenter William Fernald 



Laighton, U. S. Navy, — all deceased. 
During the early part of Rev. Mr. 
Humphriss' pastorate, in 1 86 1, the old- 
time mahogany pulpit, high, capacious 
and of good workmanship, which had 
occupied the large niche or recess in 
the rear of the church, was reduced 
in height, and otherwise changed to 
please both the pastor and people. 
During the war of the rebellion the 
church was under the ministry of Rev. 
R. W. Humphriss and Rev. Sullivan 
Holman, both pronounced Union men, 
exceedingly patriotic and loyal. The 
first public funeral service in Ports- 
mouth of a soldier of the war for the 
Union (Nathaniel F. Palmer, who 
died at the age of 19 years), was at 
State street M. E. Church. "The 
church was densely crowded by the 
large number of friends and citizens 
who desired to manifest, by their pres- 
ence, their sympathy for the bereaved 
friends of the deceased, and respect for 
the memory of a patriot soldier. The 
procession was long and imposing. Th?e 
Portsmouth Cornet Hand volunteered 
their services, and with muffled drums 
beat the funeral march to the grave. 
The procession consisted of the Good- 
win Guards, in full uniform, — volun- 
teers for the war ; Governor's Horse 
Guards, also in full uniform ; the mem- 
bers of the Fire Department, all wear- 
ing crape upon the left arm ; the Com- 
mon Council and Board of Aldermen : 
the Mayor, Ex-Gov. Goodwin, etc. 
The exercises at the church were sol- 
emn and impressive. . An address was 
delivered by the pastor of the church, 
Rev. R. W. Humphriss, in which the 
speaker most forcibly and beautifully 
presented the claims of patriotism. 
The flags of the city were displayed at 
half-mast during the day." This is 
a somewhat lengthy but deeply inter- 
esting account of the first public fu- 
neral in Portsmouth of a soldier of the 

In 1869 the State street church was 
remodeled on the inside by removal 
of galleries, change of pews, pulpit and 
altar, and placing the organ in the rear 
of the pulpit. A second church, called 

the Brodhead M. E. Church of Ports- 
mouth, X. H., was organized in March, 
1S59, and occupied the Hanover 
street chapel (built and owned by the 
late John M. Lord, and used by him 
for Sunday-school purposes, and now 
for public schools), until their new- 
Church on Court street, near Middle, 
was dedicated, April 30, i860. The 
sermon was by Rev. Dr. Erastus O. 
Haven, of the New England confer- 
ence, Editor of Zion's Herald, after- 
ward elected Bishop, and deceased at 
Salem, Oregon, Aug. 2, iSSr. 

In Nov., ^1 86 1, the Brodhead M. E. 
Church was sold to the "Christian 
Baptist society," who first occupied it 
Dec. 22, 1 86 1. The members of the 
Brodhead Church, generally, were 
transferred to the State street M. E. 
Church in April, 1S62. In 1S59 and 
i860, Rev. Jonathan Hall was pastor; 
and in 1S61, Rev. Henry H. Hartwell, 
who reported an average membership 
of So members and 10 probationers. 
Mr. Tnindy, in his. reminiscences, al- 
ludes to Rev. Daniel Fillmore, who was 
sent to Portsmouth in 1S17, substan- 
tially as follows : The prosperity 
of the church, during the preceding 
appointments, had been somewhat 
fluctuating ; a lack of stability existed 
among all classes, and also in the 
churches ; but now a time of great re- 
ligious interest prevailed, occasioned 
partly by the establishment of a Meth- 
odist society, and partly by the intro- 
duction of the Freewill Baptists, a 
newly organized denomination. Many 
persons experienced religion at both 
of these churches ; but quite a num- 
ber of the converts fell by the wayside. 
Soon after Mr. Fillmore began his 
labors, a reformation, almost universal, 
commenced, and was attended by 
the happiest results. The Methodist 
church could not accommodate the mul- 
titudes who assembled in the evenings. 
The pews, aisles and porch were crowd- 
ed with patient listeners. Leave was 
granted to occupy Jefferson Hall for 
prayer meetings ; and it was crowded 
to its utmost capacity. Mr. Fillmore 
was re-appointed in 1818, and the in. 



terest continued until the close of his 
second year's pastorate, "when a gath- 
ering and winnowing took place " 
which gave strength and character to 
the Methodist society. Application 
was made to the conference to appoint 
Mr. Fillmore for the third year, as in- 
dispensable to the success of the 
church. The conference, not willing 
to violate the two years' rule, evaded 
it by appointing Mr. Fillmore to New- 
market, and Martin Ruter, who had 
charge of the academy at South New- 
market (the first Methodist seminary 
in New England), to Portsmouth, Mr. 
Fillmore virtually supplying the pulpit 
at Portsmouth. The arrangement was 
regarded by many as a mistake, and 
occasioned a somewhat unhappy di- 
vision between the older members and 
the pastor. During these three years 
prayer and class-meetings were held 
weekly at private houses in every part 
of the town. The room over a store 
on Congress street, — the second build- 
ing west from High street, — was, cele •' 
brated for the lively prayer meetings 
held there. Quarterly conferences 
were held at private houses. It was 
during the pastorate of Mr. Fillmore, 
probably in 181S, that a Sabbath 
school was established. The society 
also commenced paying its preachers 
their disciplinary allowance, instead of 
leaving their compensation to uncer- 
tain and sometimes scanty collections. 
In July, 1S20, Rev. Josiah A. Scarritt 
was appointed pastor. He enforced 
the discipline against unworthy mem- 
bers, and there was a rapid growth in 
grace and usefulness among the recent 

converts. In 1821 the much beloved 
and successful Enoch Mudge was sta- 
tioned in Portsmouth, and regulated 
the records of the church, and the 
manner of raising funds for its support. 
I have been informed that Rev. Mr. 
Maffitt was announced in the confer- 
ence of 1S2S, as stationed at Newbury - 
port, and Rev. Jotham Horton, a 
clergyman of good repute and ability, 
at Portsmouth. The society had pe- 
titioned for Mr. Maffitt, and when Mr. 
Horton reached Portsmouth he was 
waited upon by a committee at the 
stage tavern, on Congress street, where 
he had arrived, with his wife, and was 
informed that the church would not 
receive him ; Mr. Maffitt was wanted, 
and no other minister would be ac- 
cepted. Mr. Horton and wife left by 
the return stage. A change was, how- 
ever, effected by an exchange of ap- 
pointments, and all concerned were 
satisfied. July 29, 1835, the annual 
conference convened at Portsmouth 
for the second time, Bishop Emory 
presiding. It was an important session. 
The conference had become thus early 
abolitionized, and presented through 
its committee on slavery a radical re- 
port. Bishop Emory refused to en- 
tertain a motion for its adoption, where- 
upon the conference went into a com- 
mittee of the whole, elected Rev. John 
G. Dow, chairman, and adopted the 
report. The action of Bishop Emory, 
on this occasion, convulsed the church 
with the great controversy on confer- 
ence rights. 

\To be continued^ 



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Mr. President, Ladies of the Seamen's 

Friend Society, and Gentlemen : 

I esteem it a very great privilege to 
be here, and to participate with you in 
some humble measure in the exercises 
of this semi-centennial anniversary. 

My deepest sympathies are with you 
in the work of the beneficent organiza- 
tion under whose auspices we are met. 

When I recall how my early associa- 
tions brought me largely in contact with 
the very class of men whom yon seek 
to benefit, I should think it strange if 
my voice and influence were not enlist- 
ed in behalf of such a cause. 

I was born by the sea. Its shores 
were the play-ground, and its wave- 
washed pebbles and shells the play 
things of my childhood. 

I have frequently listened to its sum- 
mer wavelets as they whimpered of sun- 
ny climes beyond, and to the thunder 
of its wintry billows as they uttered 
their story of storm and disaster. 

Frequently upon it ; twice ship- 
wrecked ; an eye-witness of its hard- 
ships upon the poor sailor, and con- 
versant in some measure with the 
greater perils of the sailor ashore, — 
with this experience and knowledge, it 
would be strange indeed if my heart 
did not respond most cheerfully and 
with alacrity to any call from any quar- 
ter to ameliorate, if possible, the hard 
condition of the " toilers of the sea." 

There surely can be no work more 
pleasing to the Divine Master, whose 
most intimate associates were the fish- 
ermen of Tiberias, than that in which 
you are engaged. 

It is eminently unselfish and Chris- 
tian ; and it is a partial answer at least 
to the scornful question, " What is the 
Christian Church doing for the world?" 
No man whose eyes are open to see 

what is going on in the world under the 
fostering careand influence of Chris- 
tianity, will ever ask that question. It 
comes from the cynic and the scoffer 
who close their eyes, as their hearts 
are closed, to all that is good. 

True Christianity, wherever found, is 
active for the world's good, — not clois- 
tered, not standing in sublime abstrac- 
tion away from the multitude, but like 
its blessed author, mingling with the 
poor, and oppressed, and sinful, and 
lost, in order to lift them to a heav- 
enly plane of life. 

And do you know, friends, that the 
Christianity of our times is being meas- 
ured more and more, by our practical 
life, than by our mental conceptions of 
what may, or may not, constitute chris- 
tian dogma. Our relations to Jesus 
Christ are being determined by our re- 
lations to humanity. The sublime 
teachings of the sermon on the mount 
are becoming more and more the regal 
standard of our real worth, and the 
criteria of our fellowship with God. 
If, on the human side, we are hard, 
selfish, unjust, unlovely, given to no 
charities, and excusing ourselves from 
plans of fraternal helpfulness, is it not 
evident, notwithstanding our profes- 
sions and our creeds, our sabbath de- 
voutness and our prayers, that the 
chords of our being have never been 
attuned to the sweet harmony which 
filled the life of the Son of God? 

Only the man or the church whose 
life is fragrant with divine charity, and 
whose aim is to lift and save the race, 
is entitled to the distinctive name — 

And I gladly hail every man, of 
whatever church, whose soul is thrilled 
with love to his fellows, and whose 


lofty aim is to seek and to save men, ney. When passing through Spain 

as a christian brother. they were hard pressed by the Moors, 

I congratulate you, ladies, upon the and one after another was stricken 

success which has attended your socie- down. The conflict waxed hot and 

ty during its existence of fifty years, terrible ; and at last the chief of the 

May the future be more abundant in knights, in order to inspire his followers 

good works, and the success commen- with more than human courage, if that 

surate therewith. were possible, took the case containing 

It is a tradition of the age of chiv- the precious relic, and throwing it into 

airy that a Scottish King, when dying, the ranks of the enemy, cried ; * Forth, 

bequeathed his heart to one of his no- heart of Bruce, and Douglass will follow 

bles to be carried to Palestine for thee or die." 

burial. The heart of God is leading you on- 
After his decease the heart was en- ward in this beneficent work. " Be 
closed in a silver casket, and the knight ye therefore followers of God as dear 
with his retinue started upon the jour- children." 



Tossed in the North wind's freezing llight. 
Rocked by the tempest's power malign, 

Upon a tall crag's lonely height. 

There stands an ancient, time-worn pine. 

Long has that old pine braved the blast, 
Long has its deep and sullen roar 

Defied the whirlwind's furies east 
Upon its withered branches hoar. 

On thy grim form our fathers gazed, 
In boyhood's days to thee we came, 

To thee our aged eves are raised. 

But thou, old tree, art still the same. 

Dost thou not from thy throne, old pine. 

The vale's sweet charms before thee spread. 
The wooded hills in broken line, 

Admire the beauties around thee shed? 

Thine are the first dim rays of morn; 

The last faint tints of eve are thine; 
Thine are the terrors of the storm : 

Dost thou not look in awe. old pine? 

Like weary sighs for years lone: flown, 

Oft times at eventide we hear 
On the cle r air a stifled moan, 

From out thy spreading branches drear. 

Dost thou still long for days gone by. 

When painted red men roamed these vales, 
When the wild eagle soared on high. 

And the fierce panther trod the dales? 

O stanch old pine! The years have flown. 

To earth thy brothers have been cast, 
Till now in age thou art alone, 

A weary spirit of .the past. 

Grim time at length will sweep thee down. 

And lay th\- lofty crest serene 
Low in the dust, while all around 

The storm, triumphant shall close the scene. 


f 4 



: - 

v y 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

MAY, 18S3. 

IsTo. 8. 



Of those towns in the state whose 
scenery is somewhat quiet, one oi the 
most beautiful is Barrington. A small 
tract on its western border is level and 
not fertile, but most of its surface is 
gently rolling, two decided heights, 
however, affording beautiful views. 
The map shows it to be traversed by 
streams in every -part, one important 
river being the outflow ot Bow lake ; 
and the map shows no less than four- 
teen ponds, some of them nearly two 
miles in length, and whose shores, 
often abrupt, are full of beauty. Mag- 
nificent pine forests of the first growth 
have been carefully preserved to the 
present generation, and fertile farms 
are numerous. 

Daniel Hall was born in this town 
February 2S, 1832, and, with slight 
exceptions, was the descendant of gen- 
erations of farmers. His first known 
American ancestor was John Hall, who 
appears to have come to Dover, N. H., 
in the year 1649, v, ' tn his brother 
Ralph, from Charlestown. Mass. Of 
this blood was the mother of Gov. 
John Langdon, Tobias Lear (Wash- 
ington's private secretary), and others 
of like energy. The emigrant, John 
Hall, was the first recorded deacon of 
the Dover First Church, was town- 
clerk, commissioner to try small causes, 
and a farmer, but mainly surveyor of 
lands. His spring of beautiful water 
is still known as " Hall's Spring," on 
Dover Neck. His son Ralph was of 
Dover, a farmer ; whose son Ralph, 
also a farmer, was one of the early 

settlers of Barrington ; whose son Solo- 
mon, also a farmer, was of the same 
town ; whose son Daniel, also a farmer, 
was father of Oilman Hall (his ninth 
child), who, by his wife P^liza Tuttle. 
was father of nine children, Daniel 
(the subject of this sketch), being the 
first born. The picturesque old house 
in which he was born, built by one H unk- 
ing, is still standing near Winkley's pond, 
on the Nashua and Rochester Rail- 
road, an interesting and venerable land- 
mark, but unoccupied and in a ruinous 
condition. Gilman Hall was early a 
trader in Dover, but for twenty-five sub- 
sequent years was firmer and trader in 
Barrington, his native town, on the stage 
road known as the "Waldron's Hill" 
road. He was representative, and for 
many years selectman. Daniel's mother 
was a descendant of John Tuttle, who 
was judge of the superior court for many 
years prior to the year 1700, residing 
in Dover. 

Daniel Hall's life as a boy was on 
the farm. He went to the district 
school a long distance, through snows 
and heats, and by and by helped in 
the store. When older, from fourteen 
years onward, he drove a team to 
Dover, with wood and lumber, and 
sold his loads, standing on Central 
square. But he had a passion for 
books, and a burning desire for an 
education. He learned all he could 
get in the district school, and when 
about sixteen years of age he secured 
two terms, about six months in all, in 
Strafford Academy, — one term under 

2 26 


Ira F. Folsom (D. C, 184S), and one 
under Rev. Porter S. Burbank. In 
1849 he was one term at the New 
Hampshire Conference Seminary, in 
Sanbornton (now Tilton), Rev. Richard 
S. Rust, principal. Then, for satisfacto- 
ry reasons, he gave up all academies, 
returned home, set himself down alone 
to his Latin, Greek, and mathematics, 
and with indomitable perseverance 
prepared for college. He entered 
Dartmouth in 1S50, probably the poor- 
est fitted in his class ; but he had the 
fitting of a determined will, uncon- 
querable industry, a keen intellect, and 
the fiber of six generations of open-air 
ancestors, and in 1S54 he graduated 
at the very head of his class, and was 
valedictorian. It is needless to say, 
perhaps, that the eldest of nine chil- 
dren had to practice economy, and 
teach district schools five winters in 
his native town ; and that what small 
advances he had from his father were 
repaid, to the last dollar, from his first 

In the fall of 1854 he was appointed 
a clerk in the New York custom- 
house, and held the position for some 
years. He had taken an early inter- 
est in politics, being by education a 
Democrat. But he had always been 
positively anti-slavery in sentiment. 
He was dissatisfied with the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill ; and alone of all the 
clerks in the custom-house, fearless 
of the probable result to himself, 
he openly denounced the Lecompton 
constitution policy of Buchanan, and 
supported Douglas. In consequence 
he was removed from office in March, 

Returning io Dover he resumed 
the study of law — which he had com- 
menced in New York — in the office of 
the eminent lawyer, Daniel M. Chris- 
tie, and on that gentleman's motion 
was admitted to the bar at the May 
term, i860. He afterward well re- 
paid Mr. Christie's kindness by a 
eulogy, upon his decease, delivered 
before the court, and subsequently 
printed. It was regarded as an elo- 
quent and appreciative tribute to Mr. 

Christie's remarkable qualities of man- 
hood, and extraordinary powers as a 

Mr. Hall, upon his admission to the 
bar, opened an office in Dover, and 
commenced practice. In the spring 
of 1S59, just before the state election, 
in view of the great crisis coming upon 
the country, at an immense meeting in 
Dover, he (as did also Judge Charles 
Doe) withdrew from the Democratic 
party and cast in his allegiance with the 
Republicans. With them, where his 
conscience and political principles alike 
placed him, has his lot been cast ever 
since ; and it is not improbable that 
that one addition, in later and critical 
years, turned the scale in New Hamp- 
shire's political destinies. 

It was an episode in his life that in 
1859 he was appointed, by the gov- 
ernor and council, school commissioner 
for Strafford county, and was re-appoint- 
ed in i860. His early training in the 
country district school, his work as 
master in the winters, and his hard- 
earned higher education qualified him 
eminently for the practical duties of 
this office. 

In the autumn of 1861 Mr. Hall 
was appointed secretary of the United 
States senate committee to investigate 
the surrender of Norfolk navy-yard. 
This committee consisted of John P. 
Hale, Andrew Johnson, and James \V. 
Grimes. Soon after he was appointed 
clerk of the Senate committee on Naval 
Affairs, at Washington, of which Mr. 
Hale was chairman. He served in 
this capacity until March, 1862 ; but 
he wished for more immediate partici- 
pation in the great struggle then in 
progress. The conflict, which had its 
symptoms in the Lecompton strife, 
had become war, and the young man 
who had then sacrificed office for prin- 
ciple was ready for a still greater sac- 
rifice. In March, 1862, he was com- 
missioned aide-de-camp and captain in 
the regular army of the United States. 
He was assigned to duty with Gen. 
John C. Fremont ; but before he had 
time to join that officer Gen. Fremont 
had retired from command, and Capt. 



Hall was transferred to the staff of 
Gen. A. W. Whipple, then in com- 
mand at Arlington Heights of the 
troops and works in front of Washing- 
ton, on the south side of the Potomac. 
In September, 1862. a few days after 
the battle of Antietam, Gen. Whipple 
joined the Army of the Potomac, and 
eventually marched with it to the front 
of Fredericksburg. On the 13th of 
December, 1S62, he was in the battle 
of Fredericksburg, crossing the river 
with the third corps, and taking part 
in the sanguinary assault upon the 
works which covered Marye's Heights. 
At the battle of Chancellorsville he 
was in the column sent out to strike 
Jackson's flank or rear as he moved in 
front of the army, and in the gallant ac- 
tion of the third division of the third 
corps, under Gen. Whipple, and was 
with that lamented officer when he fell 
mortally wounded. Capt. Hall was 
then assigned to the staff of Gen. Oliver 
O. Howard, commander of the elev- 
enth corps, and with him participated 
in the campaign and battle of Gettys- 
burg. His relations-to that action were 
important, and have been the subject of 
some controversy. When Gen. Rey- 
nolds, commanding the first corps, had 
advanced through the town and encoun- 
tered the enemy, Cren. Howard, then 
moving up and about five miles to the 
rear, hearing the heavy firing, ordered 
Capt. Hall to ride forward as rapidly 
as possible, find Gen. Reynolds, ascer- 
tain the condition of affairs, and obtain 
his orders. A rapid ride soon carried 
him to the front, and he found Gen. 
Reynolds himself in an advanced 
and exposed position from the ene- 
my's fire. He did his errand ; Gen. 
Reynolds said he had met the enemy 
in force, and sent the order for Gen. 
Howard to bring up his corps with 
all possible dispatch. Scarcely had 
Capt. Hail got back through the 
town, when he was overtaken by the 
intelligence that Gen. Reynolds was 
mortally wounded, and near the cem- 
etery he met Gen. Howard impatient- 
ly coming up in advance of his corps. 
Passing Cemetery Ridge, Gen. Howard 

said, " That is the place to fight this 
battle," and directed Capt. Hail to 
take a battery from the leading divi- 
sion, and place it in position on the 
crest of the hill, with the division in its 
support. This was done, and that 
battery (Wiedrich's Battery, of Stein- 
wehr's division of the eleventh corps), 
the first planted on Cemetery Hill, 
remained on that spot through the 
three days of the conflict. When Gen. 
Howard took his own place there, 
Capt. Hall was of course with him, 
and on the second day of the engage- 
ment was slightly wounded by a shell. 
The credit of choosing the position 
of Cemetery Hill having been assumed 
by numerous military writers since the 
war for Gen. Reynolds, and by some for 
Gen. Hancock, these details are given, 
simply to place on record, in this per- 
manent form, his testimony to the jus- 
tice of the claim made by the friends 
of Gen. Howard, that he was fully en- 
titled to the thanks voted him by con- 
gress for selecting Cemetery Hill and 
holding it as the battle-ground of the 
great and glorious battle of Gettysburg. 

In the latter part of 1863 his health 
gave way, and he was forced to leave 
the service in December, 1863. But 
in June 1X64 he was appointed pro- 
vost-marshal of the first New Hamp- 
shire district, being stationed at Ports- 
mouth, and here he remained until 
the close of the war. The affairs of 
the office were in some confusion, but 
his methodical habits soon reduced it 
to order. During his term of service 
he enlisted or drafted and forwarded, 
over four thousand men to the army. 
This service, which ceased in October, 
1865, was marked by signal ability, in- 
tegrity, and usefulness to the govern- 
ment. " He was one of the men," 
said a substitute broker to the writer 
of this sketch, "that no man dared 
approach with a crooked proposition, 
no matter how much was in it." 

Mr. Hall resumed the practice of 
law in Dover, but in 1866 was appoint- 
ed clerk of the supreme court for 
Strafford county, and in 1868, judge 
of the police court of the city of 



Dover. The duties of these offices 
were performed with his usual sense of 
justice, but in 1S74 the Democratic 
party (being in power) ''addressed" 
him out of both offices. In the mean 
time he had been judge-advocate, 
with the rank of major, in the military 
of New Hampshire, under Gov. 
Smyth, and held a position on the staff 
of Gov. Harriman, which gave him his 
usual title of Colonel. 

Col. Hall had long taken a deep in- 
terest in political affairs. To him they 
represented principles. In 1873 he 
was president of the Republican state 
convention at Concord. He had been 
for some years a member of the Re- 
publican state committee, when, in 
December, 1873, m ' s abilities as a 
leader and executive were recognized 
in his selection as chairman of that 
committee. He so remained until 
1877, and conducted the campaigns, 
state and national, of 1S74, 1S75, an ^ 
1 8 76. These were critical years for 
the Republican party. The nearly 
even balance of parties in New Hamp- 
shire, the vigor and intensity with 
Which the battles are always fought, 
and the skill necessary in every de- 
partment, demanded abilities and ener- 
gies of the highest order. The years 
mentioned surpassed ordinary years in 
political danger to the Republicans. 
It is sufficient to say that Col. Hall 
conducted the last three campaigns to 
a triumphant issue. So decisive were 
the successive victories that the tide 
was turned, and from that time the 
state has not swerved from her Repub- 
lican allegiance. 

In 1876 Col. Hall was chairman of 
the New Hampshire delegation to the 
Republican national convention at 
Cincinnati, being chosen at large, un- 
pledged, and with scarce a dissenting 
vote. Seven delegates voted from 
first to last for James G. Blaine ; but 
Col. Hall, with ex-Gov. Straw and 
Hon. Charles H. Burns, voted six 
times for Mr. Bristow, and, on the de- 
cisive ballot, for Poitherford B. Hayes. 

In 1876 and 1877 Col. Hall was, by 
appointment of Gov. Cheney, reporter 

of the decisions of the supreme court 
of New Hampshire, and in that honor- 
able position published volumes 56 
and 57 of the New Hampshire Re- 

In 1S77 he succeeded Gov. Harri- 
man as naval officer at the port of 
Boston. This office is co-ordinate 
with that of collector, upon which it is 
a check, and, when properly adminis- 
tered, is of great value to the country. 
Col. Hall's business habits, his keen 
insight, his perfect accuracy, and the 
ruling principle of his life to do every 
thing well and thoroughly, there came 
into operation. He quietly mastered 
the details as well as the general 
work of the department. Regularly 
at his post, his office became a model 
in its management, and was com- 
mended in the highest terms by the 
proper officers. When, therefore, his 
term expired, he was re-appointed for 
another four years by President Arthur, 
with no serious opposition. 

The office, under his management, 
is performing its functions to the ad- 
vantage of the gos"ernment, participat- 
ing influential]}' in the collection of 
many millions of customs revenue, and 
insuring the faithful enforcement of all 
the revenue laws. Under him there 
has been no proscription, political or 
personal. No subordinate has been 
removed to make way for any favorite ; 
but the force, with some additions 
necessitated by the increase of busi- 
ness, remains substantially as he found 
it. It is believed that, without making 
any high-sounding professions of '• Re- 
form," the head of the Naval office 
has been and is making a clean official 
record, and giving a practical exhibi- 
tion of the best kind of civil service, 
by appointing capable men only, and 
by keeping good men in their places, 
and making no changes among faith- 
ful subordinates for the personal ends 
of himself, or his friends. 

Col. Hall married, January 25, 1877, 
Sophia, daughter of Jonathan T. and 
Sarah (Hanson) Dodge, of Rochester, 
and has one son, Arthur Wellesley Hall, 
born August 30, 1878. The beautiful 



house erected and occupied by him 
in Dover, and adorned with cultivated 
taste, has not its least charm in the 
steadily increasing library of carefully 
selected literature, to whose study he 
devotes the hours not required by 
official duties. 

He attends the First church of 
Dover, the Congregational church, 
where his emigrant ancestor held office 
two centuries and a quarter ago. He 
is a radical teetotaler, and has taken an 
active and life-long interest in the cause 
of temperance. 

It is his personal desire that his 
great love for the horse, and, indeed, 
for all animals, be mentioned in this 

Col. Hall's courteous and gentle- 
manly manners are not such as com- 
monly mark the bold and sagacious 
politician. His habitual mood and 
conversation suggest scholarly instincts, 
a comprehensive interest in public af- 
fairs, and an elevated standard of judg- 

ment. Time and acquaintance, how- 
ever, are required to show the breadth 
of his knowledge and culture. Public 
addresses have, as occasions demand- 
ed, exhibited the thoughtful political 
student, a patriotic love of country, 
and the ripeness of the accomplished 
scholar. Fidelity to every engagement, 
good faith to every principle espoused, 
firmness of purpose, steady industry 
and efficiency in every work under- 
taken, have insured him a success fully 
equal to the expectations of a nature 
not sanguine, conceited, nor unduly 
ambitious for the high prizes in life. 
But his friends feel that he is capable 
of more than he has yet achieved. At 
his age, with the possession of ample 
mental resources, the confidence of 
the public, and the health and strength 
which are the legitimate outcome of 
regular habits and simple tastes, it may, 
perhaps, be fairly assumed that recog- 
nitions of public respect await him 
greater than any yet bestowed. 



{Part Second.) 

The following article, the introduc- 
tory part of which was contained in the 
April number of this Mag'zine, will re- 
late to the pastors, presiding elders, 
and others who have been particularly 
identified with the church in Ports- 

Rev. Jesse Lee was born in Prince 
George county, Maryland, in 1 758. 

Commencing his public religious 
efforts in the capacity of a class leader 
and exhorter, in the state of North Car- 
olina, he soon became a local preacher, 
his first sermon having been preached 
November 17, 1779. He attended 
the Virginia Conference in 17S2; was 
appointed, with another preacher, to 
form a new circuir, and commenced 

his labors as a traveling preacher. In 
1783 he was appointed to Caswell cir- 
cuit in North Carolina, at which time 
he was received into Conference and 
formally entered the ministry. He 
died at Hillsborough, Md., September 
12, 1816, and was buried at Baltimore. 
He was distinguished as a preacher 
and organizer, and labored most effect- 
ively in introducing Methodism into 
many new and productive fields, being 
eminently successful and influential. 
He was emphatically the founder of 
Methodism in New England, and was 
instrumental in extending the denomi- 
nation throughout its entire limits. He 
was the pioneer of Methodism in Bos- 
ton, and for the want of an open door 



he preached his first sermon in that 
city under the large elm tree on the 

He was for three years the traveling 
companion of Bishop Ashury, whom 
he greatly assisted in his apostolic 
work. In 1S00 Lee and Whatcoat re- 
ceived a tie vote for the office of bish- 
op, but on a second ballot Richard 
Whatcoat was elected by a majority of 

Lee was the first historian of the 
church, having published a history of 
Methodism in America in 1S09. From 
1S09 to 1S13 he was chaplain to the 
United States House of Representa- 
tives. and in 1S14 chaplain to the United 
States Senate. During the intervals of 
Congress, and, indeed, at all times, he 
was diligently employed in Christian 

His last regular station was at Annap- 
olis, Md. He was regarded as a lead- 
ing minister of his church, and was 
conspicuously influential in the confer- 
ences of his day. Performing won- 
derlul services in an heroic age, he 
/ gained, among his contemporaries, a 
rank second only to Asbury as an in- 
defatigable itinerant and a controlling 
power in the church. 

Rev. Ezekiel Cooper was born in 
Caroline county, Md., February 22, 
1763. Bishop Asbury placed him 
upon a circuit in 1 7S4. He was ad- 
mitted to conference in 1 785. Fie 
died in Philadelphia February 21, 1847, 
in the eighty-fourth year of his age, 
having been sixty-four years in the 
gospel ministry, and, at the time of his 
death, the oldest member of any 
Methodist Conference in America. 

In 1793 he was Presiding Elder of 
the Boston district. In 1 7S5 the en- 
tire territory of Long Island was his 

He served with distinction and great 
fidelity in many important stations, 
namely, Trenton, Baltimore, Annapolis, 
Alexandria, Boston, New York, Brook- 
lyn, Philadelphia, and Wilmington. He 
was the editor and general agent 
of the Book Concern from 1 799 
to 1804, and discharged his duties 

with marked ability. He located in 
1S13, but reentered the traveling min- 
istry, and was appointed in 1820 to S:. 
George's M. E. Church, Philadelphia. 
He became a supernumerary soon there- 
after, but continued to render efficient 
service as conference missionary, in 
visiting churches, superintending a dis- 
trict and other effective work. He ac- 
quired the title of a " Walking Ency- 
clopedia," and was further compliment- 
ed by his associates in being called 
the "Lycurgus" of the church, in recog- 
nition of his profound wisdom, exten- 
sive knowledge and admirable discre- 
tion. As a powerful and eloquent 
preacher, and as an able, logical and 
versatile debater, he was conceded to 
have few, if any, superiors. 

Rev. George Pickering was born 
in Talbot county. Maryland, in 1769. 
At the age or eighteen he was con- 
nected with the Methodist Church in 
Philadelphia, and early devoted him- 
self to the ministry, and commenced 
preaching. He entered the Itineracy 
in 1790, and was appointed to the 
Caroline circuit ; in 1792, to the Dover 
district in Delaware ; and, in response 
to a call by Jesse Lee for additional 
helpers, he entered New England in 
1793. and was abundant in labors and 
effective to the last. He died at Wal- 
tham, Mass., after a service of more 
than fifty years, characterized by great 
fidelity, constancy and zeal. Fie was 
scrupulously precise and methodical, 
dignified, gentlemanly and reliable. In 
the performance of every duty he 
promptly and rigorously responded to 
every engagement. George Pickering 
was a remarkable man, and rendered 
great and effective services to the 
church as missionary, preacher, presid- 
ing elder, and delegate to the General 
Conference, of which, with the excep- 
tion of two meetings, he was an influ- 
ential member for forty years. For 
fifty-seven years he was effective as a 
preacher, being at no time supernu- 
merary or superannuated. He died the 
" oldest effective Methodist preacher 
in the world," Dec. 8, 1846, aged 77, 
at the Bemis mansion in Waltham, 


2 3 

Mass. In this mansion the early itin- 
erants were hospitably entertained with 
great liberality by Abraham Bemis. 
His property was inherited by his 
daughter, Mary, who, at nineteen years 
of age, married Mr. Pickering, and- 
the Bemis mansion became the per- 
manent home of the family during her 
husband's evangelist life, not more than 
one fifth of his married life of fifty years 
and more having been spent with his 
family. His widow died in April, 1859, 
aged S3. We have not the space to 
further portray the remarkable virtues. 
piety, and firmness of Rev. George 
Pickering who, having well done the 
7vork of an evangelist, and made full 
proof of his ministry, passed to his 
home in Heaven, " pure in character, 
laborious in life, triumphant in death." 
Rev. John Brodhead was born in 
Lower Smithfield, Monroe county, 
Pa., Oct. 2 2d, 1770. He entered the 
Itineracy in 1794. and was appointed 
to the Northumberland circuit in Penn- 
sylvania ; in 1795, to Rent, Delaware, 
/ extending his labors into New Jersey 
and Maryland. Assigned by the bishop 
to New England, he was, in 1 796, ap- 
pointed to Readfieid. Maine ; in 1797, 
to Lynn and Marblehead, Mass. ; in 
1797, to Warren, R. I. ; in 1799, again 
to Readfieid, Me. In 1S00 and 1801 
he was Presiding Elder of the New 
London District ; and in 1S02 of the 
Vershire (Vt.) District. In 1S03 he 
was stationed at Hanover, N. H. ; in 
1*804, 1S05, 1806 was Presiding Elder 
of N. PI. District; in 1807-8 of the 
Boston District; in 1809-10 was sta- 
tioned at Portsmouth, N. H. ; in 181 1, 
Newmarket, Durham, and Portsmouth ; 
in 1S12, Newmarket and Durham. 
From 1 813 to 1S19 he was superannu- 
ated ; in 1820 was stationed at New- 
market and Kensington ; andfromi82i 
to 1837 he was either effective, super- 
• numerary, or superannuated. His last 
appointment was at Seabrook and 
Hampton missions in 1837. He died 
at South Newmarket, N. H., April 7, 
1838, in the Brodhead mansion, now 
in possession of the family. He well 
sustained the relation of effective, 

supernumerary, and superannuated for 
the period of 44 years, and was emi- 
nently successful as a minister of the 
gospel, and regarded as a "prince and 
a great man in Israel." He was an 
eloquent and powerful preacher, sol- 
emn, persuasive, and at times well nigh 
irresistible. He was also exceedingly 
able and popular as a Presiding Elder. 
Influential in the councils of the church 
and distinguished as a citizen ; of no- 
ble and commanding presence ; dig- 
nified in mien ; affable, kind and mag- 
nanimous, he was greatly beloved and 
honored. He held several public po- 
sitions with great credit ; was chaplain to 
the New Hampshire Legislature. mem- 
ber of the State Senate 1825-6, and Mem- 
ber of Congress from 1.828^01833. Re- 
sisting the most urgent importunity, he 
declined to have his name presented 
as a candidate for the office of gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire, preferring 
to labor and die in the gospel harness. 
He married Mary, the daughter of 
Captain Thomas Dodge. Lisbon, N. H., 
who was born at" Ipswich, Mass., and 
died at South Newmarket, Aug. 28, 
1S75, aged 93, an estimable woman, of 
marked character, many virtues and 
christian activities. Six sons and six 
daughters honored the memory of their 
father and mother and proved worthy 
of their parentage. 

Rev. Alfred Metcalf was born Jan- 
uary 2, 1777 ; died at Greenland, N. H., 
June 4, 1837. I am unable to re- 
cord the place of his nativity ; but his 
father moved, shortly after his birth, to 
Marlborough, N. H. He united with 
the church in 1800; his public labors 
commenced in 1802. 

In 1803 he was received into the trav- 
eling connection of the New England 
Conference, and in 1S09 preached on 
the circuit which included Portsmouth. 
His health becoming impaired, he lo- 
cated in 1810 and resided at Greenland. 
He however continued to preach with 
great acceptance, and was abundant in 
labor, improving every opportunity to 
preach the word. After serving the 
church with great fidelity and zeal for 
thirty-four years, he died in peace. 



He was a most excellent citizen, a 
preacher of rare excellence, and is af- 
fectionately remembered in Method- 
istic circles. 

Rev. William Stevens was born in 
Plymouth County, Mass., March 24, 
1778 ; was received on trial, and ap- 
pointed to Landaff (N. H.) circuit in 
1804 : and in 1S06, was received into 
full connection with the New England 
Conference. In 180S he was on the 
Portsmouth circuit; in 1S13, located; 
re-admitted to Ohio Conference in 
1821 ; sustained a supernumerary rela- 
tion in 1845 5 became superannuated 
in 1846 ; died at Bridgewater, Pa., 
March 1, 185 8. 

Rev. Daniel Perry, who was on the 
Portsmouth circuit in 1S09, joined the 
New England Conference in 1802, and 
stationed at Needham, Mass. From 
1803 to 1S08 inclusive, he was appoint- 
ed to Falmouth. Hallow-ll and Bethel, 
Maine ; Barnard, Rochester and Weath- 
ersfield, Vermont, and New London, 
Conn. We are unable to trace him 
further than 1809, when he located. 

Rev. John' Williamson joined the 
New England Conference in 1805, sta- 
tioned first at Readfield, thence to oth- 
er towns and circuits in Maine, until 
1S10, when he was appointed to Ports- 
mouth and Greenland; 1S11, Poplin 
and Salem; 1S12, Hampden, Maine; 
and in 1813 he located, and passes from 

Rev. Benjamin Sarin united with the 
New England Conference in 18 ro, and 
was appointed to the Salisbury. Poplin, 
and Salem circuit, with Asa Kent and 
John Jewett as associates. In 1 8 1 1 , New 
London, Conn. ; 181 2, Providence and 
Srnithfield, R. I., and creditably filled 
other appointments in Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Can- 
ada, until 1820, when he located. He 
was a preacher of superior talents, and 
removing to Michigan may have united 
with the Conference there. He was 
living at a period not remote. We 
have no record of his death. 

Rev. Thomas was born in 
England about 1780; became a Wes- 
leyan local preacher ; emigrated to this 

country about 1S05, and joined the 
New England Conference in 1S06 ; re- 
ceived six appointments ; and located 
in 181 2. His name appears in the 
Conference minutes of 1S24. as sta- 
tioned at Buffalo, N. Y. In 1S25 he 
is returned as located. He married, 
June 22, 1823, Rachel Binney, of Hull, 
Mass., the sister of the late Rev. Amos 
Binney, and in 1S25 moved West, pur- 
chasing a large tract of land where the 
city of Columbus, Ohio, now stands. 
The purchase made him rich. He left 
one child, a son, who became a phy- 
sician in Columbus. Thomas Asbury 
possessed good preaching abilities and 
was highly esteemed. 

Rev. Asa Kent, born in West Brook- 
field, Mass., May 9, 1 7S0 ; died at New- 
Bedford, Sept. 1, i860, aged So. He 
was licensed to preach in 1S01 ; joined 
the New England Conference in 1S02, 
and commenced traveling on the Weath- 
erstield (Vermont) Circuit. He was a 
delegate to General Conference, 1S12- 
16. As pastor and Presiding Elder he 
exerted a benign and healthy influence, 
being regarded as "a good preacher, 
rich in Christian experience and original 
in thought." He lived beloved and 
died lamented. 

Rev. Josiah A. Scarritt was born 
in Simsbury, Conn., in 1792; joined 
the New England Conference in 18 15, 
and, with the exception of three years' 
location, he continued in the Itineracy 
until his death, rendering most excellent 
service as pastor and Presiding Elder. 
He was a member of two General Con- 
ferences. After fifty years' faithful ser- 
vice to the church of his choice, he 
died, Nov. 12, 1865, at Sandwich, N.H. 
" He was a noble specimen of the ear- 
ly Methodist itinerant, pious, devout, 
firm and faithful, emphatically strong, 
bold, vigorous, unwearied and self-sac- 

Rev. Orlando Hinds was born in 
Sandwich, N. H., April 4, 1782 ; was 
licensed to preach in 1809; joined 
the N. E. Conference in 18 10. His 
first appointment was on the Ports- 
mouth circuit, with John Williamson. 
In 1832 he located, and with his fam- 


2 33 

ily resided at Chichester, N. H., where 
he died March i, 1869. He was for 
several years in feeble health, but to 
the extent of his ability labored for 
the cause, continuing in sen-ice fifty- 
nine years. " He was a man of great 
personal dignity and urbanity of man- 
ners, with a heart full of Christian sym- 
pathy, always ready to assist without 
assuming to lead." 

Rev. John Lixdsey, born in Lynn, 
Mass.. July 18, 1 78S ; a local preacher 
in 1S08 ; was admitted to X. E. Con- 
ference in 1S09, and appointed to 
New London (Conn.) circuit ; New- 
market, Durham and Portsmouth, 
1810. He filled important appoint- 
ments at Portland, Nantucket, and 
Bristol, R. I., and was Presiding Elder 
of Vermont, Lynn and Hoston dis- 
tricts. He was subsequently stationed 
at New York city, New Haven and 
Poughkeepsie. In 1S35-36 he was 
agent of the Wesleyan University ; in 
1842 agent of the American Bible 
Society, at Albany. In 1846 he had 
charge of the Albany district as Pre- 
siding Elder, and continued in charge 
until, at the age of 62. he died at 
Schenectady, N. V., February 20, [S50. 
He was a preacher of reputation, and 
possessed great energy of character. 
His widow, Lucy Nourse, died at 
Lynn, Mass., June 19, 1S58. His son 
is one of the professors in the Theo- 
logical Department of Boston Univer- 

Rev. Charles Virgin", who was born 
in Hopkinton, N. H., May 8, 1787, 
entered the N. E. Conference in 1807. 
He was, at one time, Presiding Elder 
of Kennebec district ; also, in 1813-16, 
of Boston districts, which included 
Portsmouth. He was a pious man, 
an acceptable preacher and an efficient 
Presiding Elder. Becoming superan- 
nuated, he settled at Wilbraham, Mass., 
where he died April 1, 1853. 

Rev. Jordox Rexford, the first reg- 
ularly stationed Methodist minister at 
Portsmouth, was a faithful and success- 
ful pastor. He entered the Itineracy 
in 1792. His first appointment was 
Ptttsfield (Ma^s. ) circuit, New England 

Conference ; thence to Lynn in 1 793 ; 
the next year at Marblehead. He 
was to change, however, in three 
months with John Hill, whose field had 
the comprehensive title of New Hamp- 
shire. Mr. Rexford 's labors in Mar- 
blehead were attended by severe trials. 
On his first appointment to that town 
he was snow-balled through the streets. 
He married one of the original mem- 
bers of the society, and, having located 
in 1 795, disappeared for thirteen years 
from the Conference roll ; but, in 1S08 
joined again, and was appointed to 
Bristol, R. I. Subsequently he labored 
on the island of Nantucket, and on the 
Bristol and Portsmouth(R. I.) circuits, 
and at Portsmouth, N. H.. two years, 
1812-13. In 1S14 he located ; re- 
sided several years at Marblehead, 
and became a local preacher and the 
teacher of the upper town school. 
He lies buried at Pawtucket, R. I. 

Rev. Thomas W. Tucker, born in 
Boston April 22, 1791. was converted 
when sixteen year? of age and joined 
the M. E. Church. Admitted to the 
N. E. Conference in 1812, he contin- 
ued in effective relation until 1S49, 
when he became superannuated and 
supplied places under the direction of 
the Presiding Elder. He died in 
Chelsea, Mass., August 6, 1S71, the 
senior member of the New England 
Conference. " During the years of 
his superannuation he supplied vari- 
ous charges, temporarily, as occasion 
offered and health permitted." He 
was approved unto God, a workman 
that needeth not to be ashamed, hand- 
ling aright the word of truth. When 
stationed at Portsmouth he was un- 
married and received for his services, 
in 1814, 5 [29.22, including board. 
The late Edward T. Taylor, the cele- 
brated sailor preacher, of Boston, fa- 
miliarly railed " Father Taylor," in 
describing his early religious experi- 
ence at the Bromrleld-street church, 
refers to Mr. Tucker, who, when only 
19 years of age, was instrumental in 
causing him to go forward for prayers. 
Mr. Tucker spoke to him, and he 
yielded to his persuasive entreaties. 



Taylor, in his characteristic style, said, 
"I was dragged through the * lubber- 
hole ' (the window), brought down by 
a broadside from the '74' (Elijah 
Hedding), and fell into the arms of 
Thomas W. Tucker." 

Rev. Josiah F. Chamberlain* was 
born in September, 17S6, and died 
March 26, 1S64. He was a member 
of the Vermont Conference. He 
commenced preaching in 1S11, and 
was a very acceptable minister. In 
181 6 he was stationed at Portsmouth, 
but Caleb Dustin, who was appointed 
to Salisbury, supplied the pulpit a con- 
siderable portion of the year. 

Rev. Daniel Fillmore was born in 
Franklin, Conn., and, at the age of 
twenty-one. supplied on the Tolland 
circuit. In 181 1 he. joined the N. E. 
Conference. As a beloved itinerant 
he served the church about fifty years 
with remarkable fidelity and success. 
In 1852 he requested a superannuated 
relation, preaching occasionally. His 
/ pastorate at Portsmouth — 1S1 7-19 — is 
of precious memory to the few aged 
pilgrims, now surviving, who were fa- 
vored by his ministrations. •'He was 
. a good man, amiable, honest, correct 
and punctual ; as a minister, sincere 
and faithful ; an excellent sermonizer, 
and preeminently diligent, laborious 
and successful in pastoral duties. He 
died at Providence, R. I., August 13, 

Rev. Martin Ruter, d. d., was born 
April 3, 17S5. at Charlton, Mass., and 
united with the church in 1 799 ; he 
became an exhorter in 1S00, and was 
licensed to preach. In 1 801, at the 
age of sixteen, he was admitted to the 
New York Conference ; in [S07 was 
appointed to Portsmouth. In 1808 
he was a member from New England 
of the first delegated Conference at its 
session at Baltimore. He was, in 
181 8, the first Principal of the first 
Methodi-t Literary Institution in New 
England — the Newmarket Wesleyan 
Academy — which was subsequently re- 
moved to Wilbraham, Mass. Dr. Ru- 
ter was also a member of the General 
Conference of 1 824 and 1 &$6. He was 

a very able classical scholar, and a 
popular divine, exceedingly active and 
zealous in every sphere to which he 
was assigned. In 1S19 he was ap- 
pointed to Portsmouth, but. by an ar- 
rangement with the Presiding Elder, 
he remained in charge of the academy, 
and Rev. Daniel Fillmore preached 
mainly at Portsmouth. Dr. -Ruter was 
the editor of the New England Mis- 
sionary Magazine, which was printed 
by Isaac Hill, at Concord, N. H., in 
1S15, and preceded all other church 
publications. Four quarterly numbers 
were issued. He was elected Book 
Agent by the General Conference of 
1820, and was president of the Augusta 
College, Kentucky, in 1S2S ; Alleghany 
College, Meadville, Pa., in 1834, and 
was appointed superintendent of a 
new mission in Texas, in 1837, and 
died at Washington, Texas, May 16, 
1838. He excelled as a preacher, be- 
came popular as an educator, and was 
an excellent organizer. His busy life 
was devoted to Christisn activities. 
He will long be reverently remembered 
by the church as one of the most use- 
ful and influential ministers of early 
American Methodism. 

Rev. Jacob Sanborn was born in 
Unity. N. H.. May 16, 17SS; com- 
menced preaching August 14, 1S11 ; 
joined the N. E. Conference in June, 
18 r 2 ; was agent for Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, 1846. He was stationed at im- 
portant places in New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, and Rhode Is- 
land, as pastor, and in charge of large 
districts as Presiding Elder. He be- 
came a supernumerary in 1850, and a 
resident of Concord, N. H., but 
preached more or less frequently, often 
regularly, until May ro. 1863, when he 
preached for the last time at Pem- 
broke, N. H., where he was first sta- 
tioned by the N. E. Conference in 
181 2. He died at Concord, N. II., 
March 16, 1867. His second wife, 
whom he married June 21, 1826, sur- 
vived him, and now resides at Exeter. 
N. H. She was Eliza, the daughter of 
the late Abednego Robinson, Esq., of 
Portsmouth, and the sister of the late 


2 35 

wife of Rev. Samuel Kelley, who is al- 
ways remembered with affection. Jacob 
Sanborn li belonged to the heroic age 
of N. E. Methodism, and was a hero 
among the moral heroes of that time." 
He was eminently a good pastor, a 
powerful preacher, and deserved the 
excellent reputation which he won by 
his laborious and faithful services. 

Rev. Enoch Mudge, born in Lynn, 
Mass., June 21, 1776, died April 2, 
1850, aged 74 years. He has the dis- 
tinction of being on record as the first 
native of New England who became a 
minister of the M. E. Church. He 
entered the ministry in 1793 in the 
iSth year of his age, having previously 
been active as a class leader, exhorter, 
and local preacher. In 1844 Mr. 
Mudge retired from effective work, 
after a long, faithful and most accept- 
able service, greatly beloved and high- 
ly esteemed for his ability, zeal, con- 
stancy and piety. The name of 
Mudge, the heavenly-minded* is pre- 
cious to the church, and w 11 continue 
as fragrant as oil | oured forth. In re- 
lation to Portsmouth, where he was 
stationed in 1821—22, he wrote, ' k I 
spent two years in a pleasant and com- 
fortable manner, and left the church 
in peace." The Portsmouth Direc- 
tory, of 182 1, gives, "Methodist 
Church, Methodist lane, leading from 
Vaughan street, Rev. Enoch Mudge, 
pastor, house, Islington street. John 
Oxford, jr., sexton." 

Rev. Benjamix Ray Hoyt was born 
in Braintree, Mass., June 6, 17S9; 
died at Windham, N. H., October 3, 
1872. He was licensed as an exhort- 
er in 1807 ; became a preacher in 
1S0S ; and united with the N. E. Con- 
ference in 1809. He was forty-six 
years in effective service and sixty-five 
years a minister of the M. E. church. 
He served nineteen years as Presiding 
Elder to great acceptance, and twenty- 
seven years as pastor. He was several 
times honored by his brethren in be- 
ing elected a delegate to the General 
Conference. He was interested in 
promoting the cause of Christian edu- 
cation, and was one of the founders 

and a trustee of the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, and also of the Newbury Semi- 
nary. " He was a ready and eloquent 
speaker, and, in his prime, was a man 
of power in the pulpit, drawing crowds 
wherever he preached." His son. 
Rev. Dr. Francis S. Hoyt, editor of 
the Western Christian Advocate, was 
born in 1S23, and has occupied im- 
portant positions in the literary insti- 
tutions of the church and the editorial 
profession. Another son, Albert H. 
Hoyt, Esq., a lawyer by profession, 
was, for a time, a resident of Ports- 
mouth, where he is well and favorably 

Rev. Ephratm Wilev commenced 
preaching in 1S14, and was admitted 
to the N. E. Conference in 1S18. He 
was popular and successful as a preach- 
er, a sweet singer, and a ready, fluent 
and pleasant speaker." His labors 
were greatly blessed and always ac- 
ceptable. He was connected during 
his ministerial career with the New 
England, Maine, and East Maine 
Conferences, and died at Jackson, 
Louisiana, Sept. 30, 1864,. aged 76. at 
the residence of his son, Professor 
George H. Wiley of Centenary Col- 

Rev. Shiplev Wells Wilsox joined 
the New England Conference in 1S13, 
and beenme one of its leading 'mem- 
bers. His talents were respectable, 
but not especially attractive in the 
pulpit. He was well informed, had 
some reputation as a writer, and in 
1832-3 edited Eton's Herald. He 
received thirty appointments, the last 
being East Cambridge, Mass., where 
several of his brethren took exception 
to his policy of inviting some of the 
unevangelical to unite with him in 
religious services on certain public 
occasions, which resulted in his with- 
drawing from the Methodist Episcopal 
church in 1843, and uniting with the 
Protestant Episcopal church. He pos- 
sessed a good spirit, loved the breth- 
ren, and died in peace. 

Rev. Wilbur Fiske, d. d., who 
preached the dedication sermon of the 
State street M. E. church, Portsmouth, 



was one of the most noted men that 
Methodism has produced. He was 
the son of Hon. Judge Fiske ; was born 
in Brattleborough, Vermont, August 
31, 1792 ; and graduated with distin- 
guished honor in August, 1S15. at 
Brown University, R. I. Previous to 
entering " Brown." in 18 14, he was in 
the sophomore class of 1S12, of the 
University of Vermont, where he re- 
mained until the buildings were occu- 
pied by the army, during the war of 
181 2. Graduating at the age of 23 
he entered upon the study of law. but 
relinquished that profession for the 
ministry. After a few months' labor 
as an exhorter, he was licensed as a 
local preacher, March 14. 1S1S. His 
first sermon, at Lyndon, Vt.. gave 
promise of future eminence. His ser- 
vices on Craftsbury circuit were partic- 
ularly acceptable. He joined the N. 
E. Conference in 181S, and became 
an exceedingly eloquent, able and 
/ pious minister of the Gospel, and ren- 
dered invaluable services in the cause 
of Methodistic Education, as the be- 
loved principal of the Wesleyan Acad- 
emy at YVilbraham, Mass., for which 
a charter was obtained in November, 
1S25. He removed to YVilbraham in 
May, 1S26. In 1S22 he was urged to 
accept the agency of the Newmarket 
Academy, then the only Methodist in- 
stitution of learning in New England; 
but he declined the appointment. He 
was Presiding Elder of the Vermont 
district ; preached the election sermon 
before the legislature of Vermont in 
1826, and of Massachusetts in 1S29. 
He was elected president of the La 
Grange College in Alabama in 1S29, 
also Bishop of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church in Canada, both of which 
offices he declined, as he could not 
be prevailed upon to separate himself 
from the educational interests of his 
denomination in New England. In 
1S30 he was elected president of Wes- 
leyan University at Middletown, Conn., 
of which he was one of the founders. 
He was elected Bishop of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church of the L'nited 
States in 1836, but did not accept the 

office, believing he could be more use- 
ful to the church in other capacities, 
particularly in developing his plans for 
Christian education and culture. He 
preferred to be an educator rather 
than one of the chief officers of the 
church. He was influential as a dele- 
gate to the General Conference in 
1S2S and 1832. His positive declina- 
tion alone prevented him from repre- 
senting his conference in 1S36. In 
that year he was sent as a delegate to 
the British Wesleyan Conference. He 
dignified every position he occupied, 
and exerted a commanding influence 
in the denomination for good, rank- 
ing deservedly high as an educator, 
preacher, orator, debater, and writer. 
The memory of the " learned and 
sainted Fisk " continues a goodly her- 
itage, beautiful and symmetrical in 
character and goodness. He died at 
Middletown, Conn., Feb. 22, 1S39, 
and his body reposes in the College 

Rev. John Newland Maf<fitt was 
born in Dublin, Ireland, Dec. 28, 
1 794. He embarked from his native 
city Feb. r, 1S19, in the Brig : ' Stan- 
dard,'' for Boston, but left the vessel 
at Mayo, one of the Cape Verde Is- 
lands, coming thence in the Brig 
" Menton " to New York city, where 
he arrived April 21, 1S19. His pa- 
rents, members of the Episcopal 
Church, were interested in the Wes- 
leyan movement. He was, however, 
educated in the Established Church, 
and joined the Wesleyans in 1813. 
From an early period he had deter- 
mined on entering the ministry, and 
at the age of nineteen he commenced 
public exhortations, evincing a power 
and ability which foreshadowed his 
future fame as a preacher of the 

His father died when the future pul- 
pit orator was twelve years of age. 
Wm. H. Maffitt, m. d., who accompa- 
nied his brother from Dublin, and who 
died in 1S41, in North Carolina, is 
authority for the statement that Mr. 
Maffitt never engaged in any mercan- 
tile profession or pursued any voca- 



lion other than the Christian ministry, 
to which he consecrated himself in 
early life, being profoundly impressed 
that he was divinely called to that 
work. In six weeks after becoming a 
disciple he attempted to fill an appoint- 
ment, and occasionally preached in 
halls, open fields and public streets, 
and was called the Young Enthusiast. 
His wife (to whom he was married 
when quite a young man) and his 
widowed mother, as well as many 
friends, opposed his ministerial aspira- 
tions and did not favor his emigrating 
to America. He, however, resolved 
on leaving Ireland, and in company 
with his brother William, who was a 
physician, embarked from Dublin in 
1 819. His wife and children came to 
the United States a few years later. 

The morning after reaching New 
York city he inquired for the Metho- 
dist preachers and was directed to 
/ Rev. Mr. Crowell. on Second street, 
who received him kindly but did not 
encourage his preaching. His brother, 
Dr. Maffitt, visited New England, go- 
ing as far east as Boston, stopping at 
New London, and attended a camp 
meeting at Hebron. On returning to 
New York he advised his brother to 
go to the eastern shores and preach in 
Connecticut. He started immediate- 
ly and at Thompson beheld the crowd- 
ed tents of Israel's camp, and nrn- 
gling with the happy throng, com- 
menced his ministerial career in 
America. He was appointed in 1S20 
on the New London circuit, as a jun- 
ior preacher. His success was so 
great he was assigned to New London, 
New Haven, Middietown and Hart- 
ford, spending a full week in each 
place, preaching three times on the 
Sabbath and from four to five times 
week evenings. 

Mr. Maffitt united with the New 
England Conference in 1 82 2, with which 
he was connected for ten years, occu- 
pying important stations and acquir- 
ing a notable reputation by his elo- 
quent diction and rare powers of ora- 
tory. He became very popular as the 
silver-tongued Irish poet-preacher, and 

was eminently successful in attracting 
crowds, moving the masses, and in- 
ducing large numbers to surround the 
altar for prayers and to commence a 
Christian life. Mr. Maffitt's meetings 
were always crowded. The churches 
where he preache.l were filled to their 
utmost capacity Jong before the hour 
of meeting. Camp meetings were fre- 
quently the scenes of his greatest 
triumphs. In July, 1S21, he preached 
at a camp meeting on Long Island to 
fifteen thousand people a sermon of 
wonderful eloquence and persuasive 
power. In September, 182 1, on his 
way to Boston, he stopped at Milford, 
Mass., where he electrified the assem- 
bled thousands at a camp meeting. 
At Boston, he preached at the Brom- 
field-street M. E. church. His fame 
had preceded him, and his efforts in 
that church were represented as over- 
whelming. In the spring of 1822 he 
returned to New York city, where he 
labored for a short time with very 
great success. Returning thence to 
New England, he was heard with in- 
creasing interest for several years. 
Man)' of the older members of the 
church in Rockingham county, who 
attended the camp meeting at Kings- 
ton, N. H., in 1S42, well remember 
that when Mr. Maffitt was preaching 
the rain descended quite copiously, 
but the large audience was so capti- 
vated by his earnest eloquence that 
they remained patient listeners, stand- 
ing with umbrellas spread for upward 
of an hour, until the service was con- 

After leaving New England, he lo- 
cated in New York city, preaching 
and lecturing at his discretion. 

In 1830 he edited a paper called 
The New York Cabinet, and issued 
several numbers. In 1831 he was 
without appointment, and began a re- 
markable career as an Evangelist in the 
Southern States. In 1832 he located, 
continuing his labors as an Evangelist. 
In 1833 he issued, with Rev. Lewis 
Garrett, at Nashville, Tenn., a 
weekly journal called the West- 
ern Methodist, now the Chris- 



tian Advocate, the central organ 
of the M. E. Church, South. In 
1836-7 he was the agent of LaGrange 
College, Alabama, and was elected to 
the chair of Elocution and Belles 
Lettres in that institution. He preach- 
ed extensively, thousands were attract- 
ed to his meetings, and were wonder- 
fully influenced by his impassioned 
eloquence. A quickened religious in- 
terest resulted from his labors, and 
large accessions were made to the 
church through his instrumentality. 
In 1S41 he was elected Chaplain of 
Congress. Afterward he went to 
Auburn, N. Y., and in 1845-6 edited 
the Calvary 'Token, a monthly paper. 
He resided in New York and vicinity 
until 1S47, when he went to Arkansas, 
and joined the Methodist Epi-copal 
Church, South. He remained there 

two years, and then visited the prin- 
cipal cities of the South, preaching 
to great congregations. He died sud- 
denly at Toulmanville, near Mobile, 
Ala., May 28, 1S50. At a post-mor- 
tem examination his heart was found 
literally broken, crushed by unmer- 
ited slanders. He was relentlessly 
pursued, the ostensible- result of 
an unfortunate second marriage. 
He had been preaching at Mobile, 
where a paper, called the National 
Police Gazette, published in New York 
city, containing articles against him, 
was freely circulated. An extra 
edition was printed, sent to Mo- 
bile, and sold about the church where 
he was preaching. 

\_To be continued.] 


In a family burying-ground in the 

old town of Durham, there stands a 
plain monument with this inscription, 
" Here lie the remains of the Woodman 
family, who have occupied these grounds 
since 1659. Here are the graves of 
seven generations. John Woodman. 
Esq.. who came from Newbury, Mass., 
born 1630, died 1706; his son Jona- 
than, born 1665, died 1729; his son 
John, born 1701, died 1777; his son 
Capt. Jonathan, born 1 743, die i 1811 ; 
his son Nathan Woodman, born 1789, 
died 1869." To this last is now added 
John Smith Woodman, who was born 
September 6, 1819, and who died May 
9, 187 1, and his daughter Fannie, who 
died in infancy. 

Near this grave-yard, on rising 
ground overlooking the Oyster river, 
stands the Woodman homestead, built 
by Capt. John Woodman, about 1659. 
It was constructed of heavy pine logs, 
the second story projecting over the 
first, and had various small windows 
and port-holes, it being intended to 

serve as a fortress for the early settle- 
ment. It was in one instance, at least, 
attacked by Indians and successfully 
defended. This old garrison-house 
has been much changed to meet the 
wants of modern times, so that it now 
presents the appearance of a commodi- 
ous and substantial farm-house. It 
has been occupied by six generations 
of Woodmans, but as Prof. John S. 
Woodman left no children, it has re- 
cently passed into other hands. 

The town of Newbury, Mass., was 
settled in 1635, and in this year Ed- 
ward Woodman and his wife Joanna, 
with their two sons, Edward and John, 
came over from Corsham, Woltshire, 
England, and settled there. 

Of the ninety-one grantees who 
settled Newbury, fifteen were styled 
" Mr.," and Edward Woodman was of 
this number. Mr. Joshua Coffin, in 
his " List of some of the Descendants 
of Mr. Edward Woodman," says of 
him, "he was a man of influence, de- 
cision and energy. * * Mr. Wood- 


2 39 

man was a deputy to the General 
Court in 1636, '37.. '39, and '43. In 
163S, '41, '45, and '46. he was one of 
the three commissioners to end small 
causes in Newbury, and at various 
times held other offices of profit and 
trust in town and state. Among his 
other commissions he had one from 
the state 'to see people marry/ of 
which, in 1681, he thus speaks, — 'an 
unprofitable commission ; I quickly laid 
aside the work, which has cost me 
many a bottle of sack and liquor, 
when friends and acquaintances have 
been concerned.'" 

John, later known as Capt. John, 
came to Oyster river, now Durham, in 
1659. In 1694 five of the twelve 
garrison-houses located here were de- 
stroyed by the Indians, — Capt. Wood- 
man's being one of those that success- 
fully resisted the attack. For a period 
jof almost fifty years the name of 
Capt. Woodman frequently appears in 
the provincial records, and in such 
connections as to show clearly that he 
had an active and honorable part in v 
the defence and development of the 

Nathan, the father of Prof. Wood- 
man, was a sturdy farmer, as all his 
ancestors had been, noted for indus- 
trious and frugal habits and the strictest 
integrity. He was of an amiable dis- 
position, and had an open hand for 
every tale of distress, delighting espe- 
cially in rendering aid and encourage- 
ment to the young, and many owed to 
him, in large measure, their success in 
life. In his later years, his means 
having become ample, he grew more 
and more liberal, and contributed 
generously to the support of the 
gospel, and to a large number of 
worthy charities. Prof. Woodman's 
mother was a woman of great force of 
character, and large intellectual endow- 
ments. Fond of literature, she was 
heartily alive to the value of education, 
and ambitious for her family, and to 
her he was largely indebted for his 
love of literature and art, as well as 
his careful and pains-taking habits. 
From her he learned to read, and what- 

ever books suited to his age were to 
be had she put into his hands. When 
he was thirteen he had mastered die 
subjects taught in the district school, and 
went to the academy at South Berwick, 
Me. During a part of the next year 
he attended a private school in his 
native town taught by Dr. Timothy 
Hilliard, under whom he began the 
study of Latin, having already com- 
menced French at South Berwick. The 
good doctor seems to have had an 
especial horror of picture-drawing, and 
in yielding to his artistic tendencies 
the future professor brought himself 
several times into serious difficulty, and 
was once or twice severely punished. 
This however did not eradicate the 
strongly inherited tendency, and he 
continued to fill the odd moments with 
his pencil, covering the margins and 
fly leaves of his books with all sorts of 
pictures. In later life his pencil was 
his never failing companion, adding to 
his pleasure in his gayer moods, and 
affording solace in times of annoyance 
and vexation. That picture-drawing 
did not seriously interfere with his 
serious studies, may be inferred from 
the following entry in his diary, made 
in November following his thirteenth 
birth-day, — "surveyed the farm and 
found it to contain fifty-one acres, 
twenty- nine rods." 

In the autumn of 1835 young 
Woodman returned to South Berwick 
academy, where he remained for the 
next three years, being occupied a part 
of each year in teaching, or working 
on his father's farm, and toward the 
close of 1835 making a voyage from 
Boston to New Orleans and return. 
He had wanted for some time to give 
up his studies and go to sea. His 
friends tried in vain to dissuade him 
from this idea, and at length his father 
decided to give him a taste of sea life. 
He accordingly shipped him on a 
vessel bound for New Orleans. The 
voyage was long and stormy, the work 
hard and uniomantic ; and our would- 
be sailor was glad to accept the cap- 
tain's offer, made in accordance with a 
previous understanding with the father, 



to return as a passenger. This voyage 
effectively cured him of sea- fever, yet 
the ocean always had a strong attrac- 
tion for him, and in later life, whenever 
in a sea-port town, he was fond of 
walking about the wharves, going on 
board vessels and talking with sea- 
faring men. 

During the last two years of his 
stay at South Berwick, the principal of 
the academy was Stephen Chase, who, 
in March, 185s, became tutor at Dart- 
mouth College, and in August of the 
same year was made professor of mathe- 
matics. In the last year of his aca- 
demic course, he was president of the 
Ciceronian, a literary society composed 
of students, and at graduation gave 
the valedictory oration. 

In August, 1830, he entered the 
freshman class of Dartmouth college, 
which numbered one hundred and one, 
the largest class that has ever entered, 
and numbering eighty-five at gradua- 
tion, — the largest that has ever gone 
out. Of this class were the late Amos 
T. Akerman, attorney-general of the 
United States ; Judge Lincoln F. Brig- 
ham, of Mass. ; Benjamin F. Flanders, 
late governor of La. : Hiram Orcutt. ll, 
d., the veteran teacher ; John D. Phil- 
brick, ll. i)., the well-known educator ; 
the late John S. Sanborn, ll. u., judge 
of the court of the Queen's Bench, P. 
Q. ; S. J. Spalding. i>. n., Newbury - 
port, Mass.; the late John K. Tyler, m. 
d., superintendent of the McLean Asy- 
lum, at Somerville, Mass. ; Hon. George 
Walker, U. S. consul-general, Paris, not 
to name others who have gained dis- 

During each winter of his college 
course Mr. Woodman taught school, 
the first year at Madbury, the second 
in his own town, the third and fourth 
in the academy at Henniker. 

At this time, and until 1866-7, there 
were practically but three terms in the 
college year, thirty-two weeks in all, 
with a vacation of twelve weeks from 
Thanksgiving. During this time, how- 
ever, there was a term of six weeks, 
attendance being optional, the subjects 
taught varying from year to year, and 

not being regarded as part of the regu- 
lar college course. The attendance on 
this short term was generally very small, 
the larger part of the students being 
occupied in teaching. Under this 
system the loss was chiefly in the 
number of studies pursued., not in 
accurate and thorough scholarship, and 
it certainly tended very strongly to 
develop the best traits of manly charac- 

In the spring vacation of his sopho- 
more year, he was employed by Presi- 
dent Lord to survey a piece of land, 
and seems to have performed the work 

Drawing not being taught in the 
regular college course, in his sopho- 
more and junior years he began to 
turn his picture making habit to good 
account, and gave instruction to vol- 
unteer classes, one of which numbered 
forty members. In the spring vaca- 
tion of his junior year, he drew a 
beautiful map of ancient Italy lor use 
in the college classes, and it has served 
a good purpose to the present time. 

Under date of July 28, 1842. we 
find this entry in his diary, — ''Grad- 
uated with a class of eighty-eight. 
Have permitted nothing to interrupt 
my college course. I have been uni- 
formly in good health, always present 
in term time, at all lectures designed 
for the class, all recitations, and never 
tardy, and only once absent from 
prayers in the four years' course.'' 

With great intellectual ability, and 
such rare fidelity to duty, we should 
expect thorough scholarship and large 
attainments. What his exact rank 
may have been in his class, I do not 
know, though he stood among the first, 
and in mathematics tar above ali others. 
Immediately after graduation he began 
the study of law with John A. Richard- 
son, Esq., of Durham, a graduate of 
Dartmouth College in the class of 1S19. 
A few months later, a tempting offer in- 
duced him to suspend his studies and 
go to Charleston. S. C, as a teacher. 
Here he remained for four years, teach- 
ing with very marked success, and 
studying as opportunity offered. In 



1S45 the following appears in his diary ; 
•'Spent the summer in close teaching 
and in the study of literature. Studied 
Johnson, Addison, Pope. Have written 
a good deal." In the winter of 1S46 
Mr. Woodman gave up his position in 
Charlestown, and in April started for 

He was now twenty-seven, but 
mature far beyond his years. From 
boyhood he had been a close student, 
and was well prepared to profit by 
foreign travel. He spent sixteen 
months abroad, traversing France, 
Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, and 
Italy, making long trips on foot. The 
observations and impressions of the 
journey were embodied in a series of 
letters to the Charleston (S. C.) News 
and the New Hampshire Patriot. He 
seems to have been especially interest- 
ed in the art and agriculture of the 
countries which he visited, and on 
these and kindred subjects he gathered 
a vast amount of information. While 
prizing books at their full value, he 
was never a book-worm, and fully re- 
cognized the fact that they contain but 
dead knowledge, which can best be 
vitalized by the friction that comes 
from contact with the world, and by 
the observation of men and things. 
He felt that the scholar especially 
needs the advantages of travel, and 
while without them he is likely to 
become illiberal and narrow-minded, 
he above all others is in condition to 
profit by them to the fullest extent. 

Mr Woodman now returned to his 
law studies, which he had never wholly 
laid aside, completing them with Hon. 
Daniel M. Christie, of Dover, and 
was admitted to the Strafford county 
bar at the January term, 184S. Two 
of his college classmates were now 
settled in Salmon Falls, the one as a 
pastor, the Rev. S. J. Spalding, d. d., 
of Newburyport, Mass. ; the other as 
a physician, the late Dr. John E. Tyler. 
Through their influence, though he 
had already opened an office in Dover, 
Mr. Woodman settled in the then small 
but growing manufacturing town of 
Salmon Falls. 

Clients in Mr. Woodman's office were 
not numerous, but the cases intrusted 
to him were faithfully attended to and 
ably managed, and his spare time de- 
voted to severe legal studies. He was 
soon regarded as one of the best 
read lawyers at the Strafford county 

In June, 1S50, he was appointed 
commissioner of common schools for 
Strafford county, and in August elected 
secretary of the state board of educa- 
tion. In this capacity he wrote the 
first report of the board of education, 
a report abounding in sound sense 
and practical suggestions. 

In January, 1S51, he was chosen 
professor of mathematics in Dartmouth 
college, to succeed his old teacher, 
Prof. Stephen Chase, then recently- 
deceased, who for thirteen years had 
filled the mathematical chair with 
distinguished ability. This position 
he occupied for four years, resigning 
in July, 1S56, to resume the practice 
of law. When Prof. Woodman enter- 
ed on the duties of his office., at Dart- 
mouth, there were two hundred and 
thirty-seven students, with eight pro- 
fessors and one instructor. These 
were Profs. Haddock, Young. Hubbard, 
Brown, Sanborn, Noyes, Woodman, 
and Putnam. Profs. ShurtlerT and 
Crosby had resigned, but their names 
still appeared on the catalogue ; the 
former as Professor Emeritus of Moral 
Philosophy and Political Economy ; 
the latter as Professor Emeritus of the 
Greek Language and Literature. Cle- 
ment Long was at this time instructor 
in Intellectual Philosophy and Political 
Economy. The president was Nathan 
Lord, who succeeded Bennett Tyler 
in 182S, and for thirty-five years served 
the college with rare fidelity and signal 
ability. Of the members of the 
academic faculty, as then constituted, 
Profs. Hubbard, Brown, Sanborn and 
Noyes, are still living. The latter re- 
signed in January of the present year. 
Prof. Hubbard, having removed to 
New Haven, Conn., in 1865. resigned 
in 1866, but continued his instruction 
in the medical college, where he was 



elected professor in 1S71, which posi- 
tion he has now resigned on the com- 
pletion of his forty-seventh annual 
course of chemical lectures. Prof. 
Brown resigned his professorship in 
1 86 1, to assume the presidency of 
Hamilton College, which position he 
occupied for fourteen years, but is now 
connected with the college as instruc- 
tor in intellectual science. Prof. San- 
born, after having been in the service 
of the college for forty-seven years, 
resigned in 1SS2. 

From the time of his appointment 
as commissioner of schools for Strafford 
county, in 1S50, to his death, Prof. 
Woodman took a lively interest in 
popular education, and was in some 
way connected with every important 
educational movement in the state 
during this period. In 1S51 he was 
one of the commissioners to devise 
plans for and locate the state reform 
school. At the June session of the 
legislature in 1S52 the commissioners 
presented a very full and able report, 
which Prof. Woodman had prepared. 
It was recommended to locate the 
school on the Jeremiah S. Abbott farm, 
on the banks of Long Pond in Concord, 
and while diversity of opinions and 
conflicting interests prevented this 
recommendation from being accepted, 
the general views set forth in the re- 
port were adopted, and later carried 
into effect. During the years 1 85 2-3 
and 1853-4, Professor Woodman was 
school commissioner for Grafton county. 
His predecessor in this office was Rev. 
Charles Shedd, and his successor the 
Rev. Mr. Squares. Each year he 
visited every town in the county, often 
traveling on foot, giving lectures and 
addresses, and in various ways endeav- 
oring to awaken an intelligent interest 
in education. His enthusiasm, coupled 
with sound common sense and a knowl- 
edge of men, enabled him to address 
his audiences with remarkable success. 
In many of the towns which he visited 
he could find no one willing to speak 
on account of a lack of experience. 
To overcome this difficulty he was in 
the habit of asking some of the prin- 

cipal men in the place to occupy a 
front seat, and when he had spoken to 
request them to express their views on 
the subjects under consideration, saying 
"just keep your seat if you prefer it." 
He once remarked that some of the 
soundest views and best suggestions 
he had ever heard on education were 
made by plain men sitting in their 
seats, who could not be prevailed upon 
to stand and address an audience. 
During the two years he was com- 
missioner, Prof. Woodman held six 
institutes, among the most interesting 
and valuable that have been held in 
the county. Those for 1 85 2-3 were 
at North Enfield, Littleton, and Went- 
worth, and at the first one hundred 
and fourteen members were in attend- 

ance. The institutes for 18 


were held at Plymouth, Lisbon, and 
Canaan. At the latter there were one 
hundred and forty members, a larger 
number than had attended any previ- 
ous institute in the county. During 
this period Prof. Woodman contributed 
frequent articles to the newspapers of 
the state on educational subjects. 

He gave an address, October 2, 
1S51, before the Connecticut River 
Valley Agricultural Society, at Haver- 
hill ; and September 1, 1852, an ad- 
dress before the Associated Alumni of 
the Merrimack Normal Institute at 
Reed's Ferry, both of which were pub- 
lished. In the former he treated of 
farming in New Hampshire in a very 
able and interesting manner, showing 
much practical knowledge of the sub- 
ject, and embodying the results of 
careful study and extended and minute 
observation. In the latter he chose 
the theme, "What is crood instruction?" 
and handled it in a masterly way. He 
also gave several lectures, and made 
addresses on various public occasions. 
His style was marked by clearness and 
vigor, and while he was by no means a 
graceful speaker, his matter was such 
as to command attention, and audiences 
always listened to him with delight 
and profit. By study and practice 
in speaking he overcame his natural 
timidity, and in his later public ef- 



forts there was an indescribable charm. 
It might seem that all these things 
would interfere with his college duties, 
or at least absorb the time that should 
be devoted to mathematical studies ; 
but Prof. Woodman was an indefatiga- 
ble worker, and outside matters receiv- 
ed very little attention except during 
vacation. He was an efficient, thorough 
and popular instructor, and greatly re- 
spected by his classes. In token of 
their appreciation of his labors in their 
behalf, the sophomore class in the 
autumn of 1852, presented him a 
handsome silver pitcher. Though 
eminently successful as an instructor, 
Prof. Woodman wished for a wider 
field of activity than a chair of mathe- 
matics offered, and accordingly resign- 
ing his professorship, in July, 1S56, he 
resumed the practice of law in Boston. 

In 185T the Chandler Scientific 
Department of Dartmouth college had 
been established by the trustees, in 
accepting the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars, bequeathed to them by Abiel 
Chandler, Esq., a native of Concord, 
N. H. It had been opened in 1852, 
under the charge of the faculty, with 
ex-Senator James W. Patterson, then a 
tutor in the college, as executive officer. 
In 1853 Mr. Patterson was made 
Chandler Professor of Mathematics, 
and in 1S56, on the retirement of 
Prof. Woodman, succeeded him as 
professor of mathematics in the old 
college, still teaching in the Chandler 
Scientific Department, and remaining 
as its executive officer. 

The course of study in the Chandler 
Department had been at first but three 
years, and young men had been ad- 
mitted with but a very limited prepara- 
tion. To carry out the intent of the 
founder, and meet more fully the de- 
mands of the times, the trustees saw 
the advisability of raising the require- 
ments for admission, and extending 
the three years to four. To carry out 
this new programme, Prof. Patterson, 
being already much overworked, 
another professor was needed, and the 
board invited Mr. Woodman to the 
chair of civil engineering, and to the 

general charge of the Chandler Scien- 
tific Department. He entered on the 
discharge of his duties at the opening 
of the college year 1 85 7-8. At this 
time there were but three scientific 
schools in the country. The Poly- 
technic, at Troy, the Sheffield, at Vale, 
and the Lawrence, at Harvard ; the 
two latter still in their infancy, not as 
yet having demonstrated their right to 
exist. The old time college course, 
excellent in itself, and which had serv- 
ed a noble purpose, was still maintained 
in its integrity. Optional courses ex- 
isted in but few colleges, and only to a 
very limited extent. Dartmouth had 
a professorship of geology and chemis- - 
try, filled by one of the ablest scientific 
men of the time, Prof. O. P. Hubbard, 
a distinguished pupil of Silliman ; and 
another of natural philosophy and 
astronomy, the incumbent of which 
was Prof. Ira Young, the fiither of 
Prof. Charles A. Young, the celebrated 
astronomer ; and though but a limited 
amount of time could be devoted to 
these subjects, yet she was fully abreast 
of other great colleges in science 

teaching. Th< 

modern languages 

were not taught at all in the required 
course at Dartmouth, though some 
opportunity was afforded for their study 
in the short winter term, attendance 
on which was entirely voluntary. 
Without trenching seriously on the 
domain of the Latin, Greek, and Phi- 
losophy, very little attention could be 
given to either the sciences or the 
modern languages. Prof. Woodman, 
like many others, felt that to take more 
time from the old course of study 
would be to weaken it, if not to endan- 
ger its very existence. But the field 
of learning had become so enlarged 
that it could no longer be compassed 
by a single course of study. It seemed 
to him best that the old should remain 
substantially as it was, and that by it 
there should be built up a liberal train- 
ing, based mainly on the sciences, 
mathematics, and the modern languages. 
President Lord was greatly surprised 
and distressed, when, on the 27th of 
March, 1851, he received a communi- 



cation from Hon. Francis B. Haves, 
and J. J. Dixwell, Esq., of Boston, 
announcing a legacy of fifty thousand 
dollars "for the establishment and 
support of a permanent department or 
school of instruction in said college* 
in the practical and useful arts of life, 
under the supervision of a board of 
visitors." Dr. Lord's annoyance did 
not arise from the fact that the founda- 
tion was to be under the supervision 
of visitors, for it does not appear that 
he had a hankering for arbitrary power ; 
but that this munificent donation had 
not been given to carry forward the 
work of the old college, then greatly in 
need of funds. Trained as a theolo- 
gian, exceedingly conservative by na- 
ture/ with very little knowledge of 
modern science, and with no sympathy 
with it, this is not to be wondered at. 
He had, therefore, grave doubts about 
the advisability of accepting Mr. 
Chandler's legacy, and these were 
shared by several members of the 
board of trustees. After long dis- 
cussion and careful consideration of 
the whole subject, at the meeting of 
the board in July, 1851, it was unani- 
mously resolved, "that the trustees 
accept with gratitude the munificent 
donation of the late Abiel Chandler, 
Esq., * * * as a sacred trust 
committed to the charge of the college 
to be administered and executed 
according to the design and intent of 
the liberal donor, and that they pledge 
the best exertions of the board, under 
the guidance of a wise Providence, 
faithfully and religiously to fulfill his 
benevolent purpose." 

Dr. Lord had a horror of novelties. 
With clear and distinct views on all 
subjects that came under his observa- 
tion, he accorded the same freedom to 
all. He never forced his peculiar 
views on any, and his personal friends 
often differed widely from him in belief. 
On the other hand he made no secret 
of his views on any subject, and never 
hesitated, on suitable occasions, to give 
the reasons for the faith that was in 
him. He never rested in the letter of 
the law, violating its plain intent, nor 

trod devious and doubtful paths, but 
always walked in his manhood in the 
clear light of day. Though regretting 
the direction which Mr. Chandler's gift 
had taken, and being by no means clear 
in regard to the desirability of accept- 
ing it, when it had been formally ac- 
cepted by the trustees, he set himself 
to work heartily to carry out legally and 
efficiently Mr. Chandler's ideas. " The 
trustees," he said, "having accepted 
Mr. Chandler's trust, are bound to 
carry it out according to his ideas. 
But they accepted his ideas first, or 
they would not have undertaken his 
proposed work." Mr. Chandler's will 
had been drawn by Hon. Francis B. 
Hayes, who was his friend and legal 
adviser, and thoroughly possessed of 
his ideas in regard to the department 
of instruction which he wished to 
establish, and Mr. Hayes and J. J. 
Dixwell, Esq., were appointed by Mr. 
Chandler trustees of the trust. With 
these gentlemen Dr. Lord had been in 
frequent and full communication, and 
thus became familiar with the design 
of the donor. 

This is what he says in regard to it : 
"The management of Mr. Chandler's 
trust requires a change in the organiza- 
tion of the college order. But the 
change will consist mainly of additions. 
The regular course is left untouched, 
no arrangement is made or contem- 
plated that will diminish the number, 
quantity, or proportion of the studies 
or exercises heretofore established as a 
foundation for the learned professions. 
These will be liable to be interpenetrat- 
ed by the spirit and genius of the new 
department, but the influence will be 
reciprocal. Nothing will necessarily 
be lost by either. The system is in- 
tended to be one of mutual giving and 
receiving, with a view to the more natu- 
ral and perfect development of all the 
branches, and a greater corresponding 
usefulness of the College. 

By this new organization the College 
receives preparatory students and 
classes of undergraduates, who con- 
template, not the professional but the 
active pursuits of life. It introduces 


2 45 

new branches and methods of study 
adapted to this description of young 
men, and it creates a new degree, the 
degree of Bachelor in Science, intended 
to be equivalent to the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts. Its scope is to elevate me- 
chanical and industrial pursuits, and 
give to material science and labor a 
social and political consequence in a 
higher proportion than they have here- 
tofore held to the professional. It 
implies that all the departments of 
knowledge and occupation are equally 
necessary to the subsistence and well- 
being of society, and that they have 
hitherto not held their natural and 
proper relation to each other. Its aim 
is tp restore that natural and constitu- 
tional propriety." 

In 1S51 the college authorities sent 
out a circular, in which they said, " The 
Chandler Scientific School, in its full 
course of instruction, aims at a liberal 
education on a scientific instead of a 
classical basis/' 

In 1863 Professor Woodman pub- 
lished a pamphlet giving a " Statement 
of the Conditions and Objects of the 
Chandler Scientific Department of 
Dartmouth College," headed "A Liber- 
al Education or Not." In 1S67 he 
issued a circular setting forth the aims 
and needs of the Chandler Scientific 
Department, and explaining the prog- 
ress which had already been made. 
This circular was accompanied by let- 
ters from President Smith, Ex-President 
Lord, Gen. George Stark. Hon. Onslow 
Stearns, Judge Steele, of Vermont, and 
Hon. S. M. Wheeler. 

Dartmouth College, June S. 1807. 
I desire to commend the carefully pre- 
pared and impressive statement in re- 
spect to the Scientific Department of 
Dartmouth College, drawn up by the 
Senior Instructor, Professor Woodman, 
to the favorable consideration of the 
friends of education. Called as I am. in 
my official relation-, to a con-taut and 
close observation of the Department. I 
am happy to bear the most decided testi- 
mony to the manliness, earnestness, and 
diligence of the students, and tile com- 
prehensiveness, symmetry and thorough- 
ness of the course of study. 1 do not 
believe that a better training is given, to 

say the least, at any similar Institution 
in our country. I trust the appeal for 
additional pecuniary mean- will not be 
in vain. While all the objects named 
are important. I am particularly inter- 
ested in the suggestions respecting a 
fund in aid of worthy but indigent youn^ 
men. Such a fund ought at once "to be 
established. What better use of money 
can be made than in providing for the 
greater efficiency of an Institution which 
has held, and is still to hold' so important 
a place anions: our educational forces? 
ASA D. SMITH. President. 

[from ex-president lord.] 
Hanover, X. H., May, 1SG7. 

The circular of Professor Woodman, 
concerning the Chandler Scientific De- 
partment of Dartmouth College, sets 
forth truly and wisely, in my judgment, 
the design, history, deserts* and wants 
of that Department. My own personal 
connection and intimate acquaintance 
with it from the beginning till within a 
recent period, will justify iny commenda- 
tion of the Professor's circular to the re- 
gards of all who may receive it. 

The Academical Department of the 
College will not fail to receive a large 
share" of the. public .patronage. The 
numerous Alumni and the friends of 
professional learning in general wilbnot 
sutler it to languish for want of adequate 
"means of instruction and discipline. It 
may be confidently trusted to their sym- 
pathies and active charities. They will 
stand to their re.-olutions and fulfill their 

The Scientific Department has yet to 
make its way to a corresponding favor. 
I would accordingly commend it on the 
grounds suggested by the Professor, and. 
more particularly, in view of the necessi- 
ty now becoming constantly more evi- 
dent of a higher education in the •*prae- 
tical and useful arts of life.*' 

It is clear to all considerate observers 
that the tendency of society every where 
is rapidly increasing in that direction. 
Agriculture, manufactures, trade, engin- 
eering, military necessities., the line arts. 
and industrial pursuits in general, with 
the commerce ensuing to a more extend- 
ed and busy civilization, necessarily en- 
gage the many, while merely profession- 
al pursuits are confined to comparatively 
few. and are likely to decline in the gen- 
eral estimation. Whatever differences 
of opinion may exist as to the remote 
consequences of this remarkable drift, 
it certainly is undeniable. It is a law. 
no more to be overcome than that of 
gravity. It is the part of wisdom, there- 
lore, not to resist the law. which would 



be fruitless, and probably injurious, but 
so to use and apply it as best to avert or 
neutralize it* possible, or certain dan- 
gers, and make it subservient, on the 
whole, to christian auJ patriotic ends. 

To those ends it becomes clearly the 
duty of all good men and citizens to susr 
tain, regulate and dignify our scientific 
institutions. They should not he left to 
any bad accidents. They should not be 
suffered to languish in any one locality, 
and become disproportionately powerful 
and exorbitant in another. A good 
foundation, wherever wisely laid, and 
thus far built upon successfully and 
honorably, should be strengthened, and 
the superstructure furnished agreeably 
to its natural occasions. Xew Hampshire 
should not be overshadowed, in this re- 
spect, by any sister State. The Scientific 
Department of Dartmouth should be 
kept up 7 to its design, in due proportion 
to the Academical, and to the important 
district of country which it represents. 
It should have determined friends and 
patrons, and they should look well to its 
administration, that it may be conducted 
on the righteous and benevolent princi- 
ples and with the ability and z°al con- 
template! by its high-minded and gener- 
ous founder. The young men who might 
resort to it. from whatever quarter, 
should find here means and opportunities 
as ample as could be afforded elsewhere, 
and should perceive themselves to be 
trained answerably to the demands now 
every where made upon scientific men. 

Dartmouth has deserved well of the 
State and the country. It has done, prob- 
ably, its full share for the learned pro- 
fession.-. Its late scientific endowment 
gives it an additional advantage. To 
strengthen adequately this new member 
will be to add vigor and tone to tin- In- 
stitution as a whole. Wherefore, let this 
and every member be helped together, 
that the wh<de body may grow by that 
which every part supplies, and thus sub- 
serve effectually an I permanently the 
general interests of the State. 


Derby Line. Vx.,May 24. 1S07. 

My DEAR Sir : — Your favor and circu- 
lar relating to the Chandler Department 
in Dartmouth College are received, and 
J am happy to answer, if you think any 
thing I can say will be of service. 

The very searching and extended 
examination of the several classes in 
that Department, which I had the pleas- 
ure of witnessing last year, added to the 
considerable acquaintance I before had 
with the School, warrant me, 1 think, in 
indorsing all vou state in the circular of 

the course and method of instruction, 
the character of the students, an 1 the 
claim of the School to the sympathy and 
encouragement of the public. I do not 
know how. in a four years' course, more 
can be done toward a valuable culture 
than is there actually accomplished. 
The hearty interest and zeal in study, 
which are so general!}- noticeable in the 
Department, result in part, doubtless, 
from the fact that the substantial and 
practical character of the course of in- 
struction causes its value to be appre- 
ciated by the students. It is to be re- 
membered, also, that the effectiveness of 
study, as a mental discipline, depends 
more on its earnestness than its subject. 
Generally, therefore, it is clear that for 
even disciplinary purposes, those studies 
should be selected which will actually 
a waken the most interest and the best 

It is a matter of congratulation that 
this Department has not been permitted 
to become. like most institutions of its 
kind, a mere school of science and en- 
gineering. Beyond this if aims at a lib- 
eral collegiate culture, substituting for 
the dead languages a more complete 
study of natural the mathe- 
matics and modern languages. A scien- 
tific course of but three years, with little 
preparatory study, ought not to be com- 
pared with a four years" classical course 
preceded by three years of preparation. 
Vou have very wisely extended your 
course to four years and gradually raised 
the standard of admission. It is to be 
hoped that very soon there will be no 
difference in the amount of study re- 
quired by the two departments of the 
College, either to enter or to graduate, 
but that the only difference will be in 
the nature of the studies pursued, each 
department thus adapting itself to the 
want- of its own class of pupils. There 
will then be space in the Chandler De- 
partment for a more critical and philo- 
sophical study of literature and modern 
languages, and the school, thus elevated 
and properly endowed, will completely 
answer a want it has already done much 
to supply, and which a large portion of 
the public have long deeply felt. It will 
meet the need and wishes of that very 
large class of young men. who desire a 
full, substantial, seven; and generous 
collegiate culture — <i liberal education — 
but who. anticipating an active life, pre- 
fer that their culture should be founded 
on studies, not almost certain in cases 
like theirs, to soon become unavailable, 
neglected and forgotten. 

Hoping that the perseverance, talent 
and devotion which have already ena- 
bled you to accomplish so much for the 



school, and. through it. for the public, 
tikiv bo rewarded as they deserve, in your 
present most commendable enterprise. 
I am. with great respect, very sineerelv 
vours. BEXJ. H. STEELE. * 

Professor Woodman's views on clas- 
sical and scientific training are set forth 
in his address at the opening of the Free 
Institute, in Worcester, Mass., in 1S67, 
in which he said, " There has probably 
never been a people so highly educat- 
ed as our own, in a purely literary di- 
rection. What we now need is a lib- 
eral education upon a scientific basis, 
in order that a portion of our leading 
men — those whose tastes and capabili- 
ties, or whose pursuits in life are not 
literary — may be placed on the same 
elevation ; and all the industrial pursuits 
and all the applications of science 
stand on this broad and sufficient foun- 
dation. The old academical depart- 
ments of the colleges are doing a noble 
work ; all literary pursuits want that 
training. Let them be cherished. 
There can be no better training. That 
the long-continued Greek and Latin dis- 
cipline is the best work that can be 
done for the literary man is not dispu- 
ted, and, as a general training and cul- 
ture, is now the best we have. The 
books, the methods, the schools, are all 
perfected by a century of experience 
in that one direction. The sciences 
afford an equally good basis. But the 
books, the methods, and the schools 
are yet to be perfected and put sys- 
tematically on their proper work. Lib- 
eral culture, on a scientific basis, must 
stand side by side with the literary. * * 
* * There is no hostility or rivalry be- 
tween literary and scientific culture. 
Each helps the other." Professor 
Woodman's ideas of education then 
were broad and liberal. He conceived 
the object of instruction to be first of 
all to impress on the mind the true ends 
of citizenship, to give mental and moral 
discipline, and awaken a love of knowl- 
edge and a des>re for improvement. 
He appreciated the intimate relations 
between the various departments of 
knowledge, and held that some profi- 
ciency in all was essential for the foun- 

dation of a good education ; and that 
in elementary training the future occu- 
pation should be taken into account 
only in a general way. He would have 
all technical knowledge rest on a liber- 
al foundation. First the man, then the 
tanner, the former, the doctor the 
divine, the chemist, the engineer. 

His views of the equipment of the 
teacher are worthy of our notice. He 
should have in the first place, clear and 
distinct conceptions of the object and 
end of instruction. To this should be 
added copious knowledge, to be meas- 
ured by the grade of instruction. Xo 
experience, no theory, no natural skill 
could supply its place. The peculiar 
temper, the tact demanded to achieve 
the best results, he considered rare, and 
the genuine teacher, like the poet, must 
be born, not made. Devoting himself 
to the work of instruction, Professor 
Woodman set up for himself the same 
high standard that he insisted upon for 
others. He was a conscientious, pains- 
taking and faithful student. He never 
learned a little Choctaw or Chinese, or 
something else equally foreign for pa- 
rade. He sought knowledge for the 
love of it, or for the use he might make 
of it. In his department of instruction,, 
graphics and civil engineering, he cer- 
tainly had abundant knowledge. His 
skill in teaching free-hand drawing was 
remarkable. A text-book, which he 
had prepared on this subject, was pub- 
lished after his death. A marked 
characteristic of his instruction was 
thoroughness. He first went to the 
bottom of the subject himself, and then 
endeavored to have his classes do the 
sime. He talked but little in the class- 
room, but his explanations were mar- 
velously clear and exact, given delib- 
erately, but forcibly. He relied mainly 
on questions and suggestions, and tried 
to awaken and stimulate intellectual 
activity, and lead the student to inde- 
pendent thinking and investigation. 
Though ordinarily deliberate in speech, 
to the stadent at least his quickness of 
perception seemed almost marvelous. 
When work was being put upon the 
black-board he had a habit of sitting 



with his back toward it. He would sud- 
denly turn, when the time for explana- 
tion came, and instantly point out any 
errors. He had a strong dislike to loose- 
ness and vagueness of statement. In 
recitation, when a student wandered 
from the subject he brought him back 
by one or two sharp questions, and then 
held him there. A few days were suffi- 
cient for him to effectively clip the 
wings of the most flighty. His favor- 
ites in a class seemed to be the less 
gifted, and for these he labored with 
unflagging zeal. His patience with this 
class of students was simply marvelous. 
The bright scholars, he used to say, 
would ta-ke care of themselves, but the 
dull ones needed the teacher's best 

The work of a teacher is by no 
means limited to the class-room, nor 
the education which he gives to the 
knowledge imparted on any given sub- 
ject. A man is more for a class than 
a Greek verb or a cosine. The teach- 
er's habits of daily life, the position he 
occupies in the community, his politi- 
cal views, his religious connections, are 
all so many educating influences for 
good or for evil. 

When Professor Woodman returned 
to Hanover, in 1S5S, he bought the 
Brewster house, which he thoroughly 
repaired, and made of it one of the 
most beautiful and attractive houses 
in the village, and here he lived until 
1 S65 , when he sold it to President Smith. 
His house was plainly but substantially 
furnished, and he strove to make it a 
genuine home. 

In December, 1S48, while in the 
practice of law in Dover, he had mar- 
ried Miss Anna M. Pendexter, of Mad- 
bury, a beautiful and accomplished 
young lady, to whom he was ardently 
devoted. A daughter, who had been 
born to them, had died at an early age, 
and grief for her loss was the only 
shadow that rested on the household. 
As other children did not come to 
them, they adopted a beautiful little 
girl, now grown to womanhood. Pro- 
fessor Woodman's home-life was beau- 
tiful. Says one in position to know 

fully : " One thing used to strike those 
who were much in his family, that he 
never forgot to show all members of it 
all those little attentions which with 
some are shown only to distinguished 
visitors." This same courtesy was car- 
ried into his intercourse with all those 
with whom he came in contact. 

His daily life was simple and labori- 
ous. He might have been seen early 
on a winter's morning caring for his 
horse, or, after a snow, shoveling paths 
about his premises. In summer he 
delighted to work in his garden. He 
was well skilled in the use of tools, and 
made many articles, such as tables and 
book-cases, several of which are still in 
use. All these things did not interfere 
with his work as an instructor, but 
served as recreation, and aided in pre- 
serving his health which was often 
severely tried by the exhausting labor 
of the class-room, and the details of 
management which devolved upon him. 
Professor Woodman was reared in the 
faith of the Congregational Church, of 
which he was a consistent member. 
His faith was strong, his sympathy active 
and far-reaching, his views clear and 
well-defined. He took a lively and 
intelligent interest in every good cause, 
and was especially interested in mis- 
sionary work among seamen. 

In person he was tall and spare, with 
a tendency to weakness of the lungs, 
and at last, hastened by exhausting 
labor, his health began to give way. 
A change of climate, and rest, of which 
he was sadly in need, might have re- 
stored him ; but he stood at his post 
and continued to perform his wonted 
duties till overpowered by physical 
weakness. In June, 1870, after twen- 
ty years of service in the cause of the 
college, he saw himself forced to send 
in his resignation. In the autumn 
he went to Florida to try the enfect of 
a milder climate, and seemed gradual- 
lv to improve. But his heart was still 
in the work to which his life hidabeen 
devoted, and toward the close of Feb- 
ruary he returned to Hanover to give 
some instruction in civil engineering. 
The weather was cold, and feeble as 



he still was, his strength was severely 
taxed ; but he worked on with his old- 
time faithfulness, and when the course 
of instruction was finished, he was 
worn out. He now retired to his old 
home in Durham, and though he strug- 
gled bravely against the disease that 
was firmly fixed upon him, on the 
9th of May, 1S71, the struggle ended, 
and he was laid to rest on the pleasant 
hill-side where his boyish feet had 
strayed, and in sight of the river which 
he loved. 

It were a fruitless task to endeavor 
to estimate at its true value a life like 
his, so full of beneficent labors. For 
the college, which he dearly loved, he 
labored with rare fidelity and devotion, 
giving to it his best endeavors, dying 
worn out in its service. By his will he 
left to the Chandler Scientific Depart- 
ment the sum of $20,000, subject to 
a life-annuity of $500 for the bene- 
fit of his widow, the income to be 
used when the principal should reach 
$30,000. This will doubtless form the 

foundation for the Woodman Profes- 
sorship of Civil Engineering. Though 
toiling no longer among us with hand 
and brain, he has thus provided that 
the work in which he was engaged shall 
go on so long as the college shall 
stand. What more fitting and endur- 
ing monument could he have erected 
for himself? His name, linked with 
that of Chandler, will thus be perpet- 
uated ; and as generation after gener- 
ation of students shall enjoy the fruits 
of his labors, men shall rise up and 
call him blessed. To his many pupils, 
scattered widely as they are, he can 
never die ; and as oft-times, in the 
hush of din and turmoil, from some 
bright oasis of success, their thoughts 
turn to the old Dartmouth days, there 
comes up before them a grand, majestic 
figure, a hero of modern days, the loving 
friend, the wise counselor, the sure 
guide ; and such he will ever remain, 
and so long as one of our number is 
left, shall he be held in loving and 
grateful remembrance. 



The first term of the Superior Court 
of Judicature, in Merrimack county, was 
held in January, A. D. 1S24. Chief- 
Justice William M. Richardson pre- 
sided. It was the first time that Con- 
cord had enjoyed the presence of a 
duly established Court of Law. The 
county had been created by the legis- 
lature of 1823, and from the towns 
originally belonging to the western 
part of Rockingham, and the north- 
ern part of Hillsborough county. 
The members of the bar resident in 
the towns composing Merrimack coun- 
ty came together at this term, at Con- 
cord, and were duly organized as the 
Merrimack County Bar. We were 
not permitted to join it until Septem- 
ber, A. 1). 1825. But we had the 
pleasure of witnessing the proceedings 

of the court and bar, as an interested 
spectator, during most of the afore- 
said January term. Very recently we 
saw the old Court-House, which then 
was occupied by the court and bar, 
smoking in ruins by reason of fire. 

Now, after the lapse of more 
than fifty-nine years, all the mem- 
bers of that court and bar, save 
George Kent, Esq., of Washington 
city, have quit this mortal sphere of 
action, and passed off into the unseen 
world, — many of them leaving behind 
the fragrance of good deeds done here, 
and, as we trust, to receive "the re- 
wards of the just made perfect, in that 
land where the weary are at rest." 

The partiality of surviving friends 
has already furnished to the public in- 
teresting biographical sketches of most 



of these professional men who flourish- 
ed in former days. Their honest and 
just fame has long since been estab- 
lished, and could not be much en- 
hanced by the use of my pen. 

We propose to recur to one or two 
incidents that came under our obser- 
vation at the bar supper, which was 
celebrated in due form on one of the 
first evenings of the session of the 
court of January, i S24, at the inn of 
J. P. Gass, then located near where 
Sanborn's block now is, on Main street. 

This festive occasion was attended 
by many of the members of the bar 
of Merrimack county. Also by many 
others from the other counties of the 
state. After the cloth was removed 
we were permitted, as a spectator, to 
look in upon a joyous assemblage of 
jovial, good-natured men, who were 
merry-making over the birth of the 
new county. We listened to some 
good speeches, one or two original 
songs, several short sentiments, — all 
more or less appropriate, and weil-cal- 
culated to promote good feelings and 
add to the hilarity of the occasion. 
Near the close of the ceremonies a 
venerable and very sedate and sober 
gentleman of the fraternity, who hailed 
from Strafford county, rose in his place 
and gave to his brethren much new 
and uncommon light upon the doctrine 
of contingent remainders, and how 
they might b* extinguished. Address- 
ing the president, he continued, "You 
know, sir, very well, that we have in- 
struction in many of our elementary 
law-books, such as Blackstone, Lord 
Coke, more especially Teame, showing 
us how estates in remainder may be 
created, and especially how contingent 
remainders are created and extin- 
guished. Now I propose to explain 
and illus'rate to your satisfaction the 
best modern mode of extinguishing a 
contingent remainder. I can do it in 
no better way than by a practical ex- 
ample." At this moment the speaker 

held up a bottle that stood before him 
containing about one glass of wine. 
" Now the brethren will understand 
that this morsel of wine in my hand 
is a very ' contingent remainder? Sup- 
pose I suit action to the word and ap- 
ply the bottle to my lips, will you then 
not see how easily this .contingent re- 
mainder ma}- be extinguished?" At 
this crisis Col. Philip Carrigain ex- 
claims, "The wine is certainly extin- 
guished, and I thank you for your new 
law. as it surely illustrates the truth of 
the oil adage, 'when the wine is in 
the wit is out.' " " Not so," says Hon. 
Henry Plubbard ; "when the wine is in 
the truth comes out. He has shown us 
how a vast number of remainders have 
been extinguished, both in this country 
and all others. He has given us the 
common law, ' In vine est Veritas.'" 
The speakers were much applauded by 
the learned assembly. 

We do not understand that the new 
law, discovered at this meeting, affected 
Daniel Webster's earlier feme, acquired 
by him when he studied Tearne in 
order to solve the difficulties arising 
out of a will made by a husband, a 
blacksmith in Portsmouth, in behalf of 
his wife. Upon the death of the hus- 
band a small estate was left to the wife, 
dependent on the doctrine of remain- 
der, which gave to Mr. Webster the 
necessity of expending thirty dollars' 
worth of labor in preparing an opinion 
for which he charged but fifteen dollars. 
Afterward, when in New York city, he 
met Aaron Burr, who consulted him 
upon the will of a rich client that con- 
tained provisions similar to the poor 
widow's case. And by referring 
promptly to the law applicable to the 
widow's case he was enabled to secure 
a good fee ; and, what was better, he 
gained great glory and much wonder, 
from Burr, for his extraordinary readi- 
ness and ability in clearing up the per- 
plexities of his will. 





The elements of society are many 
and varied ; but men are divided into 
two classes — the few who lead, and the 
many who are led. 

The man 01 sufficient independence 
and will-power to oppose what he be- 
lieves to be wrong, and to defend and 
maintain the right, regardless of conse- 
quences, will find a place in the world, 
and hearts' of men awaiting his leader- 
ship : and the man of strong personali- 
ty, added to principle, will be remem- 
bered. It is of such a man that the 
writer comes to the pages of the Gran- 
ite Monthly with this brief sketch. 

Well known to many of the people of 
New Llampshire, and particularly of 
the south-eastern part, is the name of 
William B. Small. Though not a native 
of New Hampshire, enough of his life 
was spent among her hills to endear to 
him her many interests and good peo- 
ple, and to entitle him to a place upon 
her scroll of honor, and a share in her 
treasured history. New Hampshire 
was the scene of his life from boyhood, 
and the ground upon which be found 
his way to eminence. 

William Bradbury Small was the son 
of Isaac Small, and was born in Lim- 
ington, Maine, May 17, 181 7. There 
he resided until nearly a young man, 
when he came to New Hampshire with 
his parents, who settled on a farm in 
the town of Ossipee, and became a well 
known and prominent family of Carroll 

The life of every man, be he great or 
small, has its first page written in the 
type of childhood. The figures and 
marks on this title page, generally out- 
line and index the course of after years. 
The aspirations of the youth fore-shad- 
ow the man,, and this case was no ex- 
ception. He then formed the inclina- 
tions and desires which later became so 
prominent in his character as a man. 

The man who leaves any impress of 
his life, and any mark, is not one who 
is afraid of soiling his hands by work, 
but one who patiently and faithfully 
hews out his way as the day finds it 
before him. This man fought his own 
battles, and earned his passage through 
the world by hard labor. He shirked 
neither work nor responsibility, nor 
shared in the fears of so many, lest he 
should do something without reward. 

Most untiring, ready and willing, as 
a student of life, nature and books, he 
found the ways of knowledge open to 
him, as they ever are to such. What- 
ever came to his hand to do he did 
with a will and determination that 
meant something, stamping it with his 
own individuality and earnestness. 
From the rugged life and industry of 
one of the noblest occupations in which 
a man can engage, — that of tilling the 
soil, — sprang and developed the ener- 
getic character and sturdy manhood 
that made the young man one of prom- 
ise, and later a successful, upright and 
able lawyer, a distinguished man and 
citizen, and a valued friend. 

But youth passes by, and William B. 
Small is a man destined for a broader 
sphere of thought and life ; to do noble 
service for the people of New Hamp- 
shire who are waiting for him. Hon- 
ored and attractive as was the home 
life with his parents on the farm, — for 
New Hampshire farms have their at- 
tractions, — he realized greater possibili- 
ties in the world of educated thought, 
and was determined to obtain an edu- 
cation — the surest weapon of success 
known to life. Unassisted he availed 
himself of the advantages of Effingham 
Academy, and afterward pursued a 
course of reading and study by himself. 
Later, he taught in one of the public 
schools of Exeter, and there decided 
to follow the profession of law, in which 


he became so successful, and which 
was most singularly adapted to the 
peculiar qualities of his mind. He read 
his profession at Exeter, with Messrs. 
Bell and Tuck, — two eminent lawyers, 
— until his admission to the bar in i S46, 
when he began its practice in New- 
market. Of his life as a young lawyer, 
and his struggles to gain a foot-hold 
in his profession, — of which every law- 
yer who begins poor knows well the 
meaning. — many of the solid men of 
Newmarket to-day, who were his old- 
time friends and associates, well re- 
member. Like every young poor but 
pushing man, he had his opponents, 
who, as 41 class, are only too ready to 
trample beneath their feet noble aspi- 
rations, and withhold merited reward. 
But William B. Small was not a man 
to be plowed under. Though poor 
and unaided, he gained the confidence 
of clients and the respect of the com- 
munity, by fair and upright dealings 
evinced determination to succeed, 
until he was above the average lawyer, 
when he did not lack for friends. At 
the time when most needed the world 
withholds its aid. It yields only when 
compelled to. In his office early and 
late he was to be found, working far 
into the night upon his cases, always 
bringing to every subject his best 
efforts and presenting it to the court 
with that care and preparation which 
would obtain a favorable verdict if 
possible to be obtained. 

While it is only by hard labor that 
success is attained in any calling, it is 
doubly true in that Of the law. It is 
not success simply to live by any vo- 
cation, but to reach an eminence above 
the average of its followers,— in short, 
to be an artist at his work. He devo- 
ted his whole attention to the study 
and work of his profession, and kept 
his hands clean from the soil of dis- 
honor. Generous and charitable, he 
assisted every young man within his 
reach, needing aid, who would assist 
himself; but he could not tolerate in- 
dolence in any form. Rising step by 
step he reached that place in the 
ranks of his profession where he could 

command tribute, shunning the sharp 
practices and pettifoggery that too 
often stamps the village lawyer as a 
" land-shark." Working long and pa- 
tiently, he won distinctions and honors 
of which any man might well be proud. 
For over thirty years he enjoyed un- 
interrupted prosperity in the practice 
of his profession, never deviating from 
the cardinal principles of rectitude and 
honor so deeply rooted during his 
early struggles for independent and 
successful manhood. 

His professional life held up the 
model lawyer, not as a commodity to 
be purchased at the highest bid, but 
as the officer of justice and right, the 
defender of the oppressed, and the ad- 
vocate of truth, interested always to 
advance the cause of all true reform, 
and promote the peace, good order, 
and prosperity of the community. 
The name of such a man lives many 
generations after he is gone. 

Mr. Small was a liberal and promi- 
nent supporter and constant attendant 
of the Congregational Church in New- 
market, to which he was devotedly at- 
tached, though not a member of any 
church organization. He was a stal- 
wart friend to all enterprises tending 
to uplift the common people and bet- 
ter their condition. By them he was 
raised to the position of power, — a fact 
which he did not forget. He was an 
ardent supporter of the cause of pop- 
ular education, for he knew well its 
value. He was a member of the edu- 
cational board of his town for many 
years, and secured the enactment by 
the Legislature of a law granting to 
School District No. 1, in the town of 
Newmarket, the privilege of independ- 
ent action in the election of its officers, 
to the great advantage of its schools. 
Later, he was one of the foremost lead- 
ers in bringing into operation the grad- 
ed system in the public schools, by 
which such satisfactory results have 
since been attained, and the establish- 
ment of the Newmarket High School, — 
objects of pride to the intelligent and 
patriotic people of the town. 



Being a strong anti-slavery man, from 
the time of the war Mr. Small was a 
devoted adherent to the principles of 
the Republican party. He held many 
offices of responsibility and trust, and 
always discharged his official duties to 
the satisfaction of all parties, as evi- 
denced by their many votes, often- 
times cast regardless of the lines of 
party preference. He was a man 
above the dishonor of political trickery 
and the taint of personal disloyalty. 

He represented his town in the State 
Legislature, where he was prominent in 
deba'.e, and a leader in all measures 
tending to the well-being of his state, 
and to a development of its many 
resources and increasing interests. 

For many years he was one of the 
directors of the Newmarket National 
Bank, and later its president ; and also 
trustee and afterward president of the 
Newmarket Savings Bank. 

He was a member of the State Sen- 
ate in 1 8 70. where the prominent qual- 
ities of the man were manifested to the 
honor of his constituents and himself. 

For some years he held, with entire 
satisfaction to all parties and to the 
court with which he was associated, 
the office o( Solicitor for Rockingham 
county, bringing his positive qualities 
to good purpose and effect, in the 
suppression of crime, and the promo- 
tion of good order among our people. 

He was honored by the first con- 
gressional district of New Hampshire, 
as its Representative in the Congress 
of 1S73. There the sterling qualities 
of his personal character, and the 
knowledge acquired by his varied ex- 
perience, rendered him an addition to 
the House of Representatives, doing 
credit to his state. 

In token of its appreciation of his 
abilities as an eminent man and scholar, 
Dartmouth College conferred upon 
him, in 1865, the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts. 

April, 1878, when at the height of 
his professional career, and when his 
value was becomingknown to the peo- 
ple of his state, he died at the age of 
sixty years, from injuries received upon 

the head by a fall, in over haste to 
reach a train of cars which was to con- 
vey him to the bedside of a dying 
brother, at the old home in Ossipee. 

He left a place in the public heart 
and work of his community which few 
can fill, and a life as a lawyer worthy 
of imitation. 

His personal attachments were many 
and strong ; nothing at his command 
was too good for his friends ; he would 
make any personal sacrifice for the 
pleasure and comfort of those that he 
cared for ; as a son he was ever mind- 
ful of his parents, providing them with 
comfort and luxury ; he was devoted 
to the persons and causes with which 
he sympathized, and was a bitter op- 
ponent of what he deemed wrong or 
false. This same strength of attach- 
ment, which is really the main strength 
of all forcible character, extended to 
locality as well as to persons of his 
long association and choice. 

In the last years of his life, as his 
business increased, calling him from 
home much o( the time, he contem- 
plated changing his residence to that 
of Exeter, one of the county seats. To 
that end he formed a copartnership 
with Joseph H. Wiggin, of Exeter, but 
did not long continue, as he was never 
satisfied to pursue the daily routine of 
his business away from Newmarket, the 
scene of his life's conquest for power. 
He felt that he could never know else- 
where that power which was begotten 
of the scenes and circumstances of 
his early struggle, and that magnetism 
which came from the people who had 
helped him to make his name, and to 
become what he was by their life-long 
sympathy and support. The truly 
great man never forgets them, nor 
finds elsewhere, in after years, the same 
courage and strength that hovered 
about the altars of his early life. Mr. 
Small never out-grew the attachments 
formed in his youth for the soil and its 
husbandry. Such a man outgrows 
nothing, and especially nothing which 
is ingredient of his early history. He 
purchased a piece of land near the 
village of Newmarket, which, during 



the last of his life, he found it recrea- 
tion to cultivate and improve, when 
weary with the thought and work of 
his busy life. He spent every spare 
moment to good advantage, — a life- 
long characteristic of this industrious 
man. He spent no time lounging 
about the street corners, nor me.ddling 
with the affairs of his neighbors. When 
a young man he was noted as an 
early riser, and much enjoyed taking 
an early morning walk. 

He saw life from its true stand-point, 
and knew its real philosophy. He 
was a pronounced man, and would ac- 
complish what he undertook, cost 
what it might. He was pre-eminently 
a self-made and self-educated man ; 
learning from every scene and circum- 
stance of life something to be remem- 
bered. Socially, he was a central fig- 
ure in the best circles, and the delight 
of his friends ; possessing that store of 
knowledge, added to personal powers 
of wit and humor, which good society 
always appreciates and appropriates. 
In domestic life he made his home 
one of the happiest. He brought to its 
altar the strongest of his powerful emo- 
tions, and the purest and best of his 
noble thoughts and generous nature. 

Mr. Small was supported by the 
masses, because he supported what was 
dearest to them and their interests ; 
he was honored because he honored 

all, — a certain and invariable conclu- 

At the close of his life he was en- 
gaged professionally in a great number 
of the most important causes in the 
courts of the state, and spent whole 
nights in their study, refreshed occa- 
sionally by a cup of coffee, his only 
stimulant. Though at that elevation 
where he could set his price and com- 
mand it, he was never guilty of de- 
manding unreasonable fees, and in 
numberless cases, where clients were 
poor but worthy, and with worthy 
causes, he worked with equal fidelity 
and earnestness for little or nothing ; 
he did not encourage litigation, but 
frequently advised parties to settle 
their disputes without recourse to law. 
He always gave his honest opinion, 
whether it would be to the advantage 
of his pocket or not ; and the lawyer 
who does that is always the gainer in 
the end, and this man surely was. 

As a lasting memorial to his career 
as a lawyer, there stands upon the 
records of the Rockingham Bar, with 
which he was associated for so many 
years, a series of resolutions passed 
by the bar association at his death, 
which testify to the high appiecia- 
tion in which his talents and ser- 
vices were held by its members, and 
to the value they placed upon his 
personal qualities as a man and friend. 


James F. Joy, of Detroit, was born 
at Durham, N. H., December 2, 18 10. 
His father, a manufacturer of agricul- 
tural implements, was a man of iron 
muscles, large brain, and great mental 
and moral power. Like most of the 
strong men of New England he placed 
great value on education, and moral 
and religious training for his children ; 
consequently he labored earnestly that 
they might enjoy those privileges which 
honest poverty had denied to him. 
He not only practiced himself all the 

virtues of the New England calendar, 
but carefully trained his children in 

Having fitted himself for college, 
with such aid as his father could 
afford him, James F.Joy entered Dart- 
mouth, from which he graduated in 
1833, having the rank of first scholar 
of his class, and winning the valedic- 
tory assigned him as such. From 
Dartmouth, with all its inspiring asso- 
ciations and memories, as the school 
of Webster and Choate, Joy went to 


J 55 

Cambridge, Mass., where, during the 
years of 1833 and 1834, he enjoyed 
the benefit and example of the teach- 
ing of Story and Greenleaf ; and where 
he laid, broad and deep, the founda- 
tions of the structure he has since raised. 
Being poor, however, he was compelled 
to leave the law school and enter the 
academy at Pittsfield as its preceptor. 
He was next employed as tutor of 
Latin classes at Dartmouth. After 
spending a year there he returned to 
the law school in Cambridge, where he 
completed his studies and spent an- 
other year. 

Mr. Joy was a thorough classical 
scholar, and— during all the labors of 
his profession, and in those vast rail- 
way enterprises which he has founded 
and constructed with such eminent 
ability and success, has never failed to 
keep up his early studies. 

Although he is the "railway king of 
the north-west," he is more than this — 
he is a ripe scholar, a man of great 
literary attainments, and a most emi- 
nent and able lawyer. He has few 
superiors in this country in all that 
vast code of law that has grown up as 
a part and parcel of the railway system 
of the United States. He is also a 
thorough master of constitutional law. 

In September, iS36,he went to De- 
troit and entered the law office of Hon. 
Augustus B. Porter. At that time he 
was not worth a hundred ' dollars. 
During the year that he remained 
in the office with Mr. Porter he 
attracted attention to his character 
for industry, steadiness of purpose, de- 
votion to business, and high moral 
principles ; and when admitted to the 
bar, in 1837, he at once entered on a 
large practice. Soon after he com- 
menced practice he became part- 
ner of George F. Porter, a man of 
great practical business knowledge, 
who became an invaluable help to Mr. 
Joy. Joy and Porter soon became 
attorneys and counsellors to large busi- 
ness houses in Boston and New York. 
In 1847 a Mr. Brooks came from Bos- 
ton to Michigan to purchase the then 
Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad ; he 

was sent to Mr. Joy as the man to take 
the legal charge of all the nego- 
tiations, and to act as counsel for the 
new stockholders in that great enter- 
prise. Mr. Brooks entrusted the entire 
business of the negotiations, purchases 
from the state, drawing up and passing 
the acts, and securing the purchase 
money, by which the Michigan Central 
Railroad, now one of the best in the 
country, was secured, to Mr. Joy ; and 
it was through his faithful performance 
of the business entrusted to him, that 
the road came into existence. With 
the completion of the new line to Chi- 
cago, he at once started to extend it 
to the Missouri river, and, organizing 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
Railroad, he built up one of the most 
lucrative and best regulated and man- 
aged roads in the United States. This 
road has more than quadrupled its 
stock out of its earnings. Mr. Joy is 
president and director of the Michigan 
Central, and the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
roads, the Missouri and Council Bluffs 
road and their branches, and is an 
officer and stockholder in several 
others. He and Mr. Brooks also or- 
ganized the company for the cons' ruc- 
tion of the St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal, 
connecting the navigation of Lake 
Superior with that of the lower lakes, 
for all classes of vessels — a work of 
great national importance. 

Since the close of the war Mr. Joy 
has mainly devoted himself to the 
construction of railoads in Michigan. 
The Detroit, Lansing and Lake Michi- 
gan Railroad owes its present prosper- 
ity to his efforts. The road from 
Detroit to Bay City, and also the Chi- 
cago and Michigan Lake Shore Rail- 
road, extending from New Buffalo to 
Pentwater, with branches to Grand 
Rapids and ' Big Rapids, have been 
built by his means and influence. He 
did much, also, to promote the con- 
struction of the Jackson, Lansing and 
Saginaw road, and the Grand River 
Valley road. Perhaps it is not too 
much to say that no single man in the 
West has done so much to promote 
and push forward public improvements, 



and contributed so much to the de- 
velopment of the resources and wealth 
of the great West, as he has done. 

His habits of mind and life have 
not inclined him to be a politician, 
but, at the commencement of the war 
he was induced to go to the legislature 
of the state, where his influence and 
ability were of eminent service in pre- 
paring the state for her part in the 
great contest. He was chairman of 
the committee of ways and means, 

and he was of great help in settling 
the financial policy of the state, which 
has since relieved it from embarrass- 
ments. What Mr. Joy's fortune is no 
one knows but himself. It is thought 
to be immense. Yet all his habits, in- 
cluding dress, equipage, &c, are simple 
and unostentatious. He is a member 
of the Congregational church, liberal, 
and consistent. As a father, he has 
trained his children to habits of indus- 
try and integrity. 



In all the countless asjes past. 

Before, the Anglo-Saxon came. 
How lonely spread this empire vast: — 

A continent without a name! 

Along interminable shores 

The solemn service of the sea. 
Intoned by srorms and breakers' roar, 

Was lifted up to Deity. 

From Eastern to far Western main 

Sunlight and golden hours were strown," 

O'er lone Sierra crag and plain 

Where human footprints were unknown. 

From everlasting reservoirs 

Great river.> poured through silent lands, 
To meet th3 o ean tidal wave 

Where the wild waters clapped their hands. 

The sun that burst in glorious day 
Athwart this virgin hemisphere. 

Looked back on empires in decay, 
On ancient lands and deserts sere, 

Where generations of mankind 
Age after age bad lived and wrought, 

Or. creatures of a despot*- mind. 
Had proudly won, or vainly fought. 

To this lone land the Red Man came, 

No annals tell us when or how. 
A Mongol's lineage and name 

Were graven on his savage brow. 

Then wigwams smoked among the trees 
l>y lake and stream, on ocean side, 

While Indian corn, on sunn}* leas. 
And the rude chase his need* supplied. 

The Eagle in his flight sublime 

Survey'd with pride this vast domain, 

Foreknowing that in future time 

A sovereign people here wou'd reign. 

And when that commonwealth should rise 

To freedom ever consecrate. 
They'd hale him from his azure skies 

Temblazon its ^ivat seal of state. 







Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VI. 

JUXE, 1883. 

No. 9. 



William Pillsbury, from whom most 
and probably all of the Pillsburys of 
this country have descended, emigrat- 
ed from Dorchester, England, in 1631, 
and settled in old Newbury, now New- 
buryport, Mass., in the year 1641. 

It will be seen that the family be- 
longed to that brave old Puritan stock 
that had been ground and sifted in 
the mills of God for generations, and 
had been prepared to go forth in the 
fullness of time and take possession of 
a continent in the name of liberty and 
truth. In such mysterious ways the 
progress of government, church and 
society is evolved from the seed of the 
dead ages, and we move upward by 
the providence of him- who " works 
within us to will and to do of his own- 
good pleasure." 

The families that planted our na- 
tion were not the sport of fortune, 
drifted by an accident of history to 
these shores, but were preordained 
and guided to their destiny. 

Oliver Pillsbury, the subject of 
this sketch, sprung from this line. He 
was born in Henniker, N. H., Febru- 
ary 16, 181 7. His parents, Deacon 
Oliver Pillsbury and Anna Smith Pills- 
bury, were both persons of unusual 
physical and mental strength. The 

writer recalls distinctly, after a lapse 
of more than thirty years, the amia- 
ble expression and serene dignity of 
Mrs. Pillsbury, and the masculine 
thought and deep, solemn voice of the 
deacon, as he led the devotions of 
the religious assemblies of the people. 
He was one of the strong men of the 
town and a pillar in the church. Oth- 
ers might veer and drift, but we all 
knew that the deacon was anchored 
within the veil, and was as sure to 
outride the storm as the hill upon 
which he had fixed his home. He 
was a man of strong powers, a stern 
will, and constant devotion to the 
great ends of life as he saw them. 
The qualities of both parents were 
transmitted in large measure to their 
children. Our state has produced but 
few men who were the peers in intel- 
lectual strength and moral courage to 
their first born, Parker Pillsbury. Not 
many men in our country, indeed, in 
the years that preceded the civil war, 
struck heavier blows for, or clung with 
a more courageous, ielf-sacrificing de- 
votion to, liberty than he. Those of 
us who knew him could hear the deep 
undertone of the deacon's voice in 
his, and knew he would conquer or 
die. In the roll-call of the imperish- 
ables in the great struggle for liberty, 



his name will be heard among the 

Of such stock is Oliver, the fifth son 
of Dea. Oliver Pillsbury. During the 
first seventeen years of his life he ex- 
perienced the usual fortune of the 
sons of New England farmers, — a 
maximum of hard work and a mini- 
mum of schooling: but at that time, 
having been overtaken by a lameness 
which threatened to be permanent, he 
was sent to the academy that he might 
prepare for duties suited to his pro- 
spective infirmity. He entirely recov- 
ered, but this circumstance gave a new 
drift to his life. For nearly five years 
he pursued his studies with unabated 
interest and industry, giving thorough- 
ness and a practical character to his 
acquisitions by teaching during the 
winter months. Mr. Pillsbury had few 
equals and no superiors among those 
who taught at that time in our public 
schools. He was master both of his 
school and his studies, and had the 
faculty of inspiring his pupils with his 
own spirit. Many who have since 
done good work in life look back with 
gratitude to those years of pupilage. 

In 1S39 Mr. Pillsbury left New- 
England and went to New Jersey, 
where he opened a tuition school, 
there being no free schools in the state 
at that time. There, though an entire 
stranger, he gained the confidence of 
the community and held it during 
eight years of successful work. Dur- 
ing the last six years of this time 
he taught the academy at Bound 
Brook, Somerset county. While there 
he married Matilda Nevius, who 
died in 1847, leaving a young daugh- 
ter, an only child. The position 
which Mr. Pillsbury acquired among 
the educators of New Jersey may be 
learned from the fact that he was 
prominent among the few gentlemen 
who held the first school convention 
at the capital, over which he presided, 
and which was followed by similar 
conventions in other cities. The 
movement thus begun resulted in the 
establishment of public instruction in 
that state. To have been a leading 

spirit in the accomplishment of so 
beneficent a work, in a sojourn of on 
ly eight years, should be a perpetual 
honor to the life of any man. 

At the end of this time Mr. Pills- 
bury's health having become impaired, 
he returned to his native place, where 
he purchased the paternal homestead 
and entered again upon the work of 
his boyhood. For seventeen years he 
followed the life of a farmer, but did 
not move in its old empirical ruts. 
He applied the knowledge and im- 
proved methods which modern inves- 
tigation has given to agriculture, and 
in a little time doubled the productive 
power of his farm. The successful 
factor in every industry is brains, and 
in this case even New Hampshire 
farming proved no exception to the 

Mr. Pillsbury contracted a second 
marriage, in 1S50, with Miss Sarah 
YYilkins, of Henniker, his present es- 
teemed and accomplished wife. 

Though assiduous in the pursuits o\ 
agriculture, his benevolent instincts 
led him to take an active interest in 
the causes of temperance, anti-slav- 
ery, and whatever else the public wel- 
fare seemed to demand. His efforts 
in this direction, in co-operation with 
those of others, produced a change in 
the politics of the town, which result- 
ed in his introduction to public life. 
He was elected moderator of town- 
meeting fourteen times, selectman six 
times, and to the legislature three 
times. In all these trusts he showed 
himself wise, able, and efficient. As 
a legislator, he did not seem anxious 
merely to shine, but to be useful, and 
to advance the interests of the state. 
Such qualities and service commended 
him to public favor, and in 1862 he 
was elected a councilor for the last 
year of Gov. Berry's administration, 
and re-elected to the council of Gov. 
Gilmore. This, it will be remembered, 
was while the hardships and horrors of 
the civil war were upon us, and when 
questions that could not be settled by 
precedent, and that tested the author- 
ity and resources of the state, were 


2 59 

brought daily before the governor and 
his council for decision. The exigen- 
cies of the government would not suf- 
fer delay. Not only great permanent 
interests, but the very life of the na- 
tion was in peril, and large and frequent 
demands were made upon the states 
for supplies of men and money, when 
every resource seemed exhausted. In 
such times means must be invented 
and resources created. Criticism be- 
comes silent, and waits for the return 
of peace to awaken into unreasoning 
activity. Under the pressure of such 
events, weak men are likely to be par- 
alyzed, avaricious men corrupt, and 
bold men to abuse power. 

The qualities which Mr. Pillsbury 
developed in these trying circum- 
stances ought to make his name his- 
toric. The writer has received com- 
munications from two gentlemen who 
were associated with him in the coun- 
cil, and whose services to the state 
are universally acknowledged, and. as 
they express more forcibly than any 
words of mine can do, the part which 
the subject of this sketch took in that 
eventful period, I take the responsi- 
bility to publish such portions of their 
respective letters as bear specially up- 
on the subject of this paper. The 
kn.>wn character of the writers will 
give additional weight to their strong 
language of encomium. 

Hon. John W. Sanborn, of Wake- 
field, writes as follows : 

" Learning that you are to prepare 
a biographical sketch of Hon. Oliver 
Pillsbury, I take pleasure in saying 
that I formed acquaintance with him 
in 1S63, being then associated with 
him in Gov. Gilmore's council. His 
great executive ability, patriotism, 
honesty, and integrity won the respect 
and admiration of all his associates. 
At that time the country was engaged 
in that terrible war for the support of 
the government and its own salvation, 
and grave questions came before us 
relative to the prosecution of the same. 
Although an ardent Republican, he 
never let partisan feelings warp his 
judgment in his official acts. He had 

strong convictions of right, but was 
always ready to discuss all questions 
with that frankness and fairness which 
characterize men of noble minds, and 
he fully appreciated the opinions of 
his opponents. I had the honor to 
serve with him on the military com- 
mittee of the council, which had im- 
portant matters to consider, — ques- 
tions involving the rights and interests 
of the soldiers, their families, and the 
state. The duties of this committee 
were arduous and often difficult, but I 
can attest to the fidelity and untiring 
energy with which he performed his 
part. He took great interest in the 
welfare of the soldiers, particularly 
the sick and wounded, and was ever 
ready to minister to their wants. In a 
word, he was a model councilor for 
the time in which he served, and the 
future historian will class him among 
our ablest and most efficient men." 

Hon. John W. Noyes, of Chester, 
who was also in official association 
with Mr. Pillsbury, says : 

" I was with him a very considera- 
ble portion of the time for two years, 
while we were members of Gov. Gil- 
more's council, during the- war. He 
was the most important member of 
the council, on account of his expe- 
rience and familiarity with the duties 
of the situation ; in fact, his informa- 
tion and good judgment were exceed- 
ingly valuable to the governor and all 
the other members of the council. 

" I regard Mr. Pillsbuiy as one of 
the best-informed and most compe- 
tent business men in this state. I 
hardly think there is another man 
in the state that could fill his present 
position as well as he does. I told 
Gov. Stearns, before he made the ap- 
pointment, that, if he knew Mr. Pills- 
bury as well as I did, he would not 
need recommendations, but would 
urge his acceptance of the place." 

It would be idle to add any thing to 
such commendations. 

In 1869, Mr. Pillsbury was appoint- 
ed insurance commissioner, by Gov. 
Stearns, for a period of three years, 
and has been re-appointed, from time 



to time, to the office which he still addressed the house on subjects that 

holds. Soon after his appointment he had thoroughly considered, and it 

he drafted and secured the enactment was understood that his remarks were 

of the present law of the state relative likely to aid the members in reaching 

to insurance companies of other states a wise and just conclusion. 

and other countries. This law estab- As one of the supervisors of the 

lished the department of insurance, educational interests of Concord, Mr. 

and has given to the people a degree 
of protection against the frauds and 
impositions of unreliable companies 

Pillsbury was exceptionally intelligent, 
conscientious, and pains-taking. His 
views on the general subject were corn- 

never before enjoyed in this state, and prehensive, and he kept himself in- 

has brought into its treasury, by tax formed as to all real improvements in 

on insurance premiums, over one hun- methods of instruction. He discoun- 

dred and twenty-three thousand dol- tcnanced shams, and labored faithfully 

lars, in addition to the compensation to make the schools sources of knowl- 

of the commissioner. 

edge, of discipline, and of virtue. To 

DuiingThe whole term of his office, the other public trusts so honorably 

Mr. Pillsbury has worked quietly but 
assiduously to eliminate unreliable 
companies from our borders, and has 
carefully avoided the admission of all 
such as are not regarded as perfectly 
trustworthy. It is universally affirmed, 
by men familiar with the insurance 
business, that the commissioner of this 
state has administered his office with 
unusual skill and success, and his re- 
ports are much sought for and often 

held by the subject of this sketch, we 
may add that of trustee of the Stale 
Industrial School. He has had a deep 
and abiding interest in this institution 
since its founding, and has given to it 
an active and efficient support. » 

We can only realize how pure and 
unselfish his labors of this character 
have been, when we reilect that Mr. 
Pillsbury has no children of his own 
to kindle and feed his sympathies, but 

quoted and referred to as authority in that they spring from a general benev- 

other states. The state may well con- 
gratulate itself on having had the con- 
tinued services, for fourteen years, of 
one so able and experienced in an 
office so intimately connected with the 
material interests of the people. 

In 187 1 Mr. Pillsbury moved to 
Concord, and the estimation in which 
he is held in the community is attested 
by the fact thfit, during the twelve 
years of his residence at the capital, 
he has twice been elected to represent 
one of its wards in the legislature, and 
has been a member of its board of ed- 

olence toward all children, of whatever 
condition in life. His only child was 
a daughter of rare mental activity and 
attainments, and of unusual sweetness 
of temper. She married Mr. J. S. 
Eveleth, of Beverly, Mass., where, af- 
ter a residence of nearly two years, 
she died of consumption, in the flower 
and promise of early womanhood, 
leaving two homes stricken and deso- 

In this brief sketch we have uncon- 
sciously drawn a model citizen, — a 
man in all the relations of life faithful 

ucation for seven years, and was pres- to the claims of duty — in the family, 

ident of the board at the time he 
tendered his resignation. When a 
member of the legislature, Mr. Pills- 
bury was eminently practical, and 
whenever he spoke was listened to 
with marked attention, for he only 

society, and the state — blameless ; be- 
nevolent without ostentation, patriotic 
without the claim of reward, and true 
to every trust. 

"While we such precedents can boa*t at home, 
Keep thy Fabricius aod thy Cato, Koine." 





I think there can be no other New 
Hampshire town just like Kingston ; I 
mean Kingston Plains, not East Kings- 
ton, where is a railroad station, and the 
usual number of small boys and more 
elderly loafers to gather around when 
the in-going or out-coming Boston train 
halts its regular two and a half minutes 
for the convenience of embarking or 
disembarking passengers, six times dur- 
ing the day._ East Kingston, though 
only a hamlet in embryo, is alive and 
noisy ; at the village on the plains 
there is a peace and a quietness and a 
dream-like repose that gives it an air of 
monastic seclusion. There are three 
stores and two hotels that seem to be 
prosperous, but you never see any 
loiterers about the doors. You walk 
through the streets and see no soul, 
not even a child. In the great square 
and common herds of cows feed with 
unrestrained license, and some of the 
owners go out night and morning, a la 
Madame Hancock, and fill their milk- 
pails with the lacteal fluid, mulley cow 
standing as complacently on the green 
as though at home in the fenced barn- 
yard. Many of the houses have piazzas 
and porticoes, but they are never oc- 
cupied. You can walk on, where you 
will, in unchartered freedom. The 
solitude, the undisturbed repose, con- 
tribute to the sense of. a hoar antiquity. 
You have dropped into an ancient bor- 
ough, where the inhabitants live in the 
old fashion, a borough of old days 
and forgotten times. 

Still, the place looks modern enough. 
The village is located on a large plain, 
near the center of the town, and about 
two miles from the station at East Kings- 
ton. Its general appearance is indica- 
tive of thrift and business enterprise. 
There are about one hundred dwelling- 
houses — many of elegant structure ; the 
streets are wide, and pleasantly shaded 
by rows of elms and maples. So far, 

indeed, the suggestive features of the 
place are popularly enterprising, and 
when we consider the many other at- 
tractions we are disposed to grant that 
she has claims as .honorable as any 
town of her size in America. Here on 
this broad, fertile plain, the first settle- 
ment of the town commenced, under 
the charge of James Prescott, Ebene- 
zer Webster, Ebenezer Stevens, and 
others, more than one hundred and 
eighty-five years ago ; and ever since 
Kingston has been making a history 
for herself. 

Blood is a good thing in this 
world of ours, and it " tells," too, often 
enough to earn the consideration of all 
intelligent and discriminating persons. 
It is not every thing, to be sure, but it 
can not be gainsaid that its influence 
has been beneficent in oar country. 
What would Virginia have been without 
her ancient ?ioblesse. the cavaliers of 
spur and sword, and their pride of far- 
reaching ancestry? Would the old 
Dominion have been famous as the 
••Mother of Presidents?" We opine 
not. How different would have been 
the history of New York without the 
great names of her patroons, the Living- 
stons, theSchuylers, the Delanceys, and 
the Van Rensselaers ! And does not 
New Hampshire owe something to her 
patrician gentry in the old time? In 
the old colonial days Kingston had 
good blood in her, and her people had 
capacity and courage to do and dare. 
First and foremost among her citizens, 
during the Revolution, and for twenty 
years before and after that gloomy peri- 
od, was Hon. Josiah Bartlett, the first 
governor of New Hampshire, and the 
leading worthy from our state who 
signed that great charter of human lib- 
erty, the Declaration of Independence. 
It is pleasant sometimes in reading 
early colonial history to meet with a 
name which has borne honors before in 



the mother country. The Lees and 
the Washingtons were among the gen- 
try of England. The Adamses and the 
Quinceys, of Massachusetts, are in lin- 
eal descent from the old Norman fam- 
ily of De Quincey, whose chiefs figured 
as earls of Winchester in the time of 
Coeur de Lion. Among these and many 
others, that of Bartlett is worthy of no- 
tice. Of the highest Anglo-Norman 
ancestry, the members of this family 
held a prominent place among the old 
English knighthood. They were mem- 
bers of parliament, brave captains in 
the fierce feudal and Plantagenet wars, 
and noble cavaliers of court and castle. 
Chiefs of the— race fought* for their 
king at Cressy, at Poictiers, and at 
Agincouit. After the last-named battle 
Sir John Bartelot, who commanded the 
Sussex troops, took the castle ot Fon- 
tenoy, in France; for. which service 
King Henry V. grained Sir John the 
castle for one of the crests of the Barte- 
lot " coat-of-arms." The original an- 
cestor of the family was Sir Adam de 
Bartelot, who, crossing from Normandy 
with William the Conqueror, participat- 
ed in the victory of Hastings, and re- 
ceived for his loyalty and heroism large 
landed estates in the county of Sussex, 
which are still in the possession of his 
descendants. The present head of the 
house is Sir Walter Bartelot, m. p. and 
baronet, who resides in great style at 
the hereditary estate of Stopham. The 
manor house was built in the fifteenth 
century, and there are timbers in it, 
beneath which more than seven centu- 
ries of ancestry have , successively as- 
sembled. The estate consists of eight 
thousand acres. 

Sometime during the seventeenth 
century two of the younger sons of 
the house of Bartelot emigrated to 
America, settling respectively at New- 
buryport and Amesbury, Massachusetts. 
The aristocratic name of Bartelot was 
plebeianizecl to that of Bartlett, and 
among the sturdy yeomanry of the New 
\Y T orld the representatives of the family 
forgot for a time the noble lineage of 
their sires, but at the same time worked 
out a destiny more brilliant by far than 

any the brightest coronet in England 
could bestow. The most prominent of 
his race, gifted in intellect, of remarka- 
ble executive faculty, of stern integrity, 
of rare force of character, pure as an 
Aristides, yet possessing the penetration 
of a Themistocles, the associate of 
Hancock and Adams and Lee and Slier- 
man, and yet not dwarfed by their 
presence, one of the kingliest of New 
Hampshire's sons, if not the most royal 
of them all, was Josiah Bartlett. 

Dr. Bartlett was a native of Ames- 
bury, Mass./ where he was born in No- 
vember, 172S. He was the fourth son 
of Stephen Bartlett, a man of promi- 
nence in that town. His early educa- 
tion was respectahle, but he was denied 
the advantages of a collegiate course. 
When he was sixteen years old he 
began the study of medicine under 
the superintendence of Dr. Nehemiah 
Ordway, of Amesbury. He continued 
his studies for five years, at the end of 
which time he commenced the practice 
of his profession at Kingston. This 
was in the year 1749. 

Kingston, though a small village, was 
then one of the important boroughs of 
New Hampshire. Distant only seven 
miles from Exeter, and not much far- 
ther from Portsmouth, Kingston shone 
with the reflected light from those 
places. Social life was active. The 
wearing apparel of the fashionable peo- 
ple of the village was copied from the 
aristocracy at the vice regal court of 
the Wentworths. Men wore knee 
breeches and hose, broad-skirted coats 
lined with buckram, long waist-coats, 
wide cuffs lined with lace, three-cor- 
nered hats and swords. Women's 
dresses were made of heavy silks and 
satins, called brocades, on which raised 
figures of leaves and flowers were wov- 
en, or worked in colored silk or thread 
of silver and gold. Of course, the 
dress of the common folk was much 
less elegant, being designed more for 
service than beauty. 

It was the reign of wigs. Gentle- 
man and plebeian wore them alike. 
The portraits of I^ord Pepperell and of 
the Wentworths show those worthies 



looking out at us from stiff and tremen- 
dous horse-hair wigs. Dr. Bartlett, 
disdainful as he was of show and artifi- 
ciality, did not choose to defy the dic- 
tum of society in this respect. He 
wore his wig and his queue with all the 
dignity of a Chesterfield or a George 
Third. Still, elegance, save in a few 
isolated instances, was impossible in 
any modern sense. There was wealth 
enough for the general comfort ; pau- 
perism was practically unknown, but 
life was frugal, limited, and to our mod- 
ern apprehension inconceivably slow. 
The daily newspaper was undreamed 
of, and there were yet a few years to 
elapse before the Boston Gazette made 
its weekly pilgrimages into the country, 
holding all the news demanded by the 
colonists, on about the size of a sheet 
of Congress paper. Carpets, save in 
one or two of the more stately houses, 
were an undesired luxury, fresh sand 
being considered more healthful. Spin- 
ning and weaving were still genteel 
household occupations, and Dr. Bart- 
lett, at a later time, rejoiced in being 
clothed from head to foot in cloth 
woven and made up by his energetic 
wife. " Society" then, as now. was 
made up of a very small number, a sin- 
gle set that, even long after the Revo- 
lution, consisted only of the justice of 
the peace, the colonel or the major, 
and two or three other official persons, 
a great lawyer or two, a doctor or two, 
the minister, two or three families retired 
from business, half a dozen merchants, 
and 2 few other persons who had leisure 
to cultivate the elegant enjoyments of 

At this time Bartlett was about twen- 
ty-one years old, and, although well 
known as an industrious and enterpris- 
ing young man, he could not have been 
an important citizen. He lived hum- 
bly enough. He ate his bread and 
milk with a pewter spoon out of a por- 
ringer. Whenever he made his rounds 
to call upon his patients he rode an old 
gray horse, with his saddle-bags behind 
him. At a later time he used to drive 
about in a yellow gig; and when he 
had completed his rounds went home 

eagerly to his books. He was a great 
reader at this early period, but he was 
no theorist in the practice of his pro- 
fession. He followed the just princi- 
ples of nature and experience rather 
than the rules of arbitrary system. In 
a few years he became a skillful and 
distinguished practitioner. It is sad 
that he was the first to prescribe the 
application of Peruvian bark in cases 
of canker, which before was consid- 
ered an inflammatory, instead of a pu- 
trid, disease, and, as such, had been un- 
successfully treated. 

In 1S35 this disease, by the name of 
the throat distemper, visited Kingston. 
Its ravages were exceedingly fetal, es- 
pecially to children under ten years of 
age. Like the plague, it swept its vic- 
tims to the grave, almost without warn- 
ing, and some are said to have expired 
while sitting at play, handling their 
toys. Every method of treatment 
proved ineffectual. Medical skill was 
ba fried. Its ravages ceased only when 
victims were no longer to be found. 
Again in 1 754, five years atier Dr. Bart- 
lett's removal to town, Kingston was 
visited by this fell disease. A young 
child of the doctor's was one of those 
afflicted with the distemper. Bartlett 
administered Peruvian bark, and with 
such success that from this time the 
use of it became general, as a remedy 
in diseases of the same character. 

A man of Dr. Bartlett's decision and 
powers of mind would not remain long 
unnoticed in times which tried men's 
souls. In fifteen years of time he 
gained the popular favor, and was re- 
garded not only as a prosperous man, 
but as one capable of performing pub- 
lic duties with ability and fidelity. The 
first office bestowed upon him by his 
fellow-citizens was that of delegate from 
Kingston to the provincial assembly of 
New Hampshire, in 1765. The con- 
troversy between Great Britain and her 
colonies was now beginning to assume a 
serious aspect. Dr. Bartlett, in this 
emergency, was found on the popular 
side. In his legislative capacity he in- 
variably opposed the mercenary views 
of the royal governor. He could not, 



from the nature of his character, be- 
come subservient to the will of a man 
whose avowed object was the subjection 
of the people to the authority of the 
British administration. 

Time went on. Benning Went worth 
gave way in the chief magistracy of New 
Hampshire to his nephew, John. It 
was the policy of this truly noble and 
sagacious man to attach all the distin- 
guished men of the colony to the royal 
cause, by offices either of honor or 
emolument. Recognizing the talents 
and influence of Bartlett he appointed 
him to the office ofjustice of the peace. 
Executive patronage, however, was not 
a bait by which a man like Dr. Bartlett 
would be seduced. He indeed accept- 
ed the appointment, but he remained 
as firm in his opposition to oppression 
as he was before. 

In 1774 the house of representatives 
of New Hampshire, agreeably to the 
recommendation and example of other 
colonies, appointed a committee of cor- 
respondence, an act for which the gov- 
ernor immediately dissolved the assem- 
bly. This brought matters to a crisis. 
The committee of correspondence in 
turn re-assembled the representatives, by 
whom circulars were addressed to the 
several towns to send delegates to a 
convention to be held at Exeter for the 
purpose of selecting deputies to the 
Continental Congress, which was to 
meet at Philadelphia in the ensuing 
September. Dr. Bartlett was a dele- 
gate to this convention, and he and 
John Pickering, a lawyer of Portsmouth, 
were appointed delegates to the Pro- 
vincial Congress. As neither Bartlett 
nor Pickering des'red to serve, Nathan- 
iel Folsom, of Exeter, and John Sulli- 
van, of Durham, were chosen in their 

Dr. Bartlett's reason for declining 
the honor which the convention con- 
ferred upon him was, that he had a lit- 
tl* previously lost his house by fire, and 
was under the necessity of rebuilding. 
Accordingly, all through the summer 
and autumn of that vear the sound of 
axe and hammer fell busily on the ears 
of Kingston people. Foot by foot the 

mansion rose, till it stood the proudest 
dwelling-house in Kingston, fit abode 
for its noblest citizen. In the towns 
near the sea-coast, from Newport to 
Portland, there was a great similarity 
in domestic architecture prior to and 
during the Revolution. A large num- 
ber of the better class of these old 
houses have been torn down and re- 
built. Very few remain in the vicinity 
of Boston, but in Newport. Cambridge, 
Salem, Newburyport, Portsmouth, Ex- 
eter, Dover, and towns further east- 
ward, we can behold the tvpical New 
England mansion. It is ample in size 
and stately in form. With its gam- 
breled roof and ancient porch is asso- 
ciated reminiscences of ruffles, shoe- 
buckles, silver-topped canes, courtly 
manners and hospitality. It is the 
house of the judge, the continental 
general, the colonial colonel, the squire, 
the prosperous doctor of divinity or of 
medicine, or of the merchant whose 
ships have brought him spices, ivory 
and gold dust, West India goods and 
negro chattels from over the seas. It 
is generally of three stories, the third 
being somewhat abridged ; the form is 
quadrangular, fifty feet on a side. Va- 
rious extensions and out-buildings are 
in the rear and sometimes on the sides. 
The front door opens into a wide hall, 
from which a grand stair-way leads to 
the upper stories. The hall is wain- 
scoted and hung with rather stiff por- 
traits. The stair-way is broad, and the 
steps are wide, giving an easy ascent 
to the landings. Twisted and carved 
ballusters support the hand-rail, each 
one wrought separately in some quaint 
device. There are four large square 
rooms on the ground floor, each with 
its open fire-place and elaborately carved 
mantel-piece. The walls are thick, 
like those of a fortalice, and the win- 
dows are recessed like embrasures. 

Those who are accustomed to the 
card-board structures of our time, 
whether in the form of Italian villas, 
Swiss chalets, or white pine gothic. ex- 
perience a strange sensation in visiting 
these solid dwellings. There is an air 
of repose in them, an idea of ampli- 



tude and permanence. One feels that 
the builders must have been large- 
minded, serene men. A fashionable 
dwelling of fifteen feet front in our mod- 
ern cities furnishes a perfect antithesis. 
The ancient houses were well placed. 
in grounds of some extent, on the crest 
of a natural elevation, or near a grove, 
with broad, grassy lawns, bordered by 
elms and oaks, and dotted with firs 
and spruces, and with clumps of lower- 
ing shrubs. The distinguishing features 
of old New England towns are still 
these superb mansions. They are gen- 
erally painted buff or cream white, hav- 
ing green blinds and tail and massive 
chimneys ; and in their picturesque 
situations and surroundings they add a 
poetical grace as well as historical gran- 
deur to the landscape. 

The Bartlett mansion, although re- 
modeled and improved some fifteen 
years ago, still preserves a resemblance 
to the old-type colonial residence. It 
is a two-story-and-a-half structure, of a 
brown-stone color, whh dark trimmings. 
The old house has a youngish, well- 
preserved look, as if it had been ten- 
derly dealt with. It stands on the 
main road from Exeter to Haverhill, 
just at the outskirts of the village, fac- 
ing the large and handsome common. 
With true patrician dignity it stands in 
from the street, with a fence of antique 
pattern surrounding a pretty front yard. 
The house is built of white oak ; the 
frame- work being unusually large and 

Passing through the front yard we 
stand at the ancient portal and crave 
admittance. Our wish is not refused, 
and we are ushered into the spacious 
hall which extends through the square 
part, and is ten feet wide. At the left 
hand is the sitting-room, twenty-two by 
fourteen feet. It is furnished with ele- 
gant modern furniture. A costly cuckoo 
clock, brought from Paris in 18S0, 
ticks on the table. On the walls are 
the portraits of Dr. Levi S. and Mrs. 
Bartlett, painted by Tenney, and said 
to be excellent likenesses. 

Opening from the right of the hall- 
way is the parlor, which is sixteen by 

twenty feet. In this room many relics 
of the governor and signer are pre- 
served. Here are the heavy silver- 
bowed spectacles, which he used the 
latter years of his life ; the scales with 
which he weighed his medicines : a sil- 
ver watch that he at one time carried, 
and which hung in the clock in the old 
house at the time it was burned ; also 
the gilt candelabra filled with wax 
tapers, a very ornamental article, which 
lighted the- old governors fetes and 
councils at a former time. Above the 
mantel is an oil portrait of the ancient 
master of the house, Gov. Bartlett 
himself, in all the glory of lace ruffles, 
colonial waist-coat and white necktie. 
Without being handsome, the face is 
one of much dignity, combining sa- 
gacity and gracious sweetness. The 
features are rather long-drawn and 
thoughtful, and his high Roman nose 
and intellectual brow proclaim the gen- 
ius and patriotism which burned in the 
heart and brain of New Hampshire's 
great Revolutionary worthy. The eyes 
are a light blue, largef deep, soulful, 
and remind you of the eyes of Penn, 
of Howard, of Wilberforce. They are 
the eyes of a philanthropist. Gov. 
Bartlett was a tall man, six feet in 
height, erect and slimmish. His hair 
was o( an auburn color, fine in texture, 
and not abundant, being, in fact, rather 
thin, which would seem to be a charac- 
teristic of all the Bartletts. There are 
other relics in the parlor, especially 
some fine Indian remains found by va- 
rious members of the family on the 
Bartlett farm. These consist of stone 
gouges, hatchets, clubs, and other im- 
plements. A huge fungi, torn from a 
log, which is two and a half feet long 
and one and a half foot wide, is also 
on exhibition. In this room have sat, 
in conclave, Matthew Thornton, John 
Dudley, Langdon, Sullivan and Weare. 
Gen. John Stark once visited there, 
and many of the great men of a later 
period have stood within these walls. 

The dining-room, in the south-west 
corner, is fourteen by twenty-two feet. 
The floor is painted in alternate stripes 
of green and straw color. The win- 



dows look out upon the garden. On 
the mantel-piece there is a silver can- 
dle-stick that was used by Mrs. Gov. 
Bartlett ; also, a pair of silver-mounted 
horse pistols which accompanied the 
Governor through his journeyings to 
and from Philadelphia during the Rev- 
olutionary war. These last are very 
valuable mementos. 

There are ten large rooms in the 
main part, and five other apartments in 
the two-story ell that is attached. At 
the head of the stairs, in the hall, is the 
ancient eight-day clock, that was used 
by the Governor. It was made in 
1723, and is therefore one hundred and 
sixty years old this very year. There 
it stands in its case of massive oak, 
"and points and beckons with its 
hands," as cheerfully yet solemnly as 
in the old days when colonial gentle- 
men and belles walked up and down 
the broad stair- way. ■■ In the attic there 
is a store-house of treasures, old chairs 
and tables that were in use in the Gov- 
ernor's time, and an old buffet within 
which the odor of colonial punch may 
still be detected by an imaginative nos- 

We go out from under the roof of 
this famous mansion. Wandering about 
the front yard we can not help noting 
the beautiful location of the old house. 
Its front looks out to the sunrising. 
Stretching away from the yard fence is 
the extensive common, containing forty 
acres, and level as a floor. A huge 
elm tosses its branches above our 
heads. The trunk is five feet in diam- 
eter. It is some more than one hun- 
dred and fifty years old, as it stood 
there long before the old house was 
burned. It was struck by lightning in 
1773, and the marks are plainly visible 
to-day. There are several black wal- 
nuts, and a linden tree, which were 
grown from seeds brought by Governor 
Bartlett from Philadelphia. 

The old barn that formerly stood 
back of the mansion was taken down 
at the time the house was remodel- 
ed, and two large modern structures oc- 
cupy its place. The largest is eighty- 
five by forty feet. Beside it there is a 

row of thin French poplars, decaying 
from age, which were green and vigor- 
ous in the Governor's day. Back from 
the barns, stretching on every side, ex- 
tends the grand estate. There are 
some five hundred acres of nearly level 
and very fertile land. Seventy tons of 
hay are cut annually. Governor Bart- 
lett employed two female help in the 
house and four male help on the farm. 
Touching the western portion of the 
farm is Greenwood lake, a pretty body 
of water five eights of a mile long, 
which affords excellent aquatic and 
piscatorial privileges. Black bass and 
pickerel abound in its waters. 

A stroll through these grounds at 
sunset is perfectly enchanting. And if 
you wish to take a row there is a boat 
ready for you at the pond. How beau- 
tiful the shadows are on the mirrory 
lake ! All the surrounding woodlands 
are reflected in the azure depths, and 
your boat hangs suspended in mid 
water, or, rather, there are two boats, 
one right most and the other bottom 
upward, keel to keel. Then you walk 
back to the mansion through the gather- 
ing twilight, and with your mind full of 
the past reflect how many of New Hamp- 
shire's beauties and noble sires had 
walked these very paths, with all their 
human ambitions and loves and cares, 
and had passed away, leaving behind 
these stable relics as ideals of a beauti- 
ful home. 

In September, 1775, we find Dr. 
Bartlett present among the members 
of the Continental Congress. He had 
been elected the preceding spring to 
that seat. The number of members 
was then sixty-four. Our state sent 
two. Each colony paid its own dele- 
gation. Georgia paid each ,£100 per 
month while in session ; South Caroli- 
na, ,£300 per annum ; North Carolina, 
^200 per annum ; Virginia, a half 
Johannes per day ; Maryland and Rhode 
Island, forty shillings a day. and ex- 
penses ; Massachusetts, expenses and 
$3 a day ; New Hampshire, expenses, 
a servant, two horses, and a guinea a 
day. Insufficient as was this compen- 
sation the members did not slight their 



duties. Congress met at nine in the 
morning, and continued its session until 
four o'clock in the afternoon. Some- 
times the debates continued half 
through the night. In this unweari- 
ed devotion to business Dr. Bartlett 
largely participated, thereby considera- 
bly affecting his health and spirits in 

Dr. Bartlett was also a member of 
the Congress of 1776, and was fore- 
most among those illustrious men who 
imperiled their property, their liberty, 
and their lives, by attaching their signa- 
tures to that instrument which estab- 
lished our national independence. The 
thirteen states, then comprising the 
American colonies, were represented 
in the assemblage that passed the meas- 
ure by fifty-seven members. The 
president, John Hancock, was the only 
one, however, who signed the docu- 
ment on the 4th of July, 1776. On 
the second day of August it was signed 
by all but one of the fifty-six signers 
whose names are appended to it. The 
other, who was Matthew Thornton, at- 
tached his signature in November. 
Henry Wisner. one of the New York 
delegation, was present when congress 
expressed its approbation of the Dec- 
laration, and voted in favor of it : but 
before the engrossed copy was signed 
by the several members, Mr. Wisner 
left congress, and thus failed of affixing 
his name to this memorable paper. 

When the vote was taken on the 
question it was recommended to begin 
with the northernmost colony. Dr. 
Bartlett, therefore, had the honor of 
being called upon for an expression of 
his opinion, and of first giving his vote 
in favor of the resolution. He was 
also the first to affix his signature after 
Hancock. Hancock's is the handsom- 
est and boldest of all the signatures 
attached to the Declaration ; the others 
look weak and cramped beside it. 
But not one was written with a trem- 
bling hand except Stephen Hopkins, of 
Rhode Island, and it was not fear that 
made him tremble, but the palsy, from 
which he was a sufferer. Charles Car- 
roll was the only member who added 

his place of residence, and the reason 
of its being done in this instance is 
somewhat peculiar. When Carroll was 
signing, some one near him remarked. 
" There are several of your name, and 
if we are unsuccessful they will not 
know whom to arrest." "Not so," re- 
plied the Maryland millionaire, and im- 
mediately added, "ofCarrollton." He 
lived to see all the memorable men 
with whom he acted on that eventful 
day pass away, and enjoyed the pros- 
perity of his country until 1S32, when 
he died, at the advanced age of ninety- 
five years. 

At the time he signed the " charter 
of our liberties," Dr. Bartlett was forty- 
eight years old, in the very prime of his 
life and powers. Most of the signers 
were younger than he was ; for the av- 
erage of all was forty-three years and 
ten months. Edward Rutledge was 
the youngest of the fifty-six, being only 
twenty-seven. The Nestor of the party 
was Benjamin Franklin, who was sev- 
enty. The most opulent was probably 
Charles Carroll, who was considered 
the wealthiest untitled man in the col- 
onies. Robert Morris came next. 
Samuel Adams was the poorest, his im- 
poverished condition being well known. 
The others were all in easy circum- 

Bartlett was not the only physician 
among the members, there being four 
others. Thirty of them were lawyers, 
seven were farmers, eight were mer- 
chants, two were mechanics, one was 
a clergyman, one was a surveyor, one 
was a shoemaker, and Franklin boast- 
ed of being a printer. With the excep- 
tion of eight all the signers were natives 
of American soil ; of these — two, Rob- 
ert Morris, and Burton Gwinnett, of 
Georgia, were born in England ; Mat- 
thew Thornton, of New Hampshire, 
and James Smith, and George Taylor, 
of Pennsylvania, were born in Ireland ; 
John Witherspoon, of New Jersey, 
and James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, 
were born in Scotland, and Francis 
Lewis, of New York, was born in Wales. 

The doctor continued a delegate to 
congress until 1779, being annually 

2 6S 


reelected. Several of the sessions were 
held at Yorktown, Va.. and Bartlett 
traveled all the way thither and back 
on horseback, attended only by a sin- 
gle servant. On the route were exten- 
sive forests which were the lurking 
place of robbers, and they were obliged 
to exercise much caution and foresight 
in order to escape these marauders. In 
1778, after the evacuation of Philadel- 
phia by the British, Congress met in 
that city again. In a letter to a friend 
Dr. Bartlett describes the ravages which 
had been made by the enemy : " Con- 
gress," he says, '-'was obliged to hold 
its sessions in the college hall, the state 
house having been left by the enemy 
in a condition which could scarcely be 
described. Many of the finest houses 
were converted into stables ; parlor floors 
were cut through, and the dung shov- 
eled through into the cellars. Through 
the country, north of the city for many 
miles, the hand of destruction had 
marked its way. Houses had been 
consumed, fences carried off, gardens 
and orchards destroyed. Even the 
great roads were scarcely to be discov- 
ered amidst the confusion and desola- 
tion which prevailed." 

After Dr. Bartlett's retirement from 
congress he spent the remainder of his 
life in New Hampshire, filling up the 
measure of his usefulness in a zealous 
devotion to the interests of the state. 
Affairs were in a bad condition at 
home. Writing to Samuel Livermore, 
who had succeeded him as a delegate 
in congress, the doctor gives a deplor- 
able account of the difficulties and 
sufferings of the people in New Hamp- 
shire. The money of the country had 
become much depreciated, and provis- 
ions were scarce and high. Indian 
corn was sold at as much as ten dollars 
a bushel. Other things were in the 
same proportion. The soldiers of the